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Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major infectious disease worldwide. TB treatment displays a biphasic bacterial clearance, in which the majority of bacteria clear within the first month of treatment, but residual bacteria remain nonresponsive to treatment and eventually may become resistant. Here, we have shown that Mycobacterium tuberculosis was taken up by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), where it established dormancy and became highly nonresponsive to isoniazid, a major constituent of directly observed treatment short course (DOTS). Dormant M. tuberculosis induced quiescence in MSCs and promoted their long-term survival. Unlike macrophages, where M. tuberculosis resides in early-phagosomal compartments, in MSCs the majority of bacilli were found in the cytosol, where they promoted rapid lipid synthesis, hiding within lipid droplets. Inhibition of lipid synthesis prevented dormancy and sensitized the organisms to isoniazid. Thus, we have established that M. tuberculosis gains dormancy in MSCs, which serve as a long-term natural reservoir of dormant M. tuberculosis. Interestingly, in the murine model of TB, induction of autophagy eliminated M. tuberculosis from MSCs, and consequently, the addition of rapamycin to an isoniazid treatment regimen successfully attained sterile clearance and prevented disease reactivation.
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest diseases, causing ∼2 million deaths annually worldwide. bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only TB vaccine in common use, is effective against disseminated and meningeal TB in young children but is not effective against adult pulmonary TB. T helper 1 (Th1) cells producing interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and Th17 cells producing interleukin-17 (IL-17) play key roles in host protection against TB, whereas Th2 cells producing IL-4 and regulatory T cells (Tregs) facilitate TB disease progression by inhibiting protective Th1 and Th17 responses. Furthermore, the longevity of vaccine efficacy critically depends on the magnitude of long-lasting central memory T (T) cell responses. Hence, immunomodulators that promote T responses of the Th1 and Th17 cell lineages may improve BCG vaccine efficacy. Here, we show that curcumin nanoparticles enhance various antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions, including autophagy, costimulatory activity, and the production of inflammatory cytokines and other mediators. We further show that curcumin nanoparticles enhance the capacity of BCG to induce T cells of the Th1 and Th17 lineages, which augments host protection against TB infection. Thus, curcumin nanoparticles hold promise for enhancing the efficacy of TB vaccines.
Copyright © 2019 Ahmad et al.
DNA sequence-based typing at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPA1, -DPB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1, and -DRB3/4/5 loci was performed on samples provided by 159 individuals from the Worcester region of the Western Cape province of South Africa. The purpose of the study was to characterize allele frequencies in the local population, to support studies of T cell immunity against pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There are no detectable deviations from Hardy Weinberg proportions for the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPA1, -DPB1, -DQA1, and -DRB1 loci. A minor deviation was detected at the HLA-DQB1 locus due to an excess of homozygotes. The genotype data are available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database under identifier 3425.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
RATIONALE - Data are limited regarding the safety of 12-dose once-weekly isoniazid (H, 900 mg) plus rifapentine (P, 900 mg) (3HP) for latent infection treatment during pregnancy.
OBJECTIVES - To assess safety and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women who were inadvertently exposed to study medications in two latent tuberculosis infection trials (PREVENT TB or iAdhere) evaluating 3HP and 9 months of daily isoniazid (H, 300 mg) (9H).
METHODS - Data from reproductive-age (15-51 yr) women who received one or more study dose of 3HP or 9H in either trial were analyzed. Drug exposure during pregnancy occurred if the estimated date of conception was on or before the last dose date.
RESULTS - Of 126 pregnancies (125 participants) that occurred during treatment or follow-up, 87 were exposed to study drugs. Among these, fetal loss was reported for 4/31 (13%) and 8/56 (14%), 3HP and 9H, respectively (difference, 13% - 14% = -1%; 95% confidence interval = -17% to +18%) and congenital anomalies in 0/20 and 2/41 (5%) live births, 3HP and 9H, respectively (difference, 0% - 5% = -5%; 95% confidence interval = -18% to +16%). All fetal losses occurred in pregnancies of less than 20 weeks. Of the total 126 pregnancies, fetal loss was reported in 8/54 (15%) and 9/72 (13%), 3HP and 9H, respectively; and congenital anomalies in 1/37 (3%) and 2/56 (4%) live births, 3HP and 9H, respectively. The overall proportion of fetal loss (17/126 [13%]) and anomalies (3/93 [3%]) were similar to those estimated for the United States, 17% and 3%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS - Among reported pregnancies in these two latent tuberculosis infection trials, there was no unexpected fetal loss or congenital anomalies. These data offer some preliminary reassurance to clinicians and patients in circumstances when these drugs and regimens are the best option in pregnancy or in women of child-bearing potential. This work used the identifying trial registration numbers NCT00023452 and NCT01582711, corresponding to the primary clinical trials PREVENT TB and iAdhere (Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 26 and 33).
INTRODUCTION - HIV-1 infection leads to chronic inflammation and to an increased risk of non-AIDS mortality. Our objective was to determine whether AIDS-defining events (ADEs) were associated with increased overall and cause-specific non-AIDS related mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation.
METHODS - We included HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) who initiated ART from 1996 to 2014. Causes of death were assigned using the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for overall and cause-specific non-AIDS mortality among those with an ADE (all ADEs, tuberculosis (TB), Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)) compared to those without an ADE was estimated using a marginal structural model.
RESULTS - The adjusted hazard of overall non-AIDS mortality was higher among those with any ADE compared to those without any ADE (aHR 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.00 to 2.43). The adjusted hazard of each of the cause-specific non-AIDS related deaths were higher among those with any ADE compared to those without, except metabolic deaths (malignancy aHR 2.59 (95% CI 2.13 to 3.14), accident/suicide/overdose aHR 1.37 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.79), cardiovascular aHR 1.95 (95% CI 1.54 to 2.48), infection aHR (95% CI 1.68 to 2.81), hepatic aHR 2.09 (95% CI 1.61 to 2.72), respiratory aHR 4.28 (95% CI 2.67 to 6.88), renal aHR 5.81 (95% CI 2.69 to 12.56) and central nervous aHR 1.53 (95% CI 1.18 to 5.44)). The risk of overall and cause-specific non-AIDS mortality differed depending on the specific ADE of interest (TB, PJP, NHL).
CONCLUSIONS - In this large multi-centre cohort collaboration with standardized assignment of causes of death, non-AIDS mortality was twice as high among patients with an ADE compared to without an ADE. However, non-AIDS related mortality after an ADE depended on the ADE of interest. Although there may be unmeasured confounders, these findings suggest that a common pathway may be independently driving both ADEs and NADE mortality. While prevention of ADEs may reduce subsequent death due to NADEs following ART initiation, modification of risk factors for NADE mortality remains important after ADE survival.
© 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.
Background - Tuberculosis has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated whether latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is associated with AMI.
Methods - We conducted a case-control study in 2 large national public hospital networks in Lima, Peru, between July 2015 and March 2017. Case patients were patients with a first time diagnosis of type 1 (spontaneous) AMI. Controls were patients without a history of AMI. We excluded patients with known human immunodeficiency virus infection, tuberculosis disease, or prior LTBI treatment. We used the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay to identify LTBI. We used logistic regression modeling to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of LTBI in AMI case patients versus non-AMI controls.
Results - We enrolled 105 AMI case patients and 110 non-AMI controls during the study period. Overall, the median age was 62 years (interquartile range, 56-70 years); 69% of patients were male; 64% had hypertension, 40% dyslipidemia, and 39% diabetes mellitus; 30% used tobacco; and 24% were obese. AMI case patients were more likely than controls to be male (80% vs 59%; P < .01) and tobacco users (41% vs 20%; P < .01). LTBI was more frequent in AMI case patients than in controls (64% vs 49% [P = .03]; OR, 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-3.22). After adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, obesity, and family history of coronary artery disease, LTBI remained independently associated with AMI (adjusted OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.05-3.45).
Conclusions - LTBI was independently associated with AMI. Our results suggest a potentially important role of LTBI in CVD.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
SETTING - A large tuberculosis (TB) clinic in Durban, South Africa.
OBJECTIVE - To determine the association between isoniazid (INH) monoresistant TB and treatment outcomes.
DESIGN - We performed a retrospective longitudinal study of patients seen from 2000 to 2012 to compare episodes of INH-monoresistant TB with those of drug-susceptible TB using logistic regression with robust standard errors. INH-monoresistant TB was treated with modified regimens.
RESULTS - Among 18 058 TB patients, there were 19 979 TB episodes for which drug susceptibility testing was performed. Of these, 557 were INH-monoresistant and 16 311 were drug-susceptible. Loss to follow-up, transfer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection (41% had known HIV status) were similar between groups. INH-monoresistant episodes were more likely to result in treatment failure (4.1% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.001) and death (3.2% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.01) than drug-susceptible episodes. After adjustment for age, sex, race, retreatment status, and disease site, INH-monoresistant episodes were more likely to have resulted in treatment failure (OR 6.84, 95%CI 4.29-10.89, P < 0.001) and death (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.11-2.95, P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION - INH monoresistance was associated with worse clinical outcomes than drug-susceptible TB. Our findings support the need for rapid diagnostic tests for INH resistance and improved treatment regimens for INH-monoresistant TB.
Although fluoroquinolones (FQs) play an important role in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), there are several issues that need to be addressed to optimize their effectiveness and minimize toxicity. This includes identification of the optimal dose of FQs such as levofloxacin (LVX) and moxifloxacin, and the optimal role of FQs in combination with other anti-tuberculosis drugs, particularly those with overlapping toxicity, such as QT prolongation. While the ability of FQs to penetrate into cavities and granulomas is likely beneficial, suboptimal sensitivity of genotypic tests to detect FQ resistance could negatively affect treatment outcomes of FQ-containing regimens. Several trials are underway to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of FQs as part of combination MDR-TB therapy; there are also two planned studies of LVX to prevent tuberculosis among close contacts of MDR-TB.
Several pathogens have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Whether this occurs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is unclear. We assessed if tuberculosis disease increased the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We identified patients with tuberculosis index claims from a large de-identified database of ~15 million adults enrolled in a U.S. commercial insurance policy between 2008 and 2010. Tuberculosis patients were 1:1 matched to patients without tuberculosis claims using propensity scores. We compared the occurrence of index AMI claims between the tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis cohorts using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox Proportional Hazard models. Data on 2026 patients with tuberculosis and 2026 propensity-matched patients without tuberculosis were included. AMI was more frequent in the tuberculosis cohort compared with the non-tuberculosis cohort, 67 (3·3%) vs. 32 (1·6%) AMI cases, respectively, P < 0·01. Tuberculosis was associated with an increased risk of AMI (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1·98, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1·3-3·0). The results were similar when the analysis was restricted to pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted HR 2·43, 95% CI 1·5-4·1). Tuberculosis was associated with an increased risk of AMI. CVD risk assessment should be considered in tuberculosis patients. Mechanistic studies of tuberculosis and CVD are warranted.