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PURPOSE - Cardiovascular adverse events (CVAEs) can occur during proteasome inhibitor (PI) therapy. We conducted a prospective, observational, multi-institutional study to define risk factors and outcomes in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) receiving PIs.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - Patients with relapsed MM initiating carfilzomib- or bortezomib-based therapy underwent baseline assessments and repeated assessments at regular intervals over 6 months, including cardiac biomarkers (troponin I or T, brain natriuretic peptide [BNP], and N-terminal proBNP), ECG, and echocardiography. Monitoring occurred over 18 months for development of CVAEs.
RESULTS - Of 95 patients enrolled, 65 received carfilzomib and 30 received bortezomib, with median 25 months of follow-up. Sixty-four CVAEs occurred, with 55% grade 3 or greater in severity. CVAEs occurred in 51% of patients treated with carfilzomib and 17% of those treated with bortezomib ( = .002). Median time to first CVAE from treatment start was 31 days, and 86% occurred within the first 3 months. Patients receiving carfilzomib-based therapy with a baseline elevated BNP level higher than 100 pg/mL or N-terminal proBNP level higher than 125 pg/mL had increased risk for CVAE (odds ratio, 10.8; < .001). Elevated natriuretic peptides occurring mid-first cycle of treatment with carfilzomib were associated with a substantially higher risk of CVAEs (odds ratio, 36.0; < .001). Patients who experienced a CVAE had inferior progression-free survival (log-rank = .01) and overall survival (log-rank < .001). PI therapy was safely resumed in 89% of patients, although 41% required chemotherapy modifications.
CONCLUSION - CVAEs are common during PI therapy for relapsed MM, especially with carfilzomib, particularly within the first 3 months of therapy. CVAEs were associated with worse overall outcomes, but usually, discontinuation of therapy was not required. Natriuretic peptides were highly predictive of CVAEs; however, validation of this finding is necessary before uniform incorporation into the routine management of patients receiving carfilzomib.
Cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-CMs) hold great promise for modeling human heart diseases. However, iPSC-CMs studied to date resemble immature embryonic myocytes and therefore do not adequately recapitulate native adult cardiomyocyte phenotypes. Since extracellular matrix plays an essential role in heart development and maturation in vivo, we sought to develop a synthetic culture matrix that could enhance functional maturation of iPSC-CMs in vitro. In this study, we employed a library of combinatorial polymers comprising of three functional subunits - poly-ε-caprolacton (PCL), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and carboxylated PCL (cPCL) - as synthetic substrates for culturing human iPSC-CMs. Of these, iPSC-CMs cultured on 4%PEG-96%PCL (each % indicates the corresponding molar ratio) exhibit the greatest contractility and mitochondrial function. These functional enhancements are associated with increased expression of cardiac myosin light chain-2v, cardiac troponin I and integrin alpha-7. Importantly, iPSC-CMs cultured on 4%PEG-96%PCL demonstrate troponin I (TnI) isoform switch from the fetal slow skeletal TnI (ssTnI) to the postnatal cardiac TnI (cTnI), the first report of such transition in vitro. Finally, culturing iPSC-CMs on 4%PEG-96%PCL also significantly increased expression of genes encoding intermediate filaments known to transduce integrin-mediated mechanical signals to the myofilaments. In summary, our study demonstrates that synthetic culture matrices engineered from combinatorial polymers can be utilized to promote in vitro maturation of human iPSC-CMs through the engagement of critical matrix-integrin interactions.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
BACKGROUND - Currently available screening tools for left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) and systolic dysfunction (LVSD) are either expensive (echocardiography) or perform suboptimally (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP]). It is unknown whether newer biomarkers are associated with LVH and LVSD and can serve as screening tools.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We studied 2460 Framingham Study participants (mean age 58 years, 57% women) with measurements of biomarkers mirroring cardiac biomechanical stress (soluble ST-2 [ST2], growth differentiation factor-15 [GDF-15] and high-sensitivity troponin I [hsTnI]) and BNP. We defined LVH as LV mass/height(2) ≥the sex-specific 80th percentile and LVSD as mild/greater impairment of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) or a fractional shortening <0.29. Adjusting for standard risk factors in logistic models, BNP, GDF-15, and hsTnI were associated with the composite echocardiographic outcome (LVH or LVSD), odds ratios (OR) per SD increment in log-biomarker 1.29, 1.14, and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.15 to 1.44, 1.004 to 1.28, and 1.06 to 1.31), respectively. The C-statistic for the composite outcome increased from 0.765 with risk factors to 0.770 adding BNP, to 0.774 adding novel biomarkers. The continuous Net Reclassification Improvement was 0.212 (95% CI: 0.119 to 0.305, P<0.0001) after adding the novel biomarkers to risk factors plus BNP. BNP was associated with LVH and LVSD in multivariable models, whereas GDF-15 was associated with LVSD (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.70), and hsTnI with LVH (OR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.36). ST2 was not significantly associated with any outcome.
CONCLUSIONS - Our community-based investigation suggests that cardiac stress biomarkers are associated with LVH and LVSD but may have limited clinical utility as screening tools.
BACKGROUND - Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), soluble ST2 (sST2), and high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) are emerging predictors of adverse clinical outcomes. We examined whether circulating concentrations are related to the development of kidney disease in the community.
METHODS - Plasma GDF-15, sST2, and hsTnI concentrations were measured in 2614 Framingham Offspring cohort participants (mean age 57 years, 54% women) at the sixth examination cycle (1995-1998). Associations of biomarkers with incident chronic kidney disease [CKD, eGFR <60 mL · min(-1) · (1.73 m(2)) (-1), n = 276], microalbuminuria (urinary albumin to creatinine ratio ≥25 mg/g in women and 17 mg/g in men, n = 191), and rapid decline in renal function [decline in eGFR ≥3 mL · min(-1) · (1.73 m(2)) (-1) per year, n = 237], were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression; P < 0.006 was considered statistically significant in primary analyses.
RESULTS - Participants were followed over a mean of 9.5 years. Higher plasma GDF-15 was associated with incident CKD [multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.9 per 1-U increase in log-GDF-15, 95% CI 1.6-2.3, P < 0.0001] and rapid decline in renal function (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8; P < 0.0001). GDF-15, sST2, and hsTnI had suggestive associations with incident microalbuminuria but did not meet the prespecified P-value threshold after multivariable adjustment. Adding plasma GDF-15 to clinical covariates improved risk prediction of incident CKD: the c-statistic increased from 0.826 to 0.845 (P = 0.0007), and categorical net reclassification was 6.3% (95% CI, 2.7-9.9%).
CONCLUSIONS - Higher circulating GDF-15 is associated with incident renal outcomes and improves risk prediction of incident CKD. These findings may provide insights into the mechanisms of renal injury.
BACKGROUND - Biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular events in community-based populations have not consistently added information to standard risk factors. A limitation of many previously studied biomarkers is their lack of cardiovascular specificity.
METHODS AND RESULTS - To determine the prognostic value of 3 novel biomarkers induced by cardiovascular stress, we measured soluble ST2, growth differentiation factor-15, and high-sensitivity troponin I in 3428 participants (mean age, 59 years; 53% women) in the Framingham Heart Study. We performed multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models to assess the individual and combined ability of the biomarkers to predict adverse outcomes. We also constructed a "multimarker" score composed of the 3 biomarkers in addition to B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years, there were 488 deaths, 336 major cardiovascular events, 162 heart failure events, and 142 coronary events. In multivariable-adjusted models, the 3 new biomarkers were associated with each end point (P<0.001) except coronary events. Individuals with multimarker scores in the highest quartile had a 3-fold risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.7; P<0.001), 6-fold risk of heart failure (6.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-14.8; P<0.001), and 2-fold risk of cardiovascular events (1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.7; P=0.001). Addition of the multimarker score to clinical variables led to significant increases in the c statistic (P=0.005 or lower) and net reclassification improvement (P=0.001 or lower).
CONCLUSION - Multiple biomarkers of cardiovascular stress are detectable in ambulatory individuals and add prognostic value to standard risk factors for predicting death, overall cardiovascular events, and heart failure.
INTRODUCTION - This study was carried out to investigate the prognostic utility of biomarkers in advanced stage heart failure (HF) patients requiring ICU admission for pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) guided therapy.
METHODS - Thirty patients admitted to an ICU for PAC guided HF therapy were enrolled; concentrations of soluble ST2 (sST2), highly sensitive troponin I, an experimental ultrasensitive troponin I, amino-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide, cystatin C, and myeloperoxidase were measured over the first 48 hours. Outcomes included response of filling pressures and hemodynamics to tailored therapy and 90-day event-free survival (death, left ventricular assist device implantation, transplant).
RESULTS - Of the biomarkers evaluated, only sST2 concentrations were higher in those who failed to achieve goals for central venous pressure ((CVP), 225.3 versus 104.6 ng/mL; P = 0.003) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ((PCWP), 181.7 versus 88.2 ng/mL; P = 0.05). Only sST2 concentrations were associated with adverse events (186.7 versus 92.2 ng/mL; P = 0.01). In age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis, an elevated sST2 during the first 48 hours following ICU admission independently predicted 90-day outcomes (Hazard Ratio = 5.53; P = 0.03) superior to the Simplified Acute Physiology Score for this application; in Kaplan-Meier analysis the risk associated with elevated sST2 concentrations was present early and sustained through the duration of follow-up (log rank P = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS - In patients undergoing HF therapy guided by invasive monitoring, sST2 concentrations were associated with impending failure to reduce filling pressures and predicted impending events. Elevated sST2 values early in the ICU course theoretically could assist therapeutic decision-making in advanced stage HF patients.
TRIAL REGISTRATION - ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00595738.
OBJECTIVES - We examined the hypothesis that cardiac-specific troponin-I (cTn-I), a biomarker of myocardial injury, is elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
BACKGROUND - RA patients have an increased incidence of heart failure (HF). Chronic myocardial injury in RA may be a mechanism for the development of HF.
METHODS - We compared cTn-I concentrations measured by high-sensitivity immunoassay in 164 patients with RA and 90 controls, excluding prior or active heart failure. We examined the relationship between cTn-I concentrations and cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation, and coronary artery calcium score (CACS), a measure of coronary atherosclerosis.
RESULTS - cTn-I concentrations were 49% higher in patients with RA (median 1.15 pg/mL [IQR 0.73-1.92] than controls (0.77 pg/mL [0.49-1.28](P<0.001). The difference remained statistically significant after adjustment for demographic characteristics (P = 0.002), further adjustment for cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (P = 0.004), inflammatory markers (P = 0.008), and in a comprehensive model of CV risk factors and inflammatory markers (P = 0.03). In patients with RA, cTn-I concentrations were positively correlated with age (rho = 0.359), Framingham risk score (FRS) (rho = 0.366), and systolic blood pressure (rho = 0.248 (all P values ≤ 0.001)), but not with measures of inflammation or RA drug therapies. cTn-I was significantly correlated with CACS in RA in univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for age, race, sex and FRS (P = 0.79). Further model adjustments for renal function and coronary artery disease confirmed the significance of the findings.
CONCLUSION - High-sensitivity cTn-I concentrations are elevated in patients with RA without heart failure, independent of cardiovascular risk profile and inflammatory markers. Elevated troponin concentrations in RA may indicate subclinical, indolent myocardial injury.
BACKGROUND - Initially elevated levels of troponin predict adverse outcomes in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). No research team has investigated the changes in concentration of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) during ICU stay and their association with patient outcome.
OBJECTIVE - We investigated whether the change in cTnT levels during ICU stay could predict outcomes (death or survival).
METHODS - In this cohort study, all patients admitted to the medical ICU (10 beds) from January to July 2008 were enrolled. Troponin levels were evaluated within the first 24 hours of ICU admission and on the fourth, seventh and 10th days after admission.
RESULTS - The study population (135 patients) had a mean age of 60.9 ± 21.5 years. The outcome was significantly different with regard to normal or elevated cTnT concentrations on the first and seventh days of follow up (p = 0.03 and 0.023, respectively). This difference was non-significant for cTnT levels on the fourth and 10th days after admission (p = 0.69 and 0.78, respectively). The change in cTnT levels was not significantly different between the deceased and discharged patients (p = 0.4).
CONCLUSION - Changes in cTnT levels during ICU stay did not show a significant trend (power: 0.26). Patients whose cTnT levels were increased on the first and seventh days of ICU stay had a worse survival, which could be associated with cardiac events on admission or at specific times during the stay in ICU.
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, though with different sources, is one of the most deadly emergencies in all countries. CO can threaten men's life by several paths especially cardiac complications, which can mimic other cardiac problems such as myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to determine ECG findings and serum troponin I levels in CO poisoned patients. In this analytical cross-sectional study, 63 CO poisoning patients were consecutively included from hospital's emergency departments. CO content was measured by a CO-oximeter and an electrocardiography was taken first thing on admission. Arterial blood gas (ABG), troponin I and other data was collected afterwards. Data were divided by age groups (adults and children) and gender. CO content was significantly higher only in subjects with normal T wave compared to patients with inverted T wave in their initial ECG (P=0.016). No other significant difference was noticed. None of the ABG findings correlated significantly with CO content. Also no significant correlation was found with CO content after stratification by gender and age groups, but pH in children (r=-0.484, P=0.026). CO content was significantly higher in adults (P=0.023), but other ABG data were not significantly different. Only 3 patients had elevated troponin I. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed no significant cutoff points in CO content for ECG changes. No significant specific change in electrocardiograms (ECG) could contribute carboxyhemoglobin content in carbon monoxide poisoned patients. In addition, no specific difference was found between adults and pediatric subjects' ECGs. All other findings seemed to be accidental.