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Haloperidol and Ziprasidone for Treatment of Delirium in Critical Illness.
Girard TD, Exline MC, Carson SS, Hough CL, Rock P, Gong MN, Douglas IS, Malhotra A, Owens RL, Feinstein DJ, Khan B, Pisani MA, Hyzy RC, Schmidt GA, Schweickert WD, Hite RD, Bowton DL, Masica AL, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Pun BT, Strength C, Boehm LM, Jackson JC, Pandharipande PP, Brummel NE, Hughes CG, Patel MB, Stollings JL, Bernard GR, Dittus RS, Ely EW, MIND-USA Investigators
(2018) N Engl J Med 379: 2506-2516
MeSH Terms: Aged, Antipsychotic Agents, Critical Illness, Delirium, Dopamine Antagonists, Double-Blind Method, Female, Haloperidol, Humans, Kaplan-Meier Estimate, Male, Middle Aged, Piperazines, Respiratory Insufficiency, Shock, Thiazoles, Treatment Failure
Show Abstract · Added October 23, 2018
BACKGROUND - There are conflicting data on the effects of antipsychotic medications on delirium in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).
METHODS - In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned patients with acute respiratory failure or shock and hypoactive or hyperactive delirium to receive intravenous boluses of haloperidol (maximum dose, 20 mg daily), ziprasidone (maximum dose, 40 mg daily), or placebo. The volume and dose of a trial drug or placebo was halved or doubled at 12-hour intervals on the basis of the presence or absence of delirium, as detected with the use of the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, and of side effects of the intervention. The primary end point was the number of days alive without delirium or coma during the 14-day intervention period. Secondary end points included 30-day and 90-day survival, time to freedom from mechanical ventilation, and time to ICU and hospital discharge. Safety end points included extrapyramidal symptoms and excessive sedation.
RESULTS - Written informed consent was obtained from 1183 patients or their authorized representatives. Delirium developed in 566 patients (48%), of whom 89% had hypoactive delirium and 11% had hyperactive delirium. Of the 566 patients, 184 were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 192 to receive haloperidol, and 190 to receive ziprasidone. The median duration of exposure to a trial drug or placebo was 4 days (interquartile range, 3 to 7). The median number of days alive without delirium or coma was 8.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6 to 9.9) in the placebo group, 7.9 (95% CI, 4.4 to 9.6) in the haloperidol group, and 8.7 (95% CI, 5.9 to 10.0) in the ziprasidone group (P=0.26 for overall effect across trial groups). The use of haloperidol or ziprasidone, as compared with placebo, had no significant effect on the primary end point (odds ratios, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.64 to 1.21] and 1.04 [95% CI, 0.73 to 1.48], respectively). There were no significant between-group differences with respect to the secondary end points or the frequency of extrapyramidal symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS - The use of haloperidol or ziprasidone, as compared with placebo, in patients with acute respiratory failure or shock and hypoactive or hyperactive delirium in the ICU did not significantly alter the duration of delirium. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the VA Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center; MIND-USA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01211522 .).
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Isoniazid-monoresistant tuberculosis is associated with poor treatment outcomes in Durban, South Africa.
van der Heijden YF, Karim F, Mufamadi G, Zako L, Chinappa T, Shepherd BE, Maruri F, Moosa MS, Sterling TR, Pym AS
(2017) Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 21: 670-676
MeSH Terms: Adult, Antitubercular Agents, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Female, HIV Infections, Humans, Isoniazid, Logistic Models, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Retrospective Studies, South Africa, Treatment Failure, Treatment Outcome, Tuberculosis
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
SETTING - A large tuberculosis (TB) clinic in Durban, South Africa.
OBJECTIVE - To determine the association between isoniazid (INH) monoresistant TB and treatment outcomes.
DESIGN - We performed a retrospective longitudinal study of patients seen from 2000 to 2012 to compare episodes of INH-monoresistant TB with those of drug-susceptible TB using logistic regression with robust standard errors. INH-monoresistant TB was treated with modified regimens.
RESULTS - Among 18 058 TB patients, there were 19 979 TB episodes for which drug susceptibility testing was performed. Of these, 557 were INH-monoresistant and 16 311 were drug-susceptible. Loss to follow-up, transfer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection (41% had known HIV status) were similar between groups. INH-monoresistant episodes were more likely to result in treatment failure (4.1% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.001) and death (3.2% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.01) than drug-susceptible episodes. After adjustment for age, sex, race, retreatment status, and disease site, INH-monoresistant episodes were more likely to have resulted in treatment failure (OR 6.84, 95%CI 4.29-10.89, P < 0.001) and death (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.11-2.95, P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION - INH monoresistance was associated with worse clinical outcomes than drug-susceptible TB. Our findings support the need for rapid diagnostic tests for INH resistance and improved treatment regimens for INH-monoresistant TB.
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17 MeSH Terms
NF-κB and androgen receptor variant 7 induce expression of SRD5A isoforms and confer 5ARI resistance.
Austin DC, Strand DW, Love HL, Franco OE, Grabowska MM, Miller NL, Hameed O, Clark PE, Matusik RJ, Jin RJ, Hayward SW
(2016) Prostate 76: 1004-18
MeSH Terms: 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase, 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors, Animals, Apoptosis, Drug Resistance, Gene Expression, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Humans, Isoenzymes, Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, Male, Membrane Proteins, Mice, Mice, Nude, NF-kappa B, Orchiectomy, Prostate, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant, Receptors, Androgen, Testosterone, Treatment Failure, Up-Regulation
Show Abstract · Added April 18, 2017
BACKGROUND - Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is treated with 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARI). These drugs inhibit the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone resulting in apoptosis and prostate shrinkage. Most patients initially respond to 5ARIs; however, failure is common especially in inflamed prostates, and often results in surgery. This communication examines a link between activation of NF-κB and increased expression of SRD5A2 as a potential mechanism by which patients fail 5ARI therapy.
METHODS - Tissue was collected from "Surgical" patients, treated specifically for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to advanced BPH; and, cancer free transition zone from "Incidental" patients treated for low grade, localized peripheral zone prostate cancer. Clinical, molecular and histopathological profiles were analyzed. Human prostatic stromal and epithelial cell lines were genetically modified to regulate NF-κB activity, androgen receptor (AR) full length (AR-FL), and AR variant 7 (AR-V7) expression.
RESULTS - SRD5A2 is upregulated in advanced BPH. SRD5A2 was significantly associated with prostate volume determined by Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS), and with more severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) determined by American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS). Synthesis of androgens was seen in cells in which NF-κB was activated. AR-FL and AR-V7 expression increased SRD5A2 expression while forced activation of NF-κB increased all three SRD5A isoforms. Knockdown of SRD5A2 in the epithelial cells resulted in significant reduction in proliferation, AR target gene expression, and response to testosterone (T). In tissue recombinants, canonical NF-κB activation in prostatic epithelium elevated all three SRD5A isoforms and resulted in in vivo growth under castrated conditions.
CONCLUSION - Increased BPH severity in patients correlates with SRD5A2 expression. We demonstrate that NF-κB and AR-V7 upregulate SRD5A expression providing a mechanism to explain failure of 5ARI therapy in BPH patients. Prostate 76:1004-1018, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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National Trends in Secondary Procedures Following Pediatric Pyeloplasty.
Dy GW, Hsi RS, Holt SK, Lendvay TS, Gore JL, Harper JD
(2016) J Urol 195: 1209-14
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Infant, Kidney Pelvis, Male, Reoperation, Treatment Failure, United States, Ureteral Obstruction, Urologic Surgical Procedures
Show Abstract · Added January 16, 2018
PURPOSE - Although reported success rates after pediatric pyeloplasty to correct ureteropelvic junction are high, failure may require intervention. We sought to characterize the incidence and timing of secondary procedures after pediatric pyeloplasty using a national employer based insurance database.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Using the MarketScan® database we identified patients 0 to 18 years old who underwent pyeloplasty from 2007 to 2013 with greater than 3 months of postoperative enrollment. Secondary procedures following the index pyeloplasty were identified by CPT codes and classified as stent/drain, endoscopic, pyeloplasty, nephrectomy or transplant. The risk of undergoing a secondary procedure was ascertained using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics.
RESULTS - We identified 1,976 patients with a mean ± SD followup of 23.9 ± 19.8 months. Overall 226 children (11.4%) had undergone at least 1 post-pyeloplasty procedure. The first procedure was done within 1 year in 87.2% of patients with a mean postoperative interval of 5.9 ± 11.1 months. Stents/drains, endoscopic procedures and pyeloplasties were noted in 116 (5.9%), 34 (1.7%) and 71 patients (3.1%), respectively. Length of stay was associated with undergoing a secondary procedure. Compared with 2 days or less the HR of 3 to 5 and 6 days or greater was 1.65 and 3.94 (p = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS - Following pediatric pyeloplasty 1 of 9 patients undergoes at least 1 secondary procedure with the majority performed within the first year. One of 11 patients undergoes intervention more extensive than placement of a single stent or drain, requiring management strategies that generally signify recurrent or persistent obstruction. Estimates of pyeloplasty success in this national data set are lower than in other published series.
Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Peptide spectra in Wilms tumor that associate with adverse outcomes.
Murphy AJ, Pierce J, Seeley EH, Sullivan LM, Ruchelli ED, Nance ML, Caprioli RM, Lovvorn HN
(2015) J Surg Res 196: 332-8
MeSH Terms: Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Kidney, Kidney Neoplasms, Male, Peptides, Prognosis, Retrospective Studies, Tissue Array Analysis, Treatment Failure, Wilms Tumor
Show Abstract · Added July 28, 2015
BACKGROUND - The 2013 Children's Oncology Group (COG) blueprint for renal tumor research challenges investigators to develop new, risk-specific biological therapies for unfavorable histology and higher-risk Wilms tumor (WT) in an effort to close a persistent survival gap and to reduce treatment toxicities. As an initial response to this call from the COG, we used imaging mass spectrometry to determine peptide profiles of WT associated with adverse outcomes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - We created a WT tissue microarray containing 2-mm punches of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens archived from 48 sequentially treated WT patients at our institutions. Imaging mass spectrometry was performed to compare peptide spectra between three patient groups as follows: unfavorable versus favorable histology, treatment success versus failure, and COG higher- versus lower-risk disease. Statistically significant peptide peaks differentiating groups were identified and incorporated into a predictive model using a genetic algorithm.
RESULTS - One hundred thirty-one peptide peaks were differentially expressed in unfavorable versus favorable histology WT (P < 0.05). Two hundred three peaks differentiated treatment failure from success (P < 0.05). Seventy-one peaks differentiated COG higher-risk disease from the very-low, low, and standard-risk groups (P < 0.05). These peaks were used to develop predictive models that could differentiate among patient groups 98.49%, 94.46%, and 98.55% of the time, respectively. Spectral patterns were internally cross-validated using a leave-20% out model.
CONCLUSIONS - Peptide spectra can discriminate adverse behavior of WT. After future external validation and refinement, these models could be used to predict WT behavior and to stratify intensity of chemotherapy regimens. Furthermore, peptides discovered in the model could be sequenced to identify potential risk-specific drug targets.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Characteristics and intraoperative treatments associated with head and neck free tissue transfer complications and failures.
Hand WR, McSwain JR, McEvoy MD, Wolf B, Algendy AA, Parks MD, Murray JL, Reeves ST
(2015) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 152: 480-7
MeSH Terms: Female, Follow-Up Studies, Free Tissue Flaps, Head and Neck Neoplasms, Humans, Incidence, Intraoperative Care, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Postoperative Complications, Reconstructive Surgical Procedures, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, South Carolina, Treatment Failure, Treatment Outcome
Show Abstract · Added October 17, 2015
OBJECTIVE - To investigate the association between perioperative patient characteristics and treatment modalities (eg, vasopressor use and volume of fluid administration) with complications and failure rates in patients undergoing head and neck free tissue transfer (FTT).
STUDY DESIGN - A retrospective review of medical records.
SETTING - Perioperative hospitalization for head and neck FTT at 1 tertiary care medical center between January 1, 2009, and October 31, 2011.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS - Consecutive patients (N=235) who underwent head and neck FTT. Demographic, patient characteristic, and intraoperative data were extracted from medical records. Complication and failure rates within the first 30 days were collected
RESULTS - In a multivariate analysis controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, reason for receiving flap, and type and volume of fluid given, perioperative complication was significantly associated with surgical blood loss (P=.019; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.16), while the rate of intraoperative fluid administration did not reach statistical significance (P=.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.28). In a univariate analysis, FTT failure was significantly associated with reason for surgery (odds ratio, 5.40; P=.03; 95% CI, 1.69-17.3) and preoperative diagnosis of coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 3.60; P=.03; 95% CI, 1.16-11.2). Intraoperative vasopressor administration was not associated with either FTT complication or failure rate.
CONCLUSIONS - FTT complications were associated with surgical blood loss but not the use of vasoactive drugs. For patients undergoing FTT, judicious monitoring of blood loss may help stratify the risk of complication and failure.
© American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.
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Extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line treatment for acute graft-versus-host disease: impact on six-month freedom from treatment failure.
Das-Gupta E, Greinix H, Jacobs R, Zhou L, Savani BN, Engelhardt BG, Kassim A, Worel N, Knobler R, Russell N, Jagasia M
(2014) Haematologica 99: 1746-52
MeSH Terms: Acute Disease, Adolescent, Adrenal Cortex Hormones, Adult, Aged, Cause of Death, Chronic Disease, Female, Graft vs Host Disease, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Humans, Immunosuppressive Agents, Male, Middle Aged, Photopheresis, Recurrence, Retreatment, Time Factors, Transplantation, Homologous, Treatment Failure, Treatment Outcome, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added July 28, 2016
Second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease remains ill-defined, due to limited efficacy of drugs and evolving clinical trial endpoints. Six-month freedom from treatment failure has been proposed as a novel clinical trial endpoint and is defined by the absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression, or addition of a next line of systemic immunosuppressive therapy within 6 months of intervention and prior to diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease. We analyzed the 6-month freedom from treatment failure endpoint in 128 patients enrolled from three centers who were treated with extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of 6-month freedom from treatment failure was 77.3% with a 2-year survival rate of 56%. Corticosteroid dose or response status at onset of second-line therapy did not influence outcome. Higher grade of acute graft-versus-host disease (grade 2 versus grades 3-4) at onset of photopheresis predicted for poor outcome as measured by survival (hazard ratio 2.78, P<0.001), non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio 2.78, P=0.001) and 6-month freedom from treatment failure (hazard ratio 3.05, P<0.001). For the 91 patients who achieved 6-month freedom from treatment failure, 1-year, 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 78.9%, 70.8% and 69.5%, respectively. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is a reasonable early surrogate for outcome and should be considered as a clinical trial endpoint. This study demonstrates the durable effect of photopheresis as second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease using 6-month freedom from treatment failure as the primary endpoint.
Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.
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Epilepsy surgery failure in children: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.
Englot DJ, Han SJ, Rolston JD, Ivan ME, Kuperman RA, Chang EF, Gupta N, Sullivan JE, Auguste KI
(2014) J Neurosurg Pediatr 14: 386-95
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Anticonvulsants, Child, Child, Preschool, Drug Resistance, Electroencephalography, Epilepsy, Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Infant, Kaplan-Meier Estimate, Male, Neuroimaging, Neurosurgical Procedures, Predictive Value of Tests, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, Seizures, Temporal Lobe, Treatment Failure, Treatment Outcome, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added August 12, 2016
OBJECT - Resection is a safe and effective treatment option for children with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy, but some patients continue experience seizures after surgery. While most studies of pediatric epilepsy surgery focus on predictors of postoperative seizure outcome, these factors are often not modifiable, and the reasons for surgical failure may remain unclear.
METHODS - The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of children and adolescents who received focal resective surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of factors associated with persistent postoperative seizures were conducted.
RESULTS - Records were reviewed from 110 patients, ranging in age from 6 months to 19 years at the time of surgery, who underwent a total of 115 resections. At a mean 3.1-year follow-up, 76% of patients were free of disabling seizures (Engel Class I outcome). Seizure freedom was predicted by temporal lobe surgery compared with extratemporal resection, tumor or mesial temporal sclerosis compared with cortical dysplasia or other pathologies, and by a lower preoperative seizure frequency. Factors associated with persistent seizures (Engel Class II-IV outcome) included residual epileptogenic tissue adjacent to the resection cavity (40%), an additional epileptogenic zone distant from the resection cavity (32%), and the presence of a hemispheric epilepsy syndrome (28%).
CONCLUSIONS - While seizure outcomes in pediatric epilepsy surgery may be improved by the use of high-resolution neuroimaging and invasive electrographic studies, a more aggressive resection should be considered in certain patients, including hemispherectomy if a hemispheric epilepsy syndrome is suspected. Family counseling regarding treatment expectations is critical, and reoperation may be warranted in select cases.
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Association between intensification of metformin treatment with insulin vs sulfonylureas and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality among patients with diabetes.
Roumie CL, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Hung AM, Liu X, Murff HJ, Elasy TA, Griffin MR
(2014) JAMA 311: 2288-96
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Diabetes Complications, Diabetes Mellitus, Female, Glycated Hemoglobin A, Humans, Hypoglycemic Agents, Incidence, Insulin, Male, Metformin, Middle Aged, Myocardial Infarction, Retrospective Studies, Risk, Stroke, Sulfonylurea Compounds, Treatment Failure
Show Abstract · Added January 6, 2015
IMPORTANCE - Preferred second-line medication for diabetes treatment after metformin failure remains uncertain.
OBJECTIVE - To compare time to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, or death in a cohort of metformin initiators who added insulin or a sulfonylurea.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS - Retrospective cohort constructed with national Veterans Health Administration, Medicare, and National Death Index databases. The study population comprised veterans initially treated with metformin from 2001 through 2008 who subsequently added either insulin or sulfonylurea. Propensity score matching on characteristics was performed, matching each participant who added insulin to 5 who added a sulfonylurea. Patients were followed through September 2011 for primary analyses or September 2009 for cause-of-death analyses.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES - Risk of a composite outcome of AMI, stroke hospitalization, or all-cause death was compared between therapies with marginal structural Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for baseline and time-varying demographics, medications, cholesterol level, hemoglobin A1c level, creatinine level, blood pressure, body mass index, and comorbidities.
RESULTS - Among 178,341 metformin monotherapy patients, 2948 added insulin and 39,990 added a sulfonylurea. Propensity score matching yielded 2436 metformin + insulin and 12,180 metformin + sulfonylurea patients. At intensification, patients had received metformin for a median of 14 months (IQR, 5-30), and hemoglobin A1c level was 8.1% (IQR, 7.2%-9.9%). Median follow-up after intensification was 14 months (IQR, 6-29 months). There were 172 vs 634 events for the primary outcome among patients who added insulin vs sulfonylureas, respectively (42.7 vs 32.8 events per 1000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.07-1.58; P = .009). Acute myocardial infarction and stroke rates were statistically similar, 41 vs 229 events (10.2 and 11.9 events per 1000 person-years; aHR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.59-1.30; P = .52), whereas all-cause death rates were 137 vs 444 events, respectively (33.7 and 22.7 events per 1000 person-years; aHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.15-1.79; P = .001). There were 54 vs 258 secondary outcomes: AMI, stroke hospitalizations, or cardiovascular deaths (22.8 vs 22.5 events per 1000 person-years; aHR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.71-1.34; P = .87).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE - Among patients with diabetes who were receiving metformin, the addition of insulin vs a sulfonylurea was associated with an increased risk of a composite of nonfatal cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality. These findings require further investigation to understand risks associated with insulin use in these patients.
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Integrating cell-based and clinical genome-wide studies to identify genetic variants contributing to treatment failure in neuroblastoma patients.
Pinto N, Gamazon ER, Antao N, Myers J, Stark AL, Konkashbaev A, Im HK, Diskin SJ, London WB, Ludeman SM, Maris JM, Cox NJ, Cohn SL, Dolan ME
(2014) Clin Pharmacol Ther 95: 644-52
MeSH Terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating, Brain Neoplasms, Cell Line, Tumor, Child, Cohort Studies, Cyclohexylamines, Cyclophosphamide, Disease-Free Survival, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Variation, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Neuroblastoma, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Quality Control, RNA, Small Interfering, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Risk Assessment, Treatment Failure
Show Abstract · Added February 22, 2016
High-risk neuroblastoma is an aggressive malignancy, with high rates of treatment failure. We evaluated genetic variants associated with in vitro sensitivity to two derivatives of cyclophosphamide for association with clinical response in a separate replication cohort of neuroblastoma patients (n = 2,709). To determine sensitivity, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were exposed to increasing concentrations of 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC; n = 422) and phosphoramide mustard (PM; n = 428). Genome-wide association studies were performed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with sensitivity to 4HC and PM. SNPs consistently associated with LCL sensitivity were analyzed for associations with event-free survival (EFS) in patients. Two linked SNPs, rs9908694 and rs1453560, were found to be associated with (i) sensitivity to PM in LCLs across populations and (ii) EFS in all patients (P = 0.01) and within the high-risk subset (P = 0.05). Our study highlights the value of cell-based models to identify candidate variants that may predict response to treatment in patients with cancer.
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