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New-onset post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) occurs frequently after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Although calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids are assumed to be the cause for hyperglycemia, patients developing PTDM have elevated fasting C-peptide levels before HCT and before immunosuppressive medications. To determine if PTDM results from established insulin resistance present before transplant, we performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and measured whole body, peripheral, and hepatic insulin sensitivity with euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps before and 90 days after HLA-identical sibling donor HCT in 20 patients without pretransplant diabetes. HCT recipients were prospectively followed for the development of new-onset PTDM defined as a weekly fasting blood glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or random blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL. During the first 100 days all patients received calcineurin inhibitors, and 11 individuals (55%) were prospectively diagnosed with new-onset PTDM. PTDM diagnosis preceded corticosteroid treatment. During the pretransplant OGTT, elevated fasting (87 mg/dL versus 101 mg/dL; P = .005) but not 2-hour postprandial glucose levels predicted PTDM diagnosis (P = .648). In response to insulin infusion during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, patients developing PTDM had lower whole body glucose utilization (P = .047) and decreased peripheral/skeletal muscle uptake (P = .031) before and after transplant, respectively, when compared with non-PTDM patients. Hepatic insulin sensitivity did not differ. Survival was decreased in PTDM patients (2-year estimate, 55% versus 100%; P = .039). Insulin resistance before HCT is a risk factor for PTDM independent of immunosuppression. Fasting pretransplant glucose levels identified PTDM susceptibility, and peripheral insulin resistance could be targeted for prevention and treatment of PTDM after HCT.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.
The application of machine learning in medicine has been productive in multiple fields, but has not previously been applied to analyze the complexity of organ involvement by chronic graft--host disease. Chronic graft--host disease is classified by an overall composite score as mild, moderate or severe, which may overlook clinically relevant patterns in organ involvement. Here we applied a novel computational approach to chronic graft--host disease with the goal of identifying phenotypic groups based on the subcomponents of the National Institutes of Health Consensus Criteria. Computational analysis revealed seven distinct groups of patients with contrasting clinical risks. The high-risk group had an inferior overall survival compared to the low-risk group (hazard ratio 2.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.36-3.68), an effect that was independent of graft--host disease severity as measured by the National Institutes of Health criteria. To test clinical applicability, knowledge was translated into a simplified clinical prognostic decision tree. Groups identified by the decision tree also stratified outcomes and closely matched those from the original analysis. Patients in the high- and intermediate-risk decision-tree groups had significantly shorter overall survival than those in the low-risk group (hazard ratio 2.79; 95% confidence interval: 1.58-4.91 and hazard ratio 1.78; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-3.01, respectively). Machine learning and other computational analyses may better reveal biomarkers and stratify risk than the current approach based on cumulative severity. This approach could now be explored in other disease models with complex clinical phenotypes. External validation must be completed prior to clinical application. Ultimately, this approach has the potential to reveal distinct pathophysiological mechanisms that may underlie clusters. .
Copyright© 2019 Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) has been used increasingly for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to minimize transplant-related mortality while maintaining the graft-versus-tumor effect. In B cell lymphoid malignancies, reduced-intensity regimens containing rituximab, an antiCD20 antibody, have been associated with favorable survival; however, the long-term outcomes of rituximab-containing versus nonrituximab-containing regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in B cell lymphoid malignancies remain to be determined. We retrospectively analyzed 94 patients who received an allogeneic transplant for a B cell lymphoid malignancy. Of these, 33 received RIC with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with a calcineurin inhibitor and mini-methotrexate, and 61 received RIC with fludarabine and busulfan (FluBu) and GVHD prophylaxis with a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil. The 2-year overall survival was superior in patients who received FCR versus FluBu (72.7% versus 54.1%, P = .031), and in multivariable analysis adjusted for Disease Risk Index and donor type, only the conditioning regimen (FluBu versus FCR: HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 4.08; P = .037) and Disease Risk Index (low versus intermediate/high: HR, .38; 95% CI, .17 to .86; P = .02) were independent predictors of overall survival. The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was lower in patients who received FCR versus FluBu (24.2% versus 51.7%, P = .01). There was no difference in rate of relapse/progression or acute GVHD. Our results demonstrate that the use of RIC with FCR and GVHD prophylaxis with a calcineurin inhibitor and mini-methotrexate is associated with decreased chronic GVHD and improved overall survival.
Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients frequently develop glucose intolerance and post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM). The clinical importance of PTDM and its detrimental impact on HSCT outcomes are under-recognized. After allo-HSCT, various mechanisms can contribute to the development of PTDM. Here we review information about hyperglycemia and PTDM after allo-HSCT as well as PTDM after solid organ transplantation and describe ways to manage hyperglycemia/PTDM after allogeneic HSCT. Taking into consideration a lack of well-established evidence in the field of allo-HSCT, more studies should be conducted in the future, which will require closer multidisciplinary collaboration between hematologists, endocrinologists and nutritionists.
Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) can modify the tumor microenvironment to create a pro-tumor niche. Manipulation of the TAM phenotype is a novel, potential therapeutic approach to engage anti-cancer immunity. siRNA is a molecular tool for knockdown of specific mRNAs that is tunable in both strength and duration. The use of siRNA to reprogram TAMs to adopt an immunogenic, anti-tumor phenotype is an attractive alternative to ablation of this cell population. One current difficulty with this approach is that TAMs are difficult to specifically target and transfect. We report here successful utilization of novel mannosylated polymer nanoparticles (MnNP) that are capable of escaping the endosomal compartment to deliver siRNA to TAMs in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with MnNP-siRNA complexes did not significantly decrease TAM cell membrane integrity in culture, nor did it create adverse kidney or liver function in mice, even at repeated doses of 5 mg kg(-1). Furthermore, MnNP effectively delivers labeled nucleotides to TAMs in mice with primary mammary tumors. We also confirmed TAM targeting in the solid tumors disseminated throughout the peritoneum of ovarian tumor bearing mice following injection of fluorescently labeled MnNP-nucleotide complexes into the peritoneum. Finally, we show enhanced uptake of MnNP in lung metastasis associated macrophages compared to untargeted particles when using an intubation delivery method. In summary, we have shown that MnNP specifically and effectively deliver siRNA to TAMs in vivo.
Second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease remains ill-defined, due to limited efficacy of drugs and evolving clinical trial endpoints. Six-month freedom from treatment failure has been proposed as a novel clinical trial endpoint and is defined by the absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression, or addition of a next line of systemic immunosuppressive therapy within 6 months of intervention and prior to diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease. We analyzed the 6-month freedom from treatment failure endpoint in 128 patients enrolled from three centers who were treated with extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of 6-month freedom from treatment failure was 77.3% with a 2-year survival rate of 56%. Corticosteroid dose or response status at onset of second-line therapy did not influence outcome. Higher grade of acute graft-versus-host disease (grade 2 versus grades 3-4) at onset of photopheresis predicted for poor outcome as measured by survival (hazard ratio 2.78, P<0.001), non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio 2.78, P=0.001) and 6-month freedom from treatment failure (hazard ratio 3.05, P<0.001). For the 91 patients who achieved 6-month freedom from treatment failure, 1-year, 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 78.9%, 70.8% and 69.5%, respectively. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is a reasonable early surrogate for outcome and should be considered as a clinical trial endpoint. This study demonstrates the durable effect of photopheresis as second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease using 6-month freedom from treatment failure as the primary endpoint.
Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.
FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) internal tandem duplication (ITD) is a somatic mutation associated with poor outcome when treated with chemotherapy alone. In children, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is recommended, but very limited data on outcome are reported. We determined the outcome of 29 children with FLT3/ITD-positive acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who underwent allogeneic HSCT in 4 pediatric centers. Eleven patients (38%) received matched related donor hematopoietic stem cells and 18 (62%) received alternative donors. Eighteen patients (62%) received total body irradiation (TBI)-based regimens. No patients experienced transplantation-related mortality. Eleven patients (38%) experienced relapsed disease. The cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was 34.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.4% to 54.9%). Two-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 65.3% (95% CI, 45.1% to 79.6%) and 82.2% (95% CI, 58.5% to 91.3%), respectively. There was no difference in the DFS of patients who received transplants from related donors versus the DFS of those who received transplants from alternative donors (hazard ratio [HR], 2.64; 95% CI, .79 to 8.76; P = .10), using univariate analysis. Patients with higher FLT3/ITD ratio at diagnosis had significantly worse DFS (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.93; P = .03). The use of TBI in the preparative regimen was associated with superior DFS (HR, .29; 95% CI, .08 to .99; P = .04) and OS (HR, .07; 95% CI, .01 to .62; P = .002). We conclude that allogeneic HSCT improves DFS and OS in children with FLT3/ITD-positive AML compared with what has been reported in those treated with chemotherapy alone.
Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We report herein application of an in situ material strategy to attenuate allograft T cell responses in a skin transplant mouse model. Functionalized peptidic membranes were used to impede trafficking of donor antigen-presenting cells (dAPCs) from skin allografts in recipient mice. Membranes formed by self-assembling peptides (SAPs) presenting antibodies were found to remain underneath grafted skins for up to 6 days. At the host-graft interface, dAPCs were targeted by using a monoclonal antibody that binds to a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule (I-A(d)) expressed exclusively by donor cells. Using a novel cell labeling near-infrared nanoemulsion, we found more dAPCs remained in allografts treated with membranes loaded with anti-I-A(d) antibodies than without. In vitro, dAPCs released from skin explants were found adsorbed preferentially on anti-I-A(d) antibody-loaded membranes. Recipient T cells from these mice produced lower concentrations of interferon-gamma cultured ex vivo with donor cells. Taken together, the data indicate that the strategy has the potential to alter the natural course of rejection immune mechanisms in allogeneic transplant models.
Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) disproportionately affects older patients, who do not often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data on 1248 patients age ≥40 years receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT for aggressive (n = 668) or indolent (n = 580) NHL. Aggressive lymphoma was more frequent in the oldest cohort 49% for age 40 to 54 versus 57% for age 55 to 64 versus 67% for age ≥65; P = .0008). Fewer patients aged ≥65 had previous autografting (26% versus 24% versus 9%; P = .002). Rates of relapse, acute and chronic GVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year post-HCT were similar in the 3 age cohorts (22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19% to 26%] for age 40 to 54, 27% [95% CI, 23% to 31%] for age 55 to 64, and 34% [95% CI, 24% to 44%] for age ≥65. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years was slightly lower in the older cohorts (OS: 54% [95% CI, 50% to 58%] for age 40 to 54; 40% [95% CI, 36% to 44%] for age 55 to 64, and 39% [95% CI, 28% to 50%] for age ≥65; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant effect of age on the incidence of acute or chronic GVHD or relapse. Age ≥55 years, Karnofsky Performance Status <80, and HLA mismatch adversely affected NRM, PFS, and OS. Disease status at HCT, but not histological subtype, was associated with worse NRM, relapse, PFS, and OS. Even for patients age ≥55 years, OS still approached 40% at 3 years, suggesting that HCT affects long-term remission and remains underused in qualified older patients with NHL.
Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria for chronic GVHD have set standards for reporting. Many questions, however, have arisen regarding their implementation and utilization. To identify perceived areas of controversy, we conducted an international survey on diagnosis and scoring of chronic GVHD. Agreement was observed for 50-83% of the 72 questions in 7 topic areas. There was agreement on the need for modifying criteria in six situations: two or more distinctive manifestations should be enough to diagnose chronic GVHD; symptoms that are not due to chronic GVHD should be scored differently; active disease and fixed deficits should be distinguished; a minimum threshold body surface area of hidebound skin involvement should be required for a skin score of 3; asymptomatic oral lichenoid changes should be considered a score 1; and lung biopsy should be unnecessary to diagnose chronic GVHD in a patient with bronchiolitis obliterans as the only manifestation. The survey also identified 26 points of controversy. Whenever possible, studies should be conducted to confirm the appropriateness of any revisions. In cases where data are not available, clarification of the NIH recommendations by consensus is necessary. This survey should inform future research in the field and revisions of the current consensus criteria.