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OBJECTIVE - In the randomised scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide Or Transplantation (SCOT trial) (NCT00114530), myeloablation, followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), led to improved clinical outcomes compared with monthly cyclophosphamide (CYC) treatment in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Herein, the study aimed to determine global molecular changes at the whole blood transcript and serum protein levels ensuing from HSCT in comparison to intravenous monthly CYC in 62 participants enrolled in the SCOT study.
METHODS - Global transcript studies were performed at pretreatment baseline, 8 months and 26 months postrandomisation using Illumina HT-12 arrays. Levels of 102 proteins were measured in the concomitantly collected serum samples.
RESULTS - At the baseline visit, interferon (IFN) and neutrophil transcript modules were upregulated and the cytotoxic/NK module was downregulated in SSc compared with unaffected controls. A paired comparison of the 26 months to the baseline samples revealed a significant decrease of the IFN and neutrophil modules and an increase in the cytotoxic/NK module in the HSCT arm while there was no significant change in the CYC control arm. Also, a composite score of correlating serum proteins with IFN and neutrophil transcript modules, as well as a multilevel analysis showed significant changes in SSc molecular signatures after HSCT while similar changes were not observed in the CYC arm. Lastly, a decline in the IFN and neutrophil modules was associated with an improvement in pulmonary forced vital capacity and an increase in the cytotoxic/NK module correlated with improvement in skin score.
CONCLUSION - HSCT contrary to conventional treatment leads to a significant 'correction' in disease-related molecular signatures.
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
BACKGROUND - Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) has recently been shown to accurately detect nerve injury and regeneration. This study assesses whether 7-tesla (7T) DTT imaging is a viable modality to observe axonal outgrowth in a 4 cm rabbit sciatic nerve injury model fixed by a reverse autograft (RA) surgical technique.
METHODS - Transection injury of unilateral sciatic nerve (4 cm long) was performed in 25 rabbits and repaired using a RA surgical technique. Analysis of the nerve autograft was performed at 3, 6, and 11 weeks postoperatively and compared to normal contralateral sciatic nerve, used as control group. High-resolution DTT from ex vivo sciatic nerves were obtained using 3D diffusion-weighted spin-echo acquisitions at 7-T. Total axons and motor and sensory axons were counted at defined lengths along the graft.
RESULTS - At 11 weeks, histologically, the total axon count of the RA group was equivalent to the contralateral uninjured nerve control group. Similarly, by qualitative DTT visualization, the 11-week RA group showed increased fiber tracts compared to the 3 and 6 weeks counterparts. Upon immunohistochemical evaluation, 11-week motor axon counts did not significantly differ between RA and control; but significantly decreased sensory axon counts remained. Nerves explanted at 3 weeks and 6 weeks showed decreased motor and sensory axon counts.
DISCUSSION - 7-T DTT is an effective imaging modality that may be used qualitatively to visualize axonal outgrowth and regeneration. This has implications for the development of technology that non-invasively monitors peripheral nerve regeneration in a variety of clinical settings.
BACKGROUND - Despite current therapies, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) often has a devastating outcome. We compared myeloablative CD34+ selected autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation with immunosuppression by means of 12 monthly infusions of cyclophosphamide in patients with scleroderma.
METHODS - We randomly assigned adults (18 to 69 years of age) with severe scleroderma to undergo myeloablative autologous stem-cell transplantation (36 participants) or to receive cyclophosphamide (39 participants). The primary end point was a global rank composite score comparing participants with each other on the basis of a hierarchy of disease features assessed at 54 months: death, event-free survival (survival without respiratory, renal, or cardiac failure), forced vital capacity, the score on the Disability Index of the Health Assessment Questionnaire, and the modified Rodnan skin score.
RESULTS - In the intention-to-treat population, global rank composite scores at 54 months showed the superiority of transplantation (67% of 1404 pairwise comparisons favored transplantation and 33% favored cyclophosphamide, P=0.01). In the per-protocol population (participants who received a transplant or completed ≥9 doses of cyclophosphamide), the rate of event-free survival at 54 months was 79% in the transplantation group and 50% in the cyclophosphamide group (P=0.02). At 72 months, Kaplan-Meier estimates of event-free survival (74% vs. 47%) and overall survival (86% vs. 51%) also favored transplantation (P=0.03 and 0.02, respectively). A total of 9% of the participants in the transplantation group had initiated disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) by 54 months, as compared with 44% of those in the cyclophosphamide group (P=0.001). Treatment-related mortality in the transplantation group was 3% at 54 months and 6% at 72 months, as compared with 0% in the cyclophosphamide group.
CONCLUSIONS - Myeloablative autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation achieved long-term benefits in patients with scleroderma, including improved event-free and overall survival, at a cost of increased expected toxicity. Rates of treatment-related death and post-transplantation use of DMARDs were lower than those in previous reports of nonmyeloablative transplantation. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00114530 .).
Transplant outcomes of autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) have not been elucidated as a single cohort in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We analyzed the outcomes of 270 adult recipients receiving autologous (auto) SCT (n = 198) or allogeneic (allo) SCT (n = 72) for NHL between the years 2000 and 2010. Five-year overall survival rates for B and T cell NHL were 58% and 50%, respectively (allo-SCT 51% vs. 54% for B and T-cell NHL, and auto-SCT 60% vs. 47% for B and T cell lymphoma, respectively). In multivariate analysis, the number of chemotherapy regimens and disease status pre-SCT were independently associated with long-term outcome after SCT (for both auto- and allo-SCT). We conclude that the type of transplantation offered to patients, based on patient selection and disease-related factors, can achieve long-term survival, highlighting the importance of further improvement in disease control and reducing procedure-related mortality. The role of transplantation needs to be reevaluated in the era of targeted therapy.
Copyright © 2014 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. All rights reserved.
Transplantation of bone marrow cells leads to engraftment of osteopoietic and hematopoietic progenitors. We sought to determine whether the recently described transient expansion of the host osteoblastic niche after marrow radioablation promotes engraftment of both osteopoietic and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Mice infused with marrow cells 24 hours after total body irradiation (TBI) demonstrated significantly greater osteopoietic and hematopoietic progenitor chimerism than did mice infused at 30 minutes or 6 hours. Irradiated mice with a lead shield over 1 hind limb showed greater hematopoietic chimerism in the irradiated limb than in the shielded limb at both the 6- and 24-hour intervals. By contrast, the osteopoietic chimerism was essentially equal in the 2 limbs at each of these intervals, although it significantly increased when cells were infused 24 hours compared with 6 hours after TBI. Similarly, the number of donor phenotypic long-term hematopoietic stem cells was equivalent in the irradiated and shielded limbs after each irradiation-to-infusion interval but was significantly increased at the 24-hour interval. Our findings indicate that a 24-hour delay in marrow cell infusion after TBI facilitates expansion of the endosteal osteoblastic niche, leading to enhanced osteopoietic and hematopoietic engraftment.
Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for hypogammaglobulinemia after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in pediatric patients. Ig levels were measured pre-transplant, every 2 weeks until day 100 and then monthly post SCT in 185 patients undergoing myeloablative HSCT. Median age was 9 years; 142 (77%) had malignant disease and 114 (62%) received stem cells from an unrelated source. Hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG <500 mg/dL) developed in 143 (77%) of the patients at a median of 56 days (range 15-339) post SCT. The cumulative incidence of hypogammaglobulinemia at 1 year was higher among patients who developed acute GVHD (97% vs 54%, P<0.001), and for those receiving stem cells from an unrelated source (94% vs 51%, P<0.001). The cumulative incidence of TRM was significantly higher for patients with hypogammaglobulinemia (P=0.026). In multivariable analysis, lower pre-transplant IgG level (P<0.001), younger age (P=0.012), diagnosis of malignant disease (P<0.001), receiving unrelated SCT (P<0.001) and development of acute GVHD (P<0.001) were all significantly associated with higher risk of hypogammaglobulinemia post HSCT. We conclude that hypogammaglobulinemia is common, following allogeneic HSCT in pediatric patients, especially in those with malignant diseases, those who receive an unrelated transplant or patients who develop GVHD.
Childhood autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (auto-HCT) survivors can be at risk for secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We assembled a cohort of 1487 pediatric auto-HCT recipients to investigate the incidence and risk factors for SMNs. Primary diagnoses included neuroblastoma (39%), lymphoma (26%), sarcoma (18%), central nervous system tumors (14%) and Wilms tumor (2%). Median follow-up was 8 years (range, <1-21 years). SMNs were reported in 35 patients (AML/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)=13, solid cancers=20, subtype missing=2). The overall cumulative incidence of SMNs at 10 years from auto-HCT was 2.60% (AML/MDS=1.06%, solid tumors=1.30%). We found no association between SMNs risk and age, gender, diagnosis, disease status, time since diagnosis or use of TBI or etoposide as part of conditioning. OS at 5-years from diagnosis of SMNs was 33% (95% confidence interval (CI), 16-52%). When compared with age- and gender-matched general population, auto-HCT recipients had 24 times higher risks of developing SMNs (95% CI, 16.0-33.0). Notable SMN sites included bone (N=5 SMNs, observed (O)/expected (E)=81), thyroid (N=5, O/E=53), breast (N=2, O/E=93), soft tissue (N=2, O/E=34), AML (N=6, O/E=266) and MDS (N=7, O/E=6603). Risks of SMNs increased with longer follow-up from auto-HCT. Pediatric auto-HCT recipients are at considerably increased risk for SMNs and need life-long surveillance for SMNs.
CONTEXT - Previous studies using autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy have demonstrated safety and suggested efficacy.
OBJECTIVE - To determine if administration of BMCs through transendocardial injections improves myocardial perfusion, reduces left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), or enhances maximal oxygen consumption in patients with coronary artery disease or LV dysfunction, and limiting heart failure or angina.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS - A phase 2 randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of symptomatic patients (New York Heart Association classification II-III or Canadian Cardiovascular Society classification II-IV) with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 45% or less, a perfusion defect by single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), and coronary artery disease not amenable to revascularization who were receiving maximal medical therapy at 5 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) sites between April 29, 2009, and April 18, 2011.
INTERVENTION - Bone marrow aspiration (isolation of BMCs using a standardized automated system performed locally) and transendocardial injection of 100 million BMCs or placebo (ratio of 2 for BMC group to 1 for placebo group).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Co-primary end points assessed at 6 months: changes in LVESV assessed by echocardiography, maximal oxygen consumption, and reversibility on SPECT. Phenotypic and functional analyses of the cell product were performed by the CCTRN biorepository core laboratory.
RESULTS - Of 153 patients who provided consent, a total of 92 (82 men; average age: 63 years) were randomized (n = 61 in BMC group and n = 31 in placebo group). Changes in LVESV index (-0.9 mL/m(2) [95% CI, -6.1 to 4.3]; P = .73), maximal oxygen consumption (1.0 [95% CI, -0.42 to 2.34]; P = .17), and reversible defect (-1.2 [95% CI, -12.50 to 10.12]; P = .84) were not statistically significant. There were no differences found in any of the secondary outcomes, including percent myocardial defect, total defect size, fixed defect size, regional wall motion, and clinical improvement.
CONCLUSION - Among patients with chronic ischemic heart failure, transendocardial injection of autologous BMCs compared with placebo did not improve LVESV, maximal oxygen consumption, or reversibility on SPECT.
TRIAL REGISTRATION - clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00824005.
Thirty-five consecutive patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) receiving SCT at our institution between January 2000 and December 2010 were included in this study. At the time of presentation, 30 (86%) had advanced stage disease and 25 (71%) received three or more chemotherapy regimens prior to transplantation. In all, 12 (34%) patients were in complete response pre-SCT following salvage therapy. At the time of analysis (median follow-up 6 years from diagnosis and 4 years from transplantation), 24 patients were alive with an estimated 5-year OS and PFS of 66.5 and 53%, respectively. OS and PFS in patients receiving auto-SCT (91.7%, 73.3%) were superior compared with patients receiving allo-SCT (53.9%, 43%). Our data support early use of auto-SCT in patients with FL and suggest the need to improve allo-SCT outcome. Integrating novel agents in a combined modality approach may improve long-term outcome in FL.