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High-Resolution Mapping of RNA Polymerases Identifies Mechanisms of Sensitivity and Resistance to BET Inhibitors in t(8;21) AML.
Zhao Y, Liu Q, Acharya P, Stengel KR, Sheng Q, Zhou X, Kwak H, Fischer MA, Bradner JE, Strickland SA, Mohan SR, Savona MR, Venters BJ, Zhou MM, Lis JT, Hiebert SW
(2016) Cell Rep 16: 2003-16
MeSH Terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Azepines, Cell Line, Tumor, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute, MicroRNAs, Multigene Family, Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Protein Isoforms, Proteins, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit, Transcription, Genetic, Translocation, Genetic, Triazoles
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) family inhibitors offer an approach to treating hematological malignancies. We used precision nuclear run-on transcription sequencing (PRO-seq) to create high-resolution maps of active RNA polymerases across the genome in t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as these polymerases are exceptionally sensitive to BET inhibitors. PRO-seq identified over 1,400 genes showing impaired release of promoter-proximal paused RNA polymerases, including the stem cell factor receptor tyrosine kinase KIT that is mutated in t(8;21) AML. PRO-seq also identified an enhancer 3' to KIT. Chromosome conformation capture confirmed contacts between this enhancer and the KIT promoter, while CRISPRi-mediated repression of this enhancer impaired cell growth. PRO-seq also identified microRNAs, including MIR29C and MIR29B2, that target the anti-apoptotic factor MCL1 and were repressed by BET inhibitors. MCL1 protein was upregulated, and inhibition of BET proteins sensitized t(8:21)-containing cells to MCL1 inhibition, suggesting a potential mechanism of resistance to BET-inhibitor-induced cell death.
Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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23 MeSH Terms
Myeloid translocation genes differentially regulate colorectal cancer programs.
Parang B, Bradley AM, Mittal MK, Short SP, Thompson JJ, Barrett CW, Naik RD, Bilotta AJ, Washington MK, Revetta FL, Smith JJ, Chen X, Wilson KT, Hiebert SW, Williams CS
(2016) Oncogene 35: 6341-6349
MeSH Terms: Animals, Colorectal Neoplasms, Female, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Nuclear Proteins, Repressor Proteins, Signal Transduction, Transcription Factors, Translocation, Genetic, Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Show Abstract · Added June 23, 2016
Myeloid translocation genes (MTGs), originally identified as chromosomal translocations in acute myelogenous leukemia, are transcriptional corepressors that regulate hematopoietic stem cell programs. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database revealed that MTGs were mutated in epithelial malignancy and suggested that loss of function might promote tumorigenesis. Genetic deletion of MTGR1 and MTG16 in the mouse has revealed unexpected and unique roles within the intestinal epithelium. Mtgr1 mice have progressive depletion of all intestinal secretory cells, and Mtg16 mice have a decrease in goblet cells. Furthermore, both Mtgr1 and Mtg16 mice have increased intestinal epithelial cell proliferation. We thus hypothesized that loss of MTGR1 or MTG16 would modify Apc-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis. Mtgr1 mice, but not Mtg16 mice, had a 10-fold increase in tumor multiplicity. This was associated with more advanced dysplasia, including progression to invasive adenocarcinoma, and augmented intratumoral proliferation. Analysis of chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data sets for MTGR1 and MTG16 targets indicated that MTGR1 can regulate Wnt and Notch signaling. In support of this, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis revealed that both Wnt and Notch signaling pathways were hyperactive in Mtgr1 tumors. Furthermore, in human colorectal cancer (CRC) samples MTGR1 was downregulated at both the transcript and protein level. Overall our data indicates that MTGR1 has a context-dependent effect on intestinal tumorigenesis.
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3 Members
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13 MeSH Terms
Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase as a Therapeutic Target in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Iams WT, Lovly CM
(2015) Cancer J 21: 378-82
MeSH Terms: Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase, Antineoplastic Agents, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung, Clinical Trials as Topic, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Humans, Lung Neoplasms, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Mutation, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Recombination, Genetic, Translocation, Genetic, Treatment Outcome
Show Abstract · Added January 26, 2016
The therapeutic targeting of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been a burgeoning area of research since 2007 when ALK fusions were initially identified in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The field has rapidly progressed through development of the first-generation ALK inhibitor, crizotinib, to an understanding of mechanisms of acquired resistance to crizotinib and is currently witnessing an explosion in the development of next-generation ALK inhibitors such as ceritinib, alectinib, PF-06463922, AP26113, X-396, and TSR-011. As with most targeted therapies, acquired resistance appears to be an inevitable outcome. Current preclinical and clinical studies are focused on the development of rational therapeutic strategies, including novel ALK inhibitors, as well as rational combination therapies to maximize disease control by delaying or overcoming acquired therapeutic resistance. This review summarizes the existing clinical data and ongoing research pertaining to the clinical application of ALK inhibitors in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
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15 MeSH Terms
Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) to Characterize Agonist-Induced Arrestin Recruitment to Modified and Unmodified G Protein-Coupled Receptors.
Donthamsetti P, Quejada JR, Javitch JA, Gurevich VV, Lambert NA
(2015) Curr Protoc Pharmacol 70: 2.14.1-2.14.14
MeSH Terms: Arrestin, Cell Membrane, GTP-Binding Proteins, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Ligands, Luminescent Measurements, Polyethyleneimine, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Translocation, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added February 15, 2016
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent ∼25% of current drug targets. Ligand binding to these receptors activates G proteins and arrestins, which are involved in differential signaling pathways. Because functionally selective or biased ligands activate one of these two pathways, they may be superior medications for certain diseases states. The identification of such ligands requires robust drug screening assays for both G protein and arrestin activity. This unit describes protocols for two bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based assays used to monitor arrestin recruitment to GPCRs. One assay requires modification of GPCRs by fusion to a BRET donor or acceptor moiety, whereas the other can detect arrestin recruitment to unmodified GPCRs.
Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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10 MeSH Terms
Regulation of AKT signaling by Id1 controls t(8;21) leukemia initiation and progression.
Wang L, Man N, Sun XJ, Tan Y, García-Cao M, Cao MG, Liu F, Hatlen M, Xu H, Huang G, Mattlin M, Mehta A, Rampersaud E, Benezra R, Nimer SD
(2015) Blood 126: 640-50
MeSH Terms: Animals, Apoptosis, Carcinogenesis, Cell Line, Tumor, Disease Progression, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Humans, Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1, Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins, Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Mice, Transgenic, Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Signal Transduction, Translocation, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added January 27, 2016
Transcriptional regulators are recurrently altered through translocations, deletions, or aberrant expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although critically important in leukemogenesis, the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms they trigger remain largely unknown. Here, we identified that Id1 (inhibitor of DNA binding 1) plays a pivotal role in acute myeloid leukemogenesis. Using genetically modified mice, we found that loss of Id1 inhibited t(8;21) leukemia initiation and progression in vivo by abrogating protein kinase B (AKT)1 activation, and that Id1 interacted with AKT1 through its C terminus. An Id1 inhibitor impaired the in vitro growth of AML cells and, when combined with an AKT inhibitor, triggered even greater apoptosis and growth inhibition, whereas normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells were largely spared. We then performed in vivo experiments and found that the Id1 inhibitor significantly prolonged the survival of t(8;21)(+) leukemic mice, whereas overexpression of activated AKT1 promoted leukemogenesis. Thus, our results establish Id1/Akt1 signaling as a potential therapeutic target in t(8;21) leukemia.
© 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.
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19 MeSH Terms
PDGFRB-rearranged T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma occurring with myeloid neoplasms: the missing link supporting a stem cell origin.
Ondrejka SL, Jegalian AG, Kim AS, Chabot-Richards DS, Giltnane J, Czuchlewski DR, Shetty S, Sekeres MA, Yenamandra A, Head D, Jagasia M, Hsi ED
(2014) Haematologica 99: e148-51
MeSH Terms: Adult, Bone Marrow, Gene Expression, Humans, Karyotype, Leukemia, Myeloid, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplastic Stem Cells, Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma, Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta, Translocation, Genetic
Added January 20, 2015
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12 MeSH Terms
Topoisomerase II and leukemia.
Pendleton M, Lindsey RH, Felix CA, Grimwade D, Osheroff N
(2014) Ann N Y Acad Sci 1310: 98-110
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Catechin, Cell Transformation, Neoplastic, Chromosome Breakage, Curcumin, DNA Topoisomerases, Type II, Genistein, Humans, Infant, Leukemia, Neoplasms, Second Primary, Translocation, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added March 13, 2014
Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that modulate DNA under- and overwinding, knotting, and tangling. Beyond their critical physiological functions, these enzymes are the targets for some of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs (topoisomerase II poisons) in clinical use. Topoisomerase II poisons kill cells by increasing levels of covalent enzyme-cleaved DNA complexes that are normal reaction intermediates. Drugs such as etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone are frontline therapies for a variety of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, their use also is associated with the development of specific leukemias. Regimens that include etoposide or doxorubicin are linked to the occurrence of acute myeloid leukemias that feature rearrangements at chromosomal band 11q23. Similar rearrangements are seen in infant leukemias and are associated with gestational diets that are high in naturally occurring topoisomerase II-active compounds. Finally, regimens that include mitoxantrone and epirubicin are linked to acute promyelocytic leukemias that feature t(15;17) rearrangements. The first part of this article will focus on type II topoisomerases and describe the mechanism of enzyme and drug action. The second part will discuss how topoisomerase II poisons trigger chromosomal breaks that lead to leukemia and potential approaches for dissociating the actions of drugs from their leukemogenic potential.
© 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
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13 MeSH Terms
CUX1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 7 frequently inactivated in acute myeloid leukemia.
McNerney ME, Brown CD, Wang X, Bartom ET, Karmakar S, Bandlamudi C, Yu S, Ko J, Sandall BP, Stricker T, Anastasi J, Grossman RL, Cunningham JM, Le Beau MM, White KP
(2013) Blood 121: 975-83
MeSH Terms: Acute Disease, Animals, Blotting, Western, Cell Line, Tumor, Chromosome Deletion, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7, Drosophila melanogaster, Gene Expression Profiling, Haploinsufficiency, HeLa Cells, Homeodomain Proteins, Humans, Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit, K562 Cells, Leukemia, Myeloid, Mice, Mice, Inbred NOD, Mice, Knockout, Mice, SCID, Nuclear Proteins, RNA Interference, Repressor Proteins, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transcription Factors, Translocation, Genetic, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, U937 Cells, Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Show Abstract · Added March 28, 2014
Loss of chromosome 7 and del(7q) [-7/del(7q)] are recurring cytogenetic abnormalities in hematologic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, and associated with an adverse prognosis. Despite intensive effort by many laboratories, the putative myeloid tumor suppressor(s) on chromosome 7 has not yet been identified.We performed transcriptome sequencing and SNP array analysis on de novo and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, half with -7/del(7q). We identified a 2.17-Mb commonly deleted segment on chromosome band 7q22.1 containing CUX1, a gene encoding a homeodomain-containing transcription factor. In 1 case, CUX1 was disrupted by a translocation, resulting in a loss-of-function RNA fusion transcript. CUX1 was the most significantly differentially expressed gene within the commonly deleted segment and was expressed at haploinsufficient levels in -7/del(7q) leukemias. Haploinsufficiency of the highly conserved ortholog, cut, led to hemocyte overgrowth and tumor formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Similarly, haploinsufficiency of CUX1 gave human hematopoietic cells a significant engraftment advantage on transplantation into immunodeficient mice. Within the RNA-sequencing data, we identified a CUX1-associated cell cycle transcriptional gene signature, suggesting that CUX1 exerts tumor suppressor activity by regulating proliferative genes. These data identify CUX1 as a conserved, haploinsufficient tumor suppressor frequently deleted in myeloid neoplasms.
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28 MeSH Terms
Subgroup-specific structural variation across 1,000 medulloblastoma genomes.
Northcott PA, Shih DJ, Peacock J, Garzia L, Morrissy AS, Zichner T, Stütz AM, Korshunov A, Reimand J, Schumacher SE, Beroukhim R, Ellison DW, Marshall CR, Lionel AC, Mack S, Dubuc A, Yao Y, Ramaswamy V, Luu B, Rolider A, Cavalli FM, Wang X, Remke M, Wu X, Chiu RY, Chu A, Chuah E, Corbett RD, Hoad GR, Jackman SD, Li Y, Lo A, Mungall KL, Nip KM, Qian JQ, Raymond AG, Thiessen NT, Varhol RJ, Birol I, Moore RA, Mungall AJ, Holt R, Kawauchi D, Roussel MF, Kool M, Jones DT, Witt H, Fernandez-L A, Kenney AM, Wechsler-Reya RJ, Dirks P, Aviv T, Grajkowska WA, Perek-Polnik M, Haberler CC, Delattre O, Reynaud SS, Doz FF, Pernet-Fattet SS, Cho BK, Kim SK, Wang KC, Scheurlen W, Eberhart CG, Fèvre-Montange M, Jouvet A, Pollack IF, Fan X, Muraszko KM, Gillespie GY, Di Rocco C, Massimi L, Michiels EM, Kloosterhof NK, French PJ, Kros JM, Olson JM, Ellenbogen RG, Zitterbart K, Kren L, Thompson RC, Cooper MK, Lach B, McLendon RE, Bigner DD, Fontebasso A, Albrecht S, Jabado N, Lindsey JC, Bailey S, Gupta N, Weiss WA, Bognár L, Klekner A, Van Meter TE, Kumabe T, Tominaga T, Elbabaa SK, Leonard JR, Rubin JB, Liau LM, Van Meir EG, Fouladi M, Nakamura H, Cinalli G, Garami M, Hauser P, Saad AG, Iolascon A, Jung S, Carlotti CG, Vibhakar R, Ra YS, Robinson S, Zollo M, Faria CC, Chan JA, Levy ML, Sorensen PH, Meyerson M, Pomeroy SL, Cho YJ, Bader GD, Tabori U, Hawkins CE, Bouffet E, Scherer SW, Rutka JT, Malkin D, Clifford SC, Jones SJ, Korbel JO, Pfister SM, Marra MA, Taylor MD
(2012) Nature 488: 49-56
MeSH Terms: Carrier Proteins, Cerebellar Neoplasms, Child, DNA Copy Number Variations, Gene Duplication, Genes, myc, Genome, Human, Genomic Structural Variation, Genomics, Hedgehog Proteins, Humans, Medulloblastoma, NF-kappa B, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Oncogene Proteins, Fusion, Proteins, RNA, Long Noncoding, Signal Transduction, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Translocation, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added March 21, 2014
Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour, is currently treated with nonspecific cytotoxic therapies including surgery, whole-brain radiation, and aggressive chemotherapy. As medulloblastoma exhibits marked intertumoural heterogeneity, with at least four distinct molecular variants, previous attempts to identify targets for therapy have been underpowered because of small samples sizes. Here we report somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs) in 1,087 unique medulloblastomas. SCNAs are common in medulloblastoma, and are predominantly subgroup-enriched. The most common region of focal copy number gain is a tandem duplication of SNCAIP, a gene associated with Parkinson's disease, which is exquisitely restricted to Group 4α. Recurrent translocations of PVT1, including PVT1-MYC and PVT1-NDRG1, that arise through chromothripsis are restricted to Group 3. Numerous targetable SCNAs, including recurrent events targeting TGF-β signalling in Group 3, and NF-κB signalling in Group 4, suggest future avenues for rational, targeted therapy.
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20 MeSH Terms
Systematic screen for tyrosine kinase rearrangements identifies a novel C6orf204-PDGFRB fusion in a patient with recurrent T-ALL and an associated myeloproliferative neoplasm.
Chmielecki J, Peifer M, Viale A, Hutchinson K, Giltnane J, Socci ND, Hollis CJ, Dean RS, Yenamandra A, Jagasia M, Kim AS, Davé UP, Thomas RK, Pao W
(2012) Genes Chromosomes Cancer 51: 54-65
MeSH Terms: Adult, Algorithms, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Cell Line, Tumor, Computational Biology, Cytoskeletal Proteins, Gene Order, HEK293 Cells, Humans, K562 Cells, Karyotyping, Male, Molecular Sequence Data, Myeloproliferative Disorders, Oncogene Proteins, Fusion, Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma, Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Sequence Alignment, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Translocation, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added September 3, 2013
Gene fusions involving the catalytic domain of tyrosine kinases (TKs) are found in a variety of hematological and solid tumor malignancies. Clinically, TK fusions have emerged as prime targets for therapy with small molecule kinase inhibitors. Unfortunately, identification of TK fusions has been hampered by experimental limitations. Here, we developed version 2.0 of a genomically based systematic kinase fusion screen and used it to detect a novel imatinib-sensitive C6orf204-PDGFRB fusion in a patient with precursor T lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-ALL) and an associated myeloproliferative neoplasm with eosinophilia. These data validate the ability of this targeted capture-sequencing approach to detect TK fusion events in small amounts of DNA extracted directly from patient samples.
Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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21 MeSH Terms