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Coronary vessel development depends on a subpopulation of epicardial cells that undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT) and invade the subepicardial space and myocardium. These cells form the smooth muscle of the vessels and fibroblasts, but the mechanisms that regulate these processes are poorly understood. Mice lacking the Type III Transforming Growth Factor β Receptor (TGFβR3) die by E14.5 due to failed coronary vessel development accompanied by reduced epicardial cell invasion. BMP2 signals via TGFβR3 emphasizing the importance of determining the relative contributions of the canonical BMP signaling pathway and TGFβR3-dependent signaling to BMP2 responsiveness. Here we examined the role of TGFβR3 in BMP2 signaling in epicardial cells. Whereas TGFβ induced loss of epithelial character and smooth muscle differentiation, BMP2 induced an ALK3-dependent loss of epithelial character and modestly inhibited TGFβ-stimulated differentiation. Tgfbr3(-/-) cells respond to BMP2 indicating that TGFβR3 is not required. However, Tgfbr3(-/-) cells show decreased invasion in response to BMP2 and overexpression of TGFβR3 in Tgfbr3(-/-) cells rescued invasion. Invasion was dependent on ALK5, ALK2, ALK3, and Smad4. Expression of TGFβR3 lacking the 3 C-terminal amino acids required to interact with the scaffolding protein GIPC (GAIP-interacting protein, C terminus) did not rescue. Knockdown of GIPC in Tgfbr3(+/+) or Tgfbr3(-/-) cells rescued with TGFβR3 decreased BMP2-stimulated invasion confirming a requirement for TGFβR3/GIPC interaction. Our results reveal the relative roles of TGFβR3-dependent and TGFβR3-independent signaling in the actions of BMP2 on epicardial cell behavior and demonstrate the critical role of TGFβR3 in mediating BMP2-stimulated invasion.
Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
During fetal and neonatal development and experimental obstruction, the bladder wall undergoes changes in both the amount and composition of the urothelium, extracellular matrix, and smooth muscle. We hypothesize that cell-cell signaling among the different layers of the bladder wall mediates these changes. Growth factors likely to be involved in this process are keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha, -beta 2, and -beta 3. Whole rodent bladders were analyzed by RNase protection assays for KGF, KGF receptor, TGF alpha, epidermal growth factor receptor, and TGF beta 2 and -beta 3 transcripts at Fetal Day 14 (before smooth muscle differentiation) and Fetal Day 18 (after smooth muscle differentiation), at birth, and 60 days postnatal. Growth factor transcripts were also analyzed in partially obstructed rodent bladders and in sham-operated animals. TGF beta 2 and -beta 3 mRNA expression decreased as a function of gestational age, whereas TGF alpha mRNA increased. KGF mRNA was low before smooth muscle differentiation at 14 days' gestation, then increased. The mRNA of receptors for KGF and EGF remained essentially unchanged throughout bladder development. In bladders subjected to partial urethral outlet obstruction, there was a 2-fold increase in mRNA for TGF beta 2, a 5-fold increase in TGF beta 3, and a 10-fold increase TGF alpha mRNA. In contrast, there was no change in transcripts for either KGF or receptors for KGF and epidermal growth factor. Immunohistochemical localization of the protein for these growth factors showed selective localization to the epithelium and/or smooth muscle for TGF beta 2 and -beta 3, whereas TGF alpha and the epidermal growth factor receptor localized throughout the bladder wall. In conclusion, growth factor mRNA expression is modulated in bladder development and obstruction, which implies a possible mechanistic role of growth factors for the observed changes in the bladder wall and extracellular matrix.
Serum-free growth of the human malignant melanoma cell line Hs0294 is associated with production of transforming growth factor-alpha and an autostimulatory melanoma mitogen (melanoma growth-stimulatory activity, MGSA). The transforming activity is characterized by stimulation of anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney fibroblasts and competition with 125I-epidermal growth factor for binding to normal rat kidney cells. The second activity, MGSA, stimulates the anchorage-dependent growth of human melanoma cells in serum-free culture medium. When acetic acid extracts of Hs0294 conditioned medium are subjected to Bio-Gel P-30 chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, the majority of the transforming growth factor-alpha elutes at 30 +/- 4% acetonitrile, while the major peak of MGSA elutes at 35 +/- 3% acetonitrile. These data indicate that the anchorage-dependent serum-free growth of the Hs0294 human melanoma cell line is apparently dependent upon the autostimulatory melanoma mitogen, MGSA, which is separable from the 125I-epidermal growth factor competing activity produced by these cells.
Transforming growth factors (TGFs) are peptides that affect the growth and phenotype of cultured cells and bring about in nonmalignant fibroblastic cells phenotypic properties that resemble those of malignant cells. Two types of TGFs have been well characterized. One of these, TGF alpha, is related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and binds to the EGF receptor, whereas the other, TGF beta, is not structurally or functionally related to TGF alpha or EGF and mediates its effects via distinct receptors. TGF beta is produced by a variety of normal and malignant cells. Depending upon the assay system employed, TGF beta has both growth-inhibitory and growth-stimulating properties. Many of the mitogenic effects of TGF beta are probably an indirect result of the activation of certain growth factor genes in the target cell. The ubiquitous nature of the TGF beta receptor and the production of TGF beta in a latent form by most cultured cells suggests that the differing cellular responses to TGF beta are regulated either by events involved in the activation of the factor or by postreceptor mechanisms. The combined effects of TGF beta with other growth factors or inhibitors evidently play a central role in the control of normal and malignant cellular growth as well as in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Since transforming growth factor as a concept has partially proven misleading and insufficient, there is a need to find a new nomenclature for these regulators of cellular growth and differentiation.
Suramin, a polyanionic compound, has previously been shown to dissociate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from its receptor. In the present study suramin was found to inhibit the growth of sparse cultures of AKR-2B cells in fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented medium in a dose-dependent, reversible fashion. Suramin also inhibited the ability of FBS, transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), heparin-binding growth factor type-2 (HBGF-2), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) to stimulate DNA synthesis in density-arrested cultures of AKR-2B cells. The inhibition of growth factor-stimulated mitogenicity was directly correlated to the dose of suramin required to inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled TGF beta, HBGF-2, and EGF to their cell surface receptors. Suramin affected TGF beta and HBGF-2-related events at a 10-15-fold lower dose than that required for EGF-related events. It was also noted that suramin inhibited TGF beta-stimulated soft agar colony formation of AKR-2B (clone 84A) cells as well as the spontaneous colony formation of AKR-MCA cells, a chemically transformed derivative of AKR-2B cells. This demonstrates that suramin's spectrum of action for growth factors and their receptors should be extended to include TGF beta, HBGF-2, and EGF as well as PDGF. The data further suggest that the spontaneous growth of AKR-MCA cells in soft agar is dependent on growth factor binding to cell surface receptors.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), a recently discovered polypeptide, modulates growth of normal and neoplastic cells. Since little is known concerning in vivo disposition of TGF beta, we performed studies to examine the hepatic processing of biologically active 125I-TGF beta in the rat. After intravenous injection, 125I-TGF beta disappeared from the plasma with an initial t1/2 of 2.2 min; partial hepatectomy delayed the plasma disappearance of 125I-TGF beta by 80%. 60 min after intrafemoral injection, 63% of the recovered label was present in liver and/or bile; by 90 min, most of the label removed by the liver (83%) had been slowly excreted into bile. Nearly all the label in bile (96%) was soluble in trichloracetic acid and not immunoprecipitable by specific antiserum. Colchicine and vinblastine inhibited cumulative biliary excretion of label by 28 and 37%, respectively; chloroquine and leupeptin each increased the amount of label in bile that was precipitable by trichloracetic acid and that coeluted with authentic 125I-TGF beta on molecular sieve chromatography. There was efficient first-pass hepatic extraction of 125I-TGF beta (36%) in the isolated perfused rat liver, which was inhibited by unlabeled TGF beta (but not by epidermal growth factor, EGF) and by lectins in a dose-dependent manner; prolonged fasting also decreased clearance (26%). After fractionation of liver by differential or isopycnic centrifugation, radiolabel codistributed with marker enzymes for lysosomes. The results indicate rapid, extensive, inhibitable, and organ-selective extraction of TGF beta by the liver. After extraction, TGF beta undergoes efficient transhepatic transport, extensive intracellular metabolism, and slow but complete biliary excretion of its metabolites. Liver fractionation studies and pharmacologic manipulations suggest that these processes are associated with organelles that include microtubules and lysosomes. The data suggest that the liver is a major target tissue or site of metabolism for biologically active TGF beta.
The Hs0294 human malignant melanoma cell line produces a monolayer mitogen that stimulates the serum free growth of low-density cultures of Hs0294 cells. This report describes the purification of that mitogen, termed MGSA for melanoma growth stimulatory activity, from serum-free conditioned medium from the Hs0294 cultures. MGSA has been purified from acetic acid extracts of lyophilized conditioned medium by gel filtration, reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and preparative electrophoresis, resulting in a greater than 400,000-fold purification. MGSA bioactivity resides in acid- and heat-stable polypeptides of high and low molecular weight (24-28 kd and less than 14-16 kd). However, the majority of the activity is reproducibly associated with the approximately 16-kd moiety eluting from RP-HPLC at approximately 35% acetonitrile. Reduction with dithiothreitol or B-mercaptoethanol results in a loss of biological activity but does not convert the 24-28-kd moieties to the less than 14-16-kd forms of MGSA. 125I-MGSA that has been purified by preparative electrophoresis (16 kd) specifically binds to Hs0294 melanoma cells and retains 100% of the growth-stimulatory activity. The 16-kd MGSA stimulates the proliferation of Hs0294 cells at concentrations of 0.3-30 pM. The electrophoretic mobility of MGSA is also unaltered by the preparative electrophoresis procedure, further demonstrating that this procedure does not alter the biochemical integrity of the growth factor. Purified MGSA does not enable anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells and is therefore different from the previously described transforming growth factors. The amino acid composition of MGSA differs from that of other previously described growth factors. These data demonstrate that MGSA represents a separate class of growth factors with biological and biochemical properties different from other growth factors.
Two types of transforming growth factors (TGF) have been purified and well characterized, TGF alpha and TGF beta. TGF alpha is a 5.6 kD single chain molecule that shows sequence homology to epidermal growth factor (EGF), binds to the EGF receptor, and has biological effects very similar to those of EGF. TGF beta is different from TGF alpha in its molecular structure and biological activity, and has its own specific cell surface receptor. TGF beta is a 25 kD homodimer of 12.5 kD subunits that shows no sequence homology to TGF alpha. TGF beta is a highly ubiquitous molecule produced by a variety of cell types in an inactive form. Most cells have receptors for TGF beta, suggesting that a major regulatory step in TGF beta action is through activation of the inactive form. Growth stimulatory effects with TGF beta have been observed so far only in fibroblastic cells. In at least one circumstance, there is evidence that the stimulatory effects of TGF beta in fibroblastic cells is indirect through induction of c-sis and autocrine stimulation by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-like material. TGF beta inhibits in vitro proliferation of most cell types tested, including normal epithelial cells. Thus TGF beta is primarily a growth inhibitor and not a classical growth factor. Increased autocrine stimulation by endogenous TGF beta in fibroblastic cells or decreased inhibitory effects in epithelial cells (or other cells normally inhibited by TGF beta) could lead to an increased proliferative potential and thereby contribute to the neoplastic phenotype.