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Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient critical for the pathogenesis of , a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality. Paradoxically, excess Mn is toxic; therefore, maintenance of intracellular Mn homeostasis is required for survival. Here we describe a Mn exporter in , MntE, which is a member of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) protein family and conserved among Gram-positive pathogens. Upregulation of transcription in response to excess Mn is dependent on the presence of MntR, a transcriptional repressor of the Mn uptake system. Inactivation of or leads to reduced growth in media supplemented with Mn, demonstrating MntE is required for detoxification of excess Mn. Inactivation of results in elevated levels of intracellular Mn, but reduced intracellular iron (Fe) levels, supporting the hypothesis that MntE functions as a Mn efflux pump and Mn efflux influences Fe homeostasis. Strains inactivated for are more sensitive to the oxidants NaOCl and paraquat, indicating Mn homeostasis is critical for resisting oxidative stress. Furthermore, and are required for full virulence of during infection, suggesting experiences Mn toxicity Combined, these data support a model in which MntR controls Mn homeostasis by balancing transcriptional repression of and induction of , both of which are critical for pathogenesis. Thus, Mn efflux contributes to bacterial survival and virulence during infection, establishing MntE as a potential antimicrobial target and expanding our understanding of Mn homeostasis. Manganese (Mn) is generally viewed as a critical nutrient that is beneficial to pathogenic bacteria due to its function as an enzymatic cofactor and its capability of acting as an antioxidant; yet paradoxically, high concentrations of this transition metal can be toxic. In this work, we demonstrate utilizes the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family protein MntE to alleviate Mn toxicity through efflux of excess Mn. Inactivation of leads to a significant reduction in resistance to oxidative stress and mediated mortality within a mouse model of systemic infection. These results highlight the importance of MntE-mediated Mn detoxification in intracellular Mn homeostasis, resistance to oxidative stress, and virulence. Therefore, this establishes MntE as a potential target for development of anti- therapeutics.
Copyright © 2019 Grunenwald et al.
Histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) regulate chromatin dynamics, DNA accessibility, and transcription to expand the genetic code. Many of these PTMs are produced through cellular metabolism to offer both feedback and feedforward regulation. Herein we describe the existence of Lys and Arg modifications on histones by a glycolytic by-product, methylglyoxal (MGO). Our data demonstrate that adduction of histones by MGO is an abundant modification, present at the same order of magnitude as Arg methylation. These modifications were detected on all four core histones at critical residues involved in both nucleosome stability and reader domain binding. In addition, MGO treatment of cells lacking the major detoxifying enzyme, glyoxalase 1, results in marked disruption of H2B acetylation and ubiquitylation without affecting H2A, H3, and H4 modifications. Using RNA sequencing, we show that MGO is capable of altering gene transcription, most notably in cells lacking GLO1. Finally, we show that the deglycase DJ-1 protects histones from adduction by MGO. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the existence of a previously undetected histone modification derived from glycolysis, which may have far-reaching implications for the control of gene expression and protein transcription linked to metabolism.
Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis and restricts M1 macrophage activation in gastrointestinal (GI) infections. However, the role of macrophage ODC in colonic epithelial-driven inflammation is unknown. Here, we investigate cell-specific effects of ODC in colitis and colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). Human colonic macrophages expressed increased ODC levels in active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, colitis-associated dysplasia, and CAC. Mice lacking in myeloid cells ( mice) that were treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) exhibited improved survival, body weight, and colon length and reduced histologic injury versus control mice. In contrast, GI epithelial-specific knockout had no effect on clinical parameters. Despite reduced histologic damage, colitis tissues of mice had increased levels of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and enhanced expression of M1, but not M2 markers. In the azoxymethane-DSS model of CAC, mice had reduced tumor number, burden, and high-grade dysplasia. Tumors from mice had increased M1, but not M2 macrophages. Increased levels of histone 3, lysine 9 acetylation, a marker of open chromatin, were manifest in tumor macrophages of mice, consistent with our findings that macrophage ODC affects histone modifications that upregulate M1 gene transcription during GI infections. These findings support the concept that macrophage ODC augments epithelial injury-associated colitis and CAC by impairing the M1 responses that stimulate epithelial repair, antimicrobial defense, and antitumoral immunity. They also suggest that macrophage ODC is an important target for colon cancer chemoprevention. Ornithine decarboxylase contributes to the pathogenesis of colitis and associated carcinogenesis by impairing M1 macrophage responses needed for antitumoral immunity; targeting ODC in macrophages may represent a new strategy for chemoprevention. .
©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterised by selective destruction of pancreatic beta cells by the immune system. The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) regulates innate and adaptive immune responses. Using gene targeting and in vitro analysis of pancreatic islets and immune cells, NF-κB activation has been implicated in type 1 diabetes development. Here we use a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model that expresses a luciferase reporter of transcriptionally active NF-κB to determine its activation in vivo during development of diabetes. Increased luciferase activity was readily detected upon treatment with Toll-like receptor ligands in vitro and in vivo, indicating activation of NF-κB. However, activated NF-κB was detectable at low levels above background in unmanipulated NOD mice, but did not vary with age, despite the progression of inflammatory infiltration in islets over time. NF-κB was highly activated in an accelerated model of type 1 diabetes that requires CD4 T cells and inflammatory macrophages. These data shed light on the nature of the inflammatory response in the development of type 1 diabetes.
infection and high dietary salt intake are risk factors for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. One possible mechanism by which a high-salt diet could influence gastric cancer risk is by modulating gene expression. In this study, we utilized transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) methodology to compare the transcriptional profiles of grown in media containing different concentrations of sodium chloride. We identified 118 differentially expressed genes (65 upregulated and 53 downregulated in response to high-salt conditions), including multiple members of 14 operons. Twenty-nine of the differentially expressed genes encode proteins previously shown to undergo salt-responsive changes in abundance, based on proteomic analyses. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses validated differential expression of multiple genes encoding outer membrane proteins, including adhesins (SabA and HopQ) and proteins involved in iron acquisition (FecA2 and FecA3). Transcript levels of , , and are increased under high-salt conditions, whereas transcript levels of and are decreased under high-salt conditions. Transcription of , , , and is derepressed in an mutant strain, but salt-responsive transcription of these genes is not mediated by the ArsRS two-component system, and the CrdRS and FlgRS two-component systems do not have any detectable effects on transcription of these genes. In summary, these data provide a comprehensive view of transcriptional alterations that occur in response to high-salt environmental conditions.
Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
amplification occurs in approximately 15% of estrogen receptor-positive (ER) human breast cancers. We investigated mechanisms by which amplification confers antiestrogen resistance to ER breast cancer. ER tumors from patients treated with letrozole before surgery were subjected to Ki67 IHC, FGFR1 FISH, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). ER/-amplified breast cancer cells, and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) were treated with FGFR1 siRNA or the FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor lucitanib. Endpoints were cell/xenograft growth, FGFR1/ERα association by coimmunoprecipitation and proximity ligation, ER genomic activity by ChIP sequencing, and gene expression by RT-PCR. ER/-amplified tumors in patients treated with letrozole maintained cell proliferation (Ki67). Estrogen deprivation increased total and nuclear FGFR1 and FGF ligands expression in ER/amplified primary tumors and breast cancer cells. In estrogen-free conditions, FGFR1 associated with ERα in tumor cell nuclei and regulated the transcription of ER-dependent genes. This association was inhibited by a kinase-dead FGFR1 mutant and by treatment with lucitanib. ChIP-seq analysis of estrogen-deprived ER/-amplified cells showed binding of FGFR1 and ERα to DNA. Treatment with fulvestrant and/or lucitanib reduced FGFR1 and ERα binding to DNA. RNA-seq data from -amplified patients' tumors treated with letrozole showed enrichment of estrogen response and E2F target genes. Finally, growth of ER/amplified cells and PDXs was more potently inhibited by fulvestrant and lucitanib combined than each drug alone.s These data suggest the ERα pathway remains active in estrogen-deprived ER/-amplified breast cancers. Therefore, these tumors are endocrine resistant and should be candidates for treatment with combinations of ER and FGFR antagonists. .
©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common renal malignancy in children and the fourth most common pediatric solid malignancy in the US. Although the mechanisms underlying the WT biology are complex, these tumors most often demonstrate activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. We and others have shown that constitutive activation of β-catenin restricted to the renal epithelium is sufficient to induce primitive renal epithelial tumors, which resemble human WT. Here we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of β-catenin gene transcription with pyrvinium inhibits tumor growth and metastatic progression in a murine model of WT. Cellular invasion is significantly inhibited in both murine WT-like and human WT cells and is accompanied by downregulation of the oncogenes Myc and Birc5 (survivin). Our studies provide proof of the concept that the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway may be a novel therapeutic target in the management of WT.
Phospholipid signaling has clear connections to a wide array of cellular processes, particularly in gene expression and in controlling the chromatin biology of cells. However, most of the work elucidating how phospholipid signaling pathways contribute to cellular physiology have studied cytoplasmic membranes, while relatively little attention has been paid to the role of phospholipid signaling in the nucleus. Recent work from several labs has shown that nuclear phospholipid signaling can have important roles that are specific to this cellular compartment. This review focuses on the nuclear phospholipid functions and the activities of phospholipid signaling enzymes that regulate metazoan chromatin and gene expression. In particular, we highlight the roles that nuclear phosphoinositides play in several nuclear-driven physiological processes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and gene expression. Taken together, the recent discovery of several specifically nuclear phospholipid functions could have dramatic impact on our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that enable tight control of cellular physiology.
© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Artificial transcription factors (ATFs) are precision-tailored molecules designed to bind DNA and regulate transcription in a preprogrammed manner. Libraries of ATFs enable the high-throughput screening of gene networks that trigger cell fate decisions or phenotypic changes. We developed a genome-scale library of ATFs that display an engineered interaction domain (ID) to enable cooperative assembly and synergistic gene expression at targeted sites. We used this ATF library to screen for key regulators of the pluripotency network and discovered three combinations of ATFs capable of inducing pluripotency without exogenous expression of Oct4 (POU domain, class 5, TF 1). Cognate site identification, global transcriptional profiling, and identification of ATF binding sites reveal that the ATFs do not directly target Oct4; instead, they target distinct nodes that converge to stimulate the endogenous pluripotency network. This forward genetic approach enables cell type conversions without a priori knowledge of potential key regulators and reveals unanticipated gene network dynamics that drive cell fate choices.
SET domain-containing proteins play a vital role in regulating gene expression during development through modifications in chromatin structure. Here we show that SET domain-containing 5 (Setd5) is divergently transcribed with Gt(ROSA26)Sor, is necessary for mammalian development, and interacts with the PAF1 co-transcriptional complex and other proteins. Setd5-deficient mouse embryos exhibit severe defects in neural tube formation, somitogenesis and cardiac development, have aberrant vasculogenesis in embryos, yolk sacs and placentas, and die between embryonic day 10.5 and 11.5. Setd5-deficient embryonic stem cells have impaired cellular proliferation, increased apoptosis, defective cell cycle progression, a diminished ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes and greatly perturbed gene expression. SETD5 co-immunoprecipitates with multiple components of the PAF1 and histone deacetylase-containing NCoR complexes and is not solely required for major histone lysine methylation marks. In the absence of Setd5, histone acetylation is increased at transcription start sites and near downstream regions. These findings suggest that SETD5 functions in a manner similar to yeast Set3p and Drosophila UpSET, and that it is essential for regulating histone acetylation during gene transcription.
© 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.