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The magnitude of the LPS-elicited cytokine response is commonly used to assess immune function in critically ill patients. A suppressed response, known as endotoxin tolerance, is associated with worse outcomes, yet endotoxin tolerance-inducing TLR4 ligands are known to protect animals from infection. Thus, it remains unknown whether the magnitude of the LPS-elicited cytokine response provides an accurate assessment of antimicrobial immunity. To address this, the ability of diverse TLR ligands to modify the LPS-elicited cytokine response and resistance to infection were assessed. Priming of mice with LPS, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), or poly(I:C) significantly reduced plasma LPS-elicited proinflammatory cytokines, reflecting endotoxin tolerance, whereas CpG-ODN-primed mice showed augmented cytokine production. In contrast, LPS, MPLA, and CpG-ODN, but not poly(I:C), improved the host response to a infection. Mice primed with protective TLR ligands, including CpG-ODN, showed reduced plasma cytokines during infection. The protection imparted by TLR ligands persisted for up to 15 d yet was independent of the adaptive immune system. In bone marrow-derived macrophages, protective TLR ligands induced a persistent metabolic phenotype characterized by elevated glycolysis and oxidative metabolism as well as augmented size, granularity, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst. Sustained augmentation of glycolysis in TLR-primed cells was dependent, in part, on hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α and was essential for increased phagocytosis. In conclusion, the magnitude of LPS-elicited cytokine production is not indicative of antimicrobial immunity after exposure to TLR ligands. Additionally, protective TLR ligands induce sustained augmentation of phagocyte metabolism and antimicrobial function.
Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Helicobacter pylori is the most common bacterial infection worldwide, and virtually all infected persons develop co-existing gastritis. H. pylori is able to send and receive signals from the gastric mucosa, which enables both host and microbe to engage in a dynamic equilibrium. In order to persist within the human host, H. pylori has adopted dichotomous strategies to both induce inflammation as a means of liberating nutrients while simultaneously tempering the immune response to augment its survival. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod proteins are innate immune receptors that are present in epithelial cells and represent the first line of defense against pathogens. To ensure persistence, H. pylori manipulates TLR-mediated defenses using strategies that include rendering its LPS and flagellin to be non-stimulatory to TLR4 and TLR5, respectively; translocating peptidoglycan into host cells to induce NOD1-mediated anti-inflammatory responses; and translocating DNA into host cells to induce TLR9 activation.
Repeated challenge of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters the response to subsequent LPS exposures via modulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Whether activation of other TLRs can modulate TLR4 responses, and vice versa, remains unclear. Specifically with regards to endothelial cells, a key component of innate immunity, the impact of TLR cross-modulation is unknown. We postulated that TLR2 priming (via Pam3Csk4) would inhibit TLR4-mediated responses while TLR3 priming (via Poly I:C) would enhance subsequent TLR4-inflammatory signaling. We studied human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and neonatal human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Cells were primed with a combination of Poly I:C (10 μg/ml), Pam3Csk4 (10 μg/ml), or LPS (100 ng/ml), then washed and allowed to rest. They were then rechallenged with either Poly I:C, Pam3Csk4 or LPS. Endothelial cells showed significant tolerance to repeated LPS challenge. Priming with Pam3Csk4 also reduced the response to secondary LPS challenge in both cell types, despite a reduced proinflammatory response to Pam3Csk4 in HMVECs compared to HUVECs. Poly I:C priming enhanced inflammatory and interferon producing signals upon Poly I:C or LPS rechallenge, respectively. Poly I:C priming induced interferon regulatory factor 7, leading to enhancement of interferon production. Finally, both Poly I:C and LPS priming induced significant changes in receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 activity. Pharmacological inhibition of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 or interferon regulatory factor 7 reduced the potentiated phenotype of TLR3 priming on TLR4 rechallenge. These results demonstrate that in human endothelial cells, prior activation of TLRs can have a significant impact on subsequent exposures and may contribute to the severity of the host response.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) implicated in many diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether PAFR signaling changes the macrophages responsiveness to agonists of TLR2 (Pam3Cys), TLR4 (LPS), and TLR3 agonist Poly(I:C). Exogenous PAF inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-12p40, IL-6, and TNF-α) and increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in macrophages challenged with Pam3Cys and LPS, but not with Poly (I:C). PAF did not affect mRNA expression of MyD88, suggesting that PAF acts downstream the adaptor. PAF inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and increased NF-κB p105 phosphorylation, which is processed in the proteasome to generate p50 subunit. The PAF potentiation of IL-10 production was dependent on proteasome processing but independent of NF-κB transactivation domain. Inhibition of p50 abolished the PAF-induced IL-10 production. These findings indicate that the impaired transcriptional activity of the p65 subunit and the enhanced p105 phosphorylation induced by PAF are responsible for down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up regulation of IL-10, respectively, in LPS-challenged macrophages. Together, our data unveil a heretofore unrecognized role for PAFR in modulating activation of NF-κB in macrophages.
The stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) results in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that are required for initiating a host immune response. Both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are activated rapidly in response to TLR activation and are required to coordinate effective host responses to pathogen invasion. In this study, we analyzed the role of the p38-dependent kinases MK2/3 in the activation of Akt and show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 and Ser473 requires p38α and MK2/3. In cells treated with p38 inhibitors or an MK2/3 inhibitor, phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and Thr308 is reduced and Akt activity is inhibited. Furthermore, BMDMs deficient in MK2/3 display greatly reduced phosphorylation of Ser473 and Thr308 following TLR stimulation. However, MK2/3 do not directly phosphorylate Akt in macrophages but act upstream of PDK1 and mTORC2 to regulate Akt phosphorylation. Akt is recruited to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) in the membrane, where it is activated by PDK1 and mTORC2. Analysis of lipid levels in MK2/3-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) revealed a role for MK2/3 in regulating Akt activity by affecting availability of PIP3 at the membrane. These data describe a novel role for p38α-MK2/3 in regulating TLR-induced Akt activation in macrophages.
Previous studies have shown that the innate immune stimulant LPS augments mechanical ventilation-induced pulmonary coagulation and inflammation. Whether these effects are mediated by alveolar epithelial cells is unclear. The alveolar epithelium is a key regulator of the innate immune reaction to pathogens and can modulate both intra-alveolar inflammation and coagulation through up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and tissue factor (TF), the principal initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway. We hypothesized that cyclic mechanical stretch (MS) potentiates LPS-mediated alveolar epithelial cell (MLE-12) expression of the chemokine keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC) and TF. Contrary to our hypothesis, MS significantly decreased LPS-induced KC and TF mRNA and protein expression. Investigation into potential mechanisms showed that stretch significantly reduced LPS-induced surface expression of TLR4 that was not a result of increased degradation. Decreased cell surface TLR4 expression was concomitant with reduced LPS-mediated NF-κB activation. Immunofluorescence staining showed that cyclic MS markedly altered LPS-induced organization of actin filaments. In contrast to expression, MS significantly increased LPS-induced cell surface TF activity independent of calcium signaling. These findings suggest that cyclic MS of lung epithelial cells down-regulates LPS-mediated inflammatory and procoagulant expression by modulating actin organization and reducing cell surface TLR4 expression and signaling. However, because LPS-induced surface TF activity was enhanced by stretch, these data demonstrate differential pathways regulating TF expression and activity. Ultimately, loss of LPS responsiveness in the epithelium induced by MS could result in increased susceptibility of the lung to bacterial infections in the setting of mechanical ventilation.
The study by Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes and colleagues in the previous issue of Critical Care shows several alterations in blood natural killer (NK) characteristics during human sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome, including changes in NK cell numbers, Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression, and responsiveness to TLR agonists. This paper advances our knowledge of NK cell biology during sepsis and provides the background for future investigations.
Effective major histocompatibility complex-II (MHC-II) antigen presentation from phagocytosed particles requires phagosome-intrinsic Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, but the molecular mechanisms underlying TLR delivery to phagosomes and how signaling regulates antigen presentation are incompletely understood. We show a requirement in dendritic cells (DCs) for adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) in efficient TLR recruitment to phagosomes and MHC-II presentation of antigens internalized by phagocytosis but not receptor-mediated endocytosis. DCs from AP-3-deficient pearl mice elicited impaired CD4(+) T cell activation and Th1 effector cell function to particulate antigen in vitro and to recombinant Listeria monocytogenes infection in vivo. Whereas phagolysosome maturation and peptide:MHC-II complex assembly proceeded normally in pearl DCs, peptide:MHC-II export to the cell surface was impeded. This correlated with reduced TLR4 recruitment and proinflammatory signaling from phagosomes by particulate TLR ligands. We propose that AP-3-dependent TLR delivery from endosomes to phagosomes and subsequent signaling mobilize peptide:MHC-II export from intracellular stores.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A major therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease (PD) is providing increased glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to dopaminergic neurons. We tested the hypothesis that innate immune activation increases astrocyte GDNF production and that this is regulated by specific eicosanoid receptors. Innate immune-activated primary murine astrocytes were assayed for GDNF expression and secretion. Controls were agent vehicle exposure and wild-type mice. Rank order for up to 10-fold selectively increased GDNF expression was activators of TLR3 > TLR2 or TLR4 > TLR9. TLR3 activator-stimulated GDNF expression was selectively JNK-dependent, followed cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, was coincident with membranous PGE(2) synthase, and was not significantly altered by a nonspecific COX- or a COX-2-selective inhibitor. Specific eicosanoid receptors had opposing effects on TLR3 activator-induced GDNF expression: ∼60% enhancement by blocking or ablating of PGE(2) receptor subtype 1 (EP1), ∼30% enhancement by activating PGF(2α) receptor or thromboxane receptor, or ∼15% enhancement by activating EP4. These results demonstrate functionally antagonistic eicosanoid receptor subtype regulation of innate immunity-induced astrocyte GDNF expression and suggest that selective inhibition of EP1 signaling might be a means to augment astrocyte GDNF secretion in the context of innate immune activation in diseased regions of brain in PD.
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the majority of persons worldwide, and the ensuing gastric inflammatory response is the strongest singular risk factor for peptic ulceration and gastric cancer. However, only a fraction of colonized individuals ever develop clinically significant outcomes. Disease risk is combinatorial and can be modified by bacterial factors, host responses, and/or specific interactions between host and microbe. Several H. pylori constituents that are required for colonization or virulence have been identified, and their ability to manipulate the host innate immune response will be the focus of this review. Identification of bacterial and host mediators that augment disease risk has profound ramifications for both biomedical researchers and clinicians as such findings will not only provide mechanistic insights into inflammatory carcinogenesis but may also serve to identify high-risk populations of H. pylori-infected individuals who can then be targeted for therapeutic intervention.