The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
OBJECTIVE - This study investigated the temporal dynamics of pancreas volume and microstructure in children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) and individuals without diabetes, including a subset expressing autoantibodies associated with the early stages of T1D.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - MRI was performed in individuals with recent-onset stage 3 T1D ( = 51; median age 13 years) within 100 days after diagnosis (mean 67 days), 6 months, and 1 year postdiagnosis. Longitudinal MRI measurements were also made in similarly aged control participants ( = 57) and in autoantibody-positive individuals without diabetes ( = 20). The MRI protocol consisted of anatomical imaging to determine pancreas volume and quantitative MRI protocols interrogating tissue microstructure and composition.
RESULTS - Within 100 days of diabetes onset, individuals with T1D had a smaller pancreas (median volume 28.6 mL) than control participants (median volume 48.4 mL; < 0.001), including when normalized by individual weight ( < 0.001). Longitudinal measurements of pancreas volume increased in control participants over the year, consistent with adolescent growth, but pancreas volume declined over the first year after T1D diagnosis ( < 0.001). In multiple autoantibody-positive individuals, the pancreas volume was significantly larger than that of the T1D cohort ( = 0.017) but smaller than that of the control cohort ( = 0.04). Diffusion-weighted MRI showed that individuals with recent-onset T1D had a higher apparent diffusion coefficient ( = 0.012), suggesting a loss of cellular structural integrity, with heterogeneous pancreatic distribution.
CONCLUSIONS - These results indicate that pancreas volume is decreased in stages 1, 2, and 3 of T1D and decreases during the first year after diabetes onset and that this loss of pancreatic volume is accompanied by microstructural changes.
© 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.
BACKGROUND - Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have substantially improved clinical outcomes in multiple cancer types and are increasingly being used in early disease settings and in combinations of different immunotherapies. However, ICIs can also cause severe or fatal immune-related adverse-events (irAEs). We aimed to identify and characterise cardiovascular irAEs that are significantly associated with ICIs.
METHODS - In this observational, retrospective, pharmacovigilance study, we used VigiBase, WHO's global database of individual case safety reports, to compare cardiovascular adverse event reporting in patients who received ICIs (ICI subgroup) with this reporting in the full database. This study included all cardiovascular irAEs classified by group queries according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities, between inception on Nov 14, 1967, and Jan 2, 2018. We evaluated the association between ICIs and cardiovascular adverse events using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and the information component (IC). IC is an indicator value for disproportionate Bayesian reporting that compares observed and expected values to find associations between drugs and adverse events. IC is the lower end of the IC 95% credibility interval, and an IC value of more than zero is deemed significant. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03387540.
FINDINGS - We identified 31 321 adverse events reported in patients who received ICIs and 16 343 451 adverse events reported in patients treated with any drugs (full database) in VigiBase. Compared with the full database, ICI treatment was associated with higher reporting of myocarditis (5515 reports for the full database vs 122 for ICIs, ROR 11·21 [95% CI 9·36-13·43]; IC 3·20), pericardial diseases (12 800 vs 95, 3·80 [3·08-4·62]; IC 1·63), and vasculitis (33 289 vs 82, 1·56 [1·25-1·94]; IC 0·03), including temporal arteritis (696 vs 18, 12·99 [8·12-20·77]; IC 2·59) and polymyalgia rheumatica (1709 vs 16, 5·13 [3·13-8·40]; IC 1·33). Pericardial diseases were reported more often in patients with lung cancer (49 [56%] of 87 patients), whereas myocarditis (42 [41%] of 103 patients) and vasculitis (42 [60%] of 70 patients) were more commonly reported in patients with melanoma (χ test for overall subgroup comparison, p<0·0001). Vision was impaired in five (28%) of 18 patients with temporal arteritis. Cardiovascular irAEs were severe in the majority of cases (>80%), with death occurring in 61 (50%) of 122 myocarditis cases, 20 (21%) of 95 pericardial disease cases, and five (6%) of 82 vasculitis cases (χ test for overall comparison between pericardial diseases, myocarditis, and vasculitis, p<0·0001).
INTERPRETATION - Treatment with ICIs can lead to severe and disabling inflammatory cardiovascular irAEs soon after commencement of therapy. In addition to life-threatening myocarditis, these toxicities include pericardial diseases and temporal arteritis with a risk of blindness. These events should be considered in patient care and in combination clinical trial designs (ie, combinations of different immunotherapies as well as immunotherapies and chemotherapy).
FUNDING - The Cancer Institut Thématique Multi-Organisme of the French National Alliance for Life and Health Sciences (AVIESAN) Plan Cancer 2014-2019; US National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health; the James C. Bradford Jr. Melanoma Fund; and the Melanoma Research Foundation.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pathologic examination of hepatic metastasectomies from patients with metastatic small intestinal or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor frequently reveals micrometastases undetectable by radiologic or macroscopic gross examination. This finding raises the possibility that undetectable micrometastases remain in these patients after metastasectomy. Here we examined liver resections for micrometastases and assessed their impact on prognosis. Hepatic metastasectomies from 65 patients with neuroendocrine tumor of the small intestine (N = 43) or pancreas (N = 22) were reviewed for the presence of micrometastases, which were defined as microscopic tumor foci ≤1 mm in greatest dimension. Medical records were also reviewed for patient demographics, clinical history, and follow-up data. Micrometastasis was identified in 36 (55%) of 65 hepatic resection specimens. More hepatic micrometastases were seen in small intestinal cases than in pancreatic cases (29/43, 67%, versus 7/22, 32%; P < .01). They were typically present within portal tracts, sometimes with extension into the periportal region or sinusoidal spaces away from the portal tracts. Patients without hepatic micrometastases had fewer macrometastases or more R0 hepatic resections than those with micrometastases. The presence of hepatic micrometastases was associated with poor overall survival both before (hazard ratio [HR] 3.43; 95% CI 1.14-10.30; P = .03) and after accounting for confounding variables in stratified Cox regression (HR 4.82; 95% CI 1.0621.79; P = .04). In conclusion, hepatic micrometastases are common in patients with metastatic small intestinal or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and are independently associated with poor prognosis. These data suggest that surgical resection of hepatic metastases is likely not curative in these patients.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - We have previously demonstrated that insulin signaling, through the downstream signaling kinase Akt, is a potent modulator of dopamine transporter (DAT) activity, which fine-tunes dopamine (DA) signaling at the synapse. This suggests a mechanism by which impaired neuronal insulin receptor signaling, a hallmark of diet-induced obesity, may contribute to impaired DA transmission. We tested whether a short-term (two-week) obesogenic high-fat (HF) diet could reduce striatal Akt activity, a marker of central insulin, receptor signaling and blunt striatal and dopaminergic network responsiveness to amphetamine (AMPH).
METHODS - We examined the effects of a two-week HF diet on striatal DAT activity in rats, using AMPH as a probe in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assay, and mapped the disruption in AMPH-evoked functional connectivity between key dopaminergic targets and their projection areas using correlation and permutation analyses. We used phosphorylation of the Akt substrate GSK3α in striatal extracts as a measure of insulin receptor signaling. Finally, we confirmed the impact of HF diet on striatal DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability using [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography (PET).
RESULTS - We found that rats fed a HF diet for only two weeks have reductions in striatal Akt activity, a marker of decreased striatal insulin receptor signaling and blunted striatal responsiveness to AMPH. HF feeding also reduced interactions between elements of the mesolimbic (nucleus accumbens-anterior cingulate) and sensorimotor circuits (caudate/putamen-thalamus-sensorimotor cortex) implicated in hedonic feeding. D2R availability was reduced in HF-fed animals.
CONCLUSION - These studies support the hypothesis that central insulin signaling and dopaminergic neurotransmission are already altered after short-term HF feeding. Because AMPH induces DA efflux and brain activation, in large part via DAT, these findings suggest that blunted central nervous system insulin receptor signaling through a HF diet can impair DA homeostasis, thereby disrupting cognitive and reward circuitry involved in the regulation of hedonic feeding.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) reduce cardiovascular events in the general population. Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients are at high cardiovascular risk but few studies have directly addressed the comparative efficacy of these drugs. MHD disrupts the normally atheroprotective actions of high density lipoprotein (HDL), therefore, we compared ACEI or ARB treatment on HDL functions in MHD.
METHODS AND RESULTS - HDL was isolated at the starting point (pre) and 3-6 months later (post) in 30 MHD randomly assigned to placebo, ramipril or valsartan. Outcomes included cholesterol efflux, inflammatory cytokine response, effects on Toll-like receptors (TLR), superoxide production, methylarginine and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels. HDL from ARB- or ACEI-treated subjects was more effective in maintaining efflux than HDL of placebo. HDL from ARB- or ACEI-treated subjects but not placebo lessened cellular superoxide production. In contrast, neither ARB nor ACEI improved HDL anti-inflammatory effect. Indeed, HDL of ACEI-treated subjects potentiated the cytokine responses in association with activation of TLR but did not alter the HDL content of methylarginines or SAA.
CONCLUSION - Both ACEI and ARB stabilized HDL cholesterol acceptor function and sustained cellular anti-oxidative effects but not anti-inflammatory effects, and ACEI-treatment instead amplified the HDL inflammatory response. The findings reveal possible utility of antagonizing angiotensin actions in MDH and suggest a possible mechanism for superiority of ARB vs ACEI in the setting of advanced kidney disease.
Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lung epithelial lineages have been difficult to maintain in pure form in vitro, and lineage-specific reporters have proven invaluable for monitoring their emergence from cultured pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). However, reporter constructs for tracking proximal airway lineages generated from PSCs have not been previously available, limiting the characterization of these cells. Here, we engineer mouse and human PSC lines carrying airway secretory lineage reporters that facilitate the tracking, purification, and profiling of this lung subtype. Through bulk and single-cell-based global transcriptomic profiling, we find PSC-derived airway secretory cells are susceptible to phenotypic plasticity exemplified by the tendency to co-express both a proximal airway secretory program as well as an alveolar type 2 cell program, which can be minimized by inhibiting endogenous Wnt signaling. Our results provide global profiles of engineered lung cell fates, a guide for improving their directed differentiation, and a human model of the developing airway.
Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES - When examining vaccination coverage, researchers must make decisions about how to define outcome measures based on many factors, including the timing of doses. Different operationalizations of the same outcome can often lead to different findings and can affect the ability to make comparisons across studies. This methodological article aimed to illustrate the implications of two options for operationalizing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination based on timing: initiation of the first dose at any age vs before the 13th birthday (on time).
STUDY DESIGN - Cross-sectional observational design.
METHODS - The 2014 National Immunization Survey for Teens (N = 16,439 adolescents aged 13-17 years) was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression for each outcome measure and effect modification by gender.
RESULTS - Age was positively associated with initiation at any age but negatively associated with on-time initiation. Gender modified the effect of race/ethnicity for both measures of initiation, but the pattern across groups was different for the two outcomes. Gender modified the effect of provider recommendation for initiation at any age, while gender modified the effects of age and region for on-time initiation.
CONCLUSION - Decisions of how to operationalize outcomes of HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents can lead to different conclusions about the role of age and gender differences for several predictive variables. To inform the development of public health efforts that promote on-time HPV vaccination among male and female adolescents, researchers should consider the importance of dose timing when operationalizing outcome measures. We recommend including on-time receipt of the HPV vaccine as an outcome measure.
Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES - The percentage of clinical scientists in radiology has historically been low. Increasing the pipeline of trainees interested in research could occur by recruiting MD-PhD trainees and providing protected research time during residency. The purpose of this work is to assess the attitudes of radiology program directors toward MD-PhD trainees, resident research productivity, and dedicated research time.
METHODS - An online survey was sent to residency program directors of all diagnostic radiology departments that received National Institutes of Health (NIH) awards in 2014 (n = 63). Survey questions included program size; perception of overall performance, clinical performance, and research productivity of MD-PhD residents compared to non-PhD residents; and presence of dedicated research time. Responses comparing MD-PhD residents to non-PhD residents were reported as a five-point Likert scale. Student t test was used to assess for significance (alpha = 0.05).
RESULTS - Response rate was 37%. Clinical performance of MD-PhD residents was judged inferior (P < .05) to non-PhD residents, although that of all residents engaged in research trended toward superiority compared to those not involved in research. Dedicated research time is offered by 61% of programs in years R1-R3 and all programs in year R4. Research productivity during residency was judged to be similar (P = .5) between MD-PhD and non-PhD residents.
CONCLUSIONS - Survey results suggest that clinical performance during residency and research involvement is often individually based and difficult to generalize based on prior PhD training. All programs offered dedicated research time, and the vast majority of residents were reported to engage in research during residency, which may increase the pipeline of trainees interested in an academic career.
Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Delirium during critical illness results from numerous insults, which might be interconnected and yet individually contribute to long-term cognitive impairment. We sought to describe the prevalence and duration of clinical phenotypes of delirium (ie, phenotypes defined by clinical risk factors) and to understand associations between these clinical phenotypes and severity of subsequent long-term cognitive impairment.
METHODS - In this multicentre, prospective cohort study, we included adult (≥18 years) medical or surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure, shock, or both as part of two parallel studies: the Bringing to Light the Risk Factors and Incidence of Neuropsychological Dysfunction in ICU Survivors (BRAIN-ICU) study, and the Delirium and Dementia in Veterans Surviving ICU Care (MIND-ICU) study. We assessed patients at least once a day for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU and identified a priori-defined, non-mutually exclusive phenotypes of delirium per the presence of hypoxia, sepsis, sedative exposure, or metabolic (eg, renal or hepatic) dysfunction. We considered delirium in the absence of hypoxia, sepsis, sedation, and metabolic dysfunction to be unclassified. 3 and 12 months after discharge, we assessed cognition with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). We used multiple linear regression to separately analyse associations between the duration of each phenotype of delirium and RBANS global cognition scores at 3-month and 12-month follow-up, adjusting for potential confounders.
FINDINGS - Between March 14, 2007, and May 27, 2010, 1048 participants were enrolled, eight of whom could not be analysed. Of 1040 participants, 708 survived to 3 months of follow-up and 628 to 12 months. Delirium was common, affecting 740 (71%) of 1040 participants at some point during the study and occurring on 4187 (31%) of all 13 434 participant-days. A single delirium phenotype was present on only 1355 (32%) of all 4187 participant-delirium days, whereas two or more phenotypes were present during 2832 (68%) delirium days. Sedative-associated delirium was most common (present during 2634 [63%] delirium days), and a longer duration of sedative-associated delirium predicted a worse RBANS global cognition score 12 months later, after adjusting for covariates (difference in score comparing 3 days vs 0 days: -4·03, 95% CI -7·80 to -0·26). Similarly, longer durations of hypoxic delirium (-3·76, 95% CI -7·16 to -0·37), septic delirium (-3·67, -7·13 to -0·22), and unclassified delirium (-4·70, -7·16 to -2·25) also predicted worse cognitive function at 12 months, whereas duration of metabolic delirium did not (1·14, -0·12 to 3·01).
INTERPRETATION - Our findings suggest that clinicians should consider sedative-associated, hypoxic, and septic delirium, which often co-occur, as distinct indicators of acute brain injury and seek to identify all potential risk factors that may impact on long-term cognitive impairment, especially those that are iatrogenic and potentially modifiable such as sedation.
FUNDING - National Institutes of Health and the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.