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We comprehensively evaluated genetic variants in the thymidylate synthase (TYMS) gene in association with endometrial cancer risk in a population-based case-control study of 1,199 incident endometrial cancer cases and 1,212 age frequency-matched population controls. Exposure information was obtained via in-person interview, and DNA samples (blood or buccal cell) were collected. Genotyping of 11 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for the TYMS gene plus the 5-kb flanking regions was done for 1,028 cases and 1,003 controls by using the Affymetrix MegAllele Targeted Genotyping System. Of 11 haplotype-tagging SNPs identified, 7 that are located in flanking regions of the TYMS gene are also in the ENOSF1 (rTS) gene. The SNP rs3819102, located in the 3'-flanking region of the TYMS gene and in an intron of the ENOSF1 gene, was associated with risk of endometrial cancer. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the CC genotype was 1.5 (1.0-2.2) compared with the TT genotype. Haplotype TTG in block 2 of the TYMS gene, which includes SNPs rs10502289, rs2298583, and rs2298581 (located in introns of the ENOSF1 gene), was associated with a marginally significant decrease in risk of endometrial cancer under the dominant model (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.0). This study suggests that genetic polymorphisms in the TYMS or ENOSF1 genes may play a role in the development of endometrial cancer among Chinese women.
PURPOSE - To evaluate the safety and describe the pharmacokinetic profile of OSI-7904L, a novel liposomal thymidylate synthase inhibitor, in combination with cisplatin (CDDP) in adults with advanced solid tumors.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - CDDP was administered as a 2-h intravenous infusion followed by OSI-7904L intravenously over 30 min, both given every 3 weeks. Doses of each drug were escalated in separate cohorts of patients. Five dose levels of CDDP/OSI-7904L were explored: 60/6, 60/9, 60/12, 60/7.5, and 75/7.5 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetic samples, baseline plasma homocysteine, and genotype polymorphisms were evaluated.
RESULTS - Twenty-seven patients were treated with 101 total courses of CDDP/OSI-7904L. Dose-limiting toxicity was observed in 2 patients in the CDDP/OSI-7904L 60/12 mg/m2 cohort. One patient experienced rash, stomatitis, dehydration, renal failure, hyperbilirubinemia, and fatal neutropenic sepsis, whereas the other patient experienced grade 3 nausea, vomiting, and ileus. Therefore, the CDDP/OSI-7904L 60/9 mg/m2 cohort was expanded, with 2 of 6 patients reporting significant fatigue. Other toxicities were mild or moderate. Intermediate dose levels of 60/7.5 and 75/7.5 mg/m2 were evaluated, and the latter was identified as the recommended dose for phase II studies. No major pharmacokinetic interactions between CDDP and OSI-7904L were observed. Three patients had partial responses (gastric adenocarcinoma and heavily pretreated breast cancer). There was no significant relationship between baseline homocysteine and toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS - The recommended doses for CDDP and OSI-7904L administered once every 3 weeks are 75 and 7.5 mg/m2, respectively. Pharmacokinetic interaction between the agents was not apparent. Preliminary clinical activity was observed in breast and gastric cancer.
An in vitro model of folate-deficient erythropoiesis has been developed using proerythroblasts isolated from the spleens of Friend virus-infected mice fed an amino acid-based, folate-free diet. Control proerythroblasts were obtained from Friend virus-infected mice fed the same diet plus 2 mg folic acid/kg diet. Our previous studies showed that, after 20 to 32 hours of culture in folate-deficient medium with 4 U/mL of erythropoietin, the folate-deficient proerythroblasts underwent apoptosis, whereas control erythroblasts survived and differentiated into reticulocytes over a period of 48 hours. The addition of folic acid or thymidine to the folate-deficient medium prevented the apoptosis of the folate-deficient erythroblasts, thereby implicating decreased thymidylate synthesis as the main cause of apoptosis in the folate-deficient erythroblasts. In the study reported here, we examined intracellular folate levels, uracil misincorporation into DNA, p53 and p21 proteins, and reticulocyte formation in erythroblasts cultured in folate-deficient or control medium. In all experiments, the folate-deficient erythroblasts cultured in folate-deficient medium gave results that varied significantly from folate-deficient erythroblasts cultured in control medium or control erythroblasts cultured in either folate-deficient or control media. Folate-deficient erythroblasts cultured in folate-deficient medium had marked decreases in all coenzyme forms of folate that persisted throughout culture, increased uracil misincorporation into DNA, persistent accumulations of p53 and p21, and decreased reticulocyte production but increased size of individual reticulocytes. A model of folate-deficient erythropoiesis based on apoptosis of late stage erythroblasts is presented. This model provides explanations for the clinical findings in megaloblastic anemia.