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Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an unpredictable, life-threatening, immune-mediated reaction to heparin. Variation in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes is now used to prevent immune-mediated adverse drug reactions. Combinations of HLA alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are associated with multiple autoimmune diseases and infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of HLA alleles and KIR types, alone or in the presence of different HLA ligands, with HIT. HIT cases and heparin-exposed controls were identified in BioVU, an electronic health record coupled to a DNA biobank. HLA sequencing and KIR type imputation using Illumina OMNI-Quad data were performed. Odds ratios for HLA alleles and KIR types and HLA*KIR interactions using conditional logistic regressions were determined in the overall population and by race/ethnicity. Analysis was restricted to KIR types and HLA alleles with a frequency greater than 0.01. The p values for HLA and KIR association were corrected by using a false discovery rate q<0.05 and HLA*KIR interactions were considered significant at p<0.05. Sixty-five HIT cases and 350 matched controls were identified. No statistical differences in baseline characteristics were observed between cases and controls. The HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele was significantly associated with HIT in the overall population (odds ratio 2.81 [1.57-5.02], p=2.1×10 , q=0.02) and in individuals with European ancestry, independent of other alleles. No KIR types were associated with HIT, although a significant interaction was observed between KIR2DS5 and the HLA-C1 KIR binding group (p=0.03). The HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele was identified as a potential risk factor for HIT. This class II HLA gene and allele represent biologically plausible candidates for influencing HIT pathogenesis. We found limited evidence of the role of KIR types in HIT pathogenesis. Replication and further study of the HLA-DRB3*01:01 association is necessary.
© 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an unpredictable, potentially catastrophic adverse effect of heparin treatment resulting from an immune response to platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. No genome-wide evaluations have been performed to identify potential genetic influences on HIT. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate gene study using HIT cases and controls identified using electronic medical records (EMRs) coupled to a DNA biobank and attempted to replicate GWAS associations in an independent cohort. We subsequently investigated influences of GWAS-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on PF4/heparin antibodies in non-heparin treated individuals. In a recessive model, we observed significant SNP associations (odds ratio [OR] 18.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.33-54.23; p=3.18×10(-9)) with HIT near the T-Cell Death-Associated Gene 8 (TDAG8). These SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium with a missense TDAG8 SNP. TDAG8 SNPs trended toward an association with HIT in replication analysis (OR 5.71; 0.47-69.22; p=0.17), and the missense SNP was associated with PF4/heparin antibody levels and positive PF4/heparin antibodies in non-heparin treated patients (OR 3.09; 1.14-8.13; p=0.02). In the candidate gene study, SNPs at HLA-DRA were nominally associated with HIT (OR 0.25; 0.15-0.44; p=2.06×10(-6)). Further study of TDAG8 and HLA-DRA SNPs is warranted to assess their influence on the risk of developing HIT.
Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a pro-thrombotic and potentially fatal complication of heparin therapy. Its diagnosis rests on high clinical probability and the laboratory demonstration of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies. The high prevalence of thrombocytopenia in hospitalized patients and the high sensitivity but low specificity of immunoassays for HIT antibodies can lead to over-testing and over-diagnosis. We conducted a study to review HIT screening practices in a tertiary care setting. We reviewed 63 consecutive patients undergoing testing for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies over 3 months. Pre-test probability for HIT was calculated using the 4T score. Sixty three patients underwent testing for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies. Twenty one had been admitted for cardiovascular surgery, 5 for other surgery and 35 for non-surgical indications. Twenty nine patients (46 %) had low pre- test probability, twenty three (36.5 %) had intermediate probability, and eleven (17.4 %) had high pre-test probability of having HIT. Anti-PF4/heparin ELISA was positive in 8 of 63 patients. SRA was ordered for 16 patients and was positive in 5. Only five patients were diagnosed and treated for HIT. Over-testing for HIT is highly prevalent in a tertiary care setting. This increases cost and exposes patients to expensive anti-coagulation with its attendant risk of hemorrhage. The 4Ts score has been shown to have high sensitivity and may be used to rule out HIT in most situations, although its utility depends on subjective analysis. Consistently applying this in practice could minimize over-testing and facilitate safer, cost-effective care.
BACKGROUND - Available treatments for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) have limited durable activity and unsatisfactory safety profiles in most elderly patients. We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of sapacitabine, a novel oral cytosine nucleoside analogue, in elderly patients with AML.
METHODS - In this randomised, phase 2 study, we recruited patients with AML who were either treatment naive or at first relapse and who were aged 70 years or older from 12 centres in the USA. We used a computer-generated randomisation sequence to randomly allocate eligible patients to receive one of three schedules of oral sapacitabine (1:1:1; stratified by a history of AML treatment): 200 mg twice a day for 7 days (group A); 300 mg twice a day for 7 days (group B); and 400 mg twice a day for 3 days each week for 2 weeks (group C). All schedules were given in 28 day cycles. To confirm the safety and tolerability of dosing schedules, after 20 patients had been treated in a group we enrolled an expanded cohort of 20-25 patients to that group if at least four patients had achieved complete remission or complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery, and if the 30 day death rate was 20% or less. Our primary endpoint was 1-year overall survival, analysed by intention-to-treat (ie, patients who have received at least one dose of sapacitabine) in those patients who had been randomly allocated to treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00590187.
RESULTS - Between Dec 27, 2007, and April 21, 2009, we enrolled 105 patients: 86 patients were previously untreated and 19 were at first relapse. Of the 60 patients randomly allocated to treatment, 1-year overall survival was 35% (95% CI 16-59) in group A, 10% (2-33) in group B, and 30% (13-54) in group C. 14 (13%) of 105 patients died within 30 days and 27 (26%) died within 60 days. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were anaemia (eight of 40 patients in group A, 12 of 20 patients in group B, and 15 of 45 patients in group C), neutropenia (14 in group A, 10 in group B, 11 in group C), thrombocytopenia (24 in group A, 12 in group B, and 22 in group C), febrile neutropenia (16 in group A, nine in group B, and 22 in group C), and pneumonia (seven in group A, five in group B, and 10 in group C). The most common grade 5 events were pneumonia (two in group A, one in group B, and three in group C) and sepsis (six in group A, three in group B, and one in group C). Seven deaths were thought to be probably or possibly related to sapacitabine treatment.
INTERPRETATION - Sapacitabine seems active and tolerable in elderly patients with AML. The 400 mg dose schedule had the best efficacy profile. Future investigations should aim to combine sapacitabine with other low-intensity therapies in elderly patients with AML.
FUNDING - Cyclacel Limited.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The initial enthusiasm for the advent of a potentially nonnephrotoxic immunosuppressant has been muted by data unmasking nephrotoxicity of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, including renal podocyte injury resulting in proteinuria. Adverse reactions, including anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperlipidemia, and especially diabetogenesis, have limited its use to niche indications such as prevention or amelioration of malignancy in organ transplant. The class seems to be best used to address malignancy in organ allograft recipients and as a first-line therapy in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Thrombocytopenia is common after LT for pediatric end-stage liver diseases. Seventy-six pediatric patients (≤15 yr old) who underwent LDLT were evaluated for the incidence and predictive factors of post-transplant thrombocytopenia (PLT <100, 000/mm(3) ). The prevalence of thrombocytopenia at two wk and at 12 months post-transplant was 22/76 (28.9%) and 11/62 (17.7%), respectively. Thrombocytopenia at two wk after LDLT was significantly associated with age at transplant, preoperative PLT, GRWR, acute rejection, and CMV infection in univariate analysis. Moreover, preoperative PLT, GRWR, and acute rejection had a strong correlation in multivariate analysis. Thrombocytopenia at 12 months after LDLT was associated only with preoperative PLT. We also demonstrated that vascular complications caused thrombocytopenia and that successful treatment recovered the PLT. These results showed that, in addition to considering the preoperative PLT, post-operative monitoring of platelets is very helpful for the early detection of adverse events related to the graft liver in pediatric liver transplant patients.
© 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
OBJECTIVE - Partial splenic embolization has been used for more than 20 years to manage thrombocytopenia secondary to hypersplenism. Both temporary and permanent embolic agents have been used without definition of an optimal agent. The purposes of this report are to describe the use of the Onyx nonadhesive liquid embolization system to treat three patients with severe hypersplenism precluding administration of systemic chemotherapy and to report on the hematologic response and clinical outcome after partial splenic embolization with this agent.
CONCLUSION - The platelet counts of three patients treated by partial splenic embolization with the Onyx agent improved sufficiently for administration of systemic chemotherapy. In addition, severe postembolization syndrome, a common occurrence after partial splenic embolization, did not occur in our patient population.
BACKGROUND AND AIM - The mechanism responsible for thrombocytopenia in chronic liver diseases (CLD) is not yet fully understood. The prevalence of thrombocytopenia has been reported to be higher in patients with hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (CLD-C) than in those with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (CDC-B). We have examined the potential difference in thrombocytopenia between patients with CLD-B and those with CLD-C in terms of liver fibrosis adjustment and splenomegaly.
METHODS - The study cohort consisted of 102 patients with CLD-B and 143 patients with CLD-C were enrolled. Liver stiffness, which is reported to be well correlated with the degree of liver fibrosis, was measured by transient elastography.
RESULTS - The analysis of covariance with liver stiffness as a covariate revealed that the platelet count was lower in CLD-C patients than in CLD-B patients. Following stratification for liver stiffness, thrombocytopenia was found to be more severe in CLD-C patients than CLD-B patients with advanced liver stiffness, whereas the degree of splenomegaly was not significantly different. The plasma thrombopoietin level was not different between CLD-B and CLD-C patients with advanced liver stiffness, and the immature platelet number was lower in CLD-C patients despite thrombocytopenia being more severe in these patients.
CONCLUSIONS - CLD-C patients with advanced liver stiffness presented with more severe levels of thrombocytopenia than CLD-B patients even with the same grade of splenomegaly. Impaired platelet production rather than enhanced platelet destruction may underlie the mechanism responsible for thrombocytopenia in patients with CLD.
CAMT is a very rare cause of thrombocytopenia in infants. Most of the patients will progress to marrow failure. Allogeneic stem cell transplant remains the only curative therapy. We present two patients with CAMT who underwent an unrelated donor bone marrow transplant, one after developing marrow failure and another early in the course of the disease. Both patients tolerated the transplant with minimal toxicity and durable engraftment. We also present a comprehensive review of the literature for unrelated donor transplant for this condition.
Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
OBJECTIVE - To genetically and functionally characterize mutations of c-Mpl that lead to thrombocytopenia in a child with congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - We identified two c-Mpl mutations in a child with clinical features of congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, one a previously described mutation in the extracellular domain (R102P) and the other a novel mutation leading to truncation of the receptor after the box 1 homology domain (541Stop). Cell line models were created to examine the ability of the mutant receptors to signal in response to thrombopoietin and thrombopoietin-like agonists.
RESULTS - Data from cell-line models indicate that c-Mpl R102P does not support significant signaling in response to thrombopoietin due to impaired trafficking of the mutant receptor to the cell surface. Alternative thrombopoietic agents do not circumvent this block to signaling, likely due to the inaccessibility of the receptor. In addition, previous data indicate that c-Mpl 541Stop does not support intracellular signaling due to the loss of critical intracellular domains.
CONCLUSIONS - This case demonstrates two different mechanisms by which c-Mpl mutations can impair thrombopoietin signaling, and suggests that mutations in the extracellular domain will not be rescued by c-Mpl agonists if they interfere with normal receptor expression.