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The antimicrotubular agent docetaxel is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of multiple solid tumors and is predominantly dependent on hepatic disposition. In this study, we evaluated drug uptake transporters capable of transporting radiolabeled docetaxel. By screening an array of drug uptake transporters in HeLa cells using a recombinant vaccinia-based method, five organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) capable of docetaxel uptake were identified: OATP1A2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP1C1, and Oatp1b2. Kinetic analysis of docetaxel transport revealed similar kinetic parameters among hepatic OATP1B/1b transporters. An assessment of polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 revealed that a number of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 variants were associated with impaired docetaxel transport. A Transwell-based vectorial transport assay using MDCKII stable cells showed that docetaxel was transported significantly into the apical compartment of double-transfected (MDCKII-OATP1B1/MDR1 and MDCKII-OATP1B3/MDR1) cells compared with single-transfected (MDCKII-OATP1B1 and MDCKII-OATP1B3) cells (P < 0.05) or control (MDCKII-Co) cells (P < 0.001). In vivo docetaxel transport studies in Slco1b2(-/-) mice showed approximately >5.5-fold higher plasma concentrations (P < 0.01) and approximately 3-fold decreased liver-to-plasma ratio (P < 0.05) of docetaxel compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The plasma clearance of docetaxel in Slco1b2(-/-) mice was 83% lower than WT mice (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the important roles of OATP1B transporters to the hepatic disposition and clearance of docetaxel, and supporting roles of these transporters for docetaxel pharmacokinetics.
©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
BACKGROUND - Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves outcomes in patients with locally advanced but resectable adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. ACOSOG Z4051 evaluated CRT with docetaxel, cisplatin, and panitumumab (DCP) in this patient group with a primary end point of a pathologic complete response (pCR) ≥35%.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - From 15 January 2009 to 22 July 2011, 70 patients with locally advanced but resectable distal esophageal adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Patients received docetaxel (40 mg/m(2)), cisplatin (40 mg/m(2)), and panitumumab (6 mg/kg) on weeks 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 with RT (5040 cGy, 180 cGy/day × 28 days) beginning week 5. Resection was planned after completing CRT. PCR was defined as no viable residual tumor cells. Secondary objectives included near-pCR (≤10% viable cancer cells), toxicity, and overall and disease-free survival. Adverse events were graded using the CTCAE Version 3.0.
RESULTS - Five of 70 patients were ineligible. Of 65 eligible patients (59 M; median age 61), 11 did not undergo surgery, leaving 54 assessable. PCR rate was 33.3% and near-pCR was 20.4%. Secenty-three percent of patients completed DCP (n = 70) and 92% completed RT. 48.5% had toxicity ≥grade 4. Lymphopenia (43%) was most common. Operative mortality was 3.7%. Adult respiratory distress syndrome was encountered in two patients (3.7%). At median follow-up of 26.3 months, median overall survival was 19.4 months and 3-year overall survival was 38.6% (95% confidence interval 24.5% to 60.8%).
CONCLUSIONS - Neoadjuvant CRT with DCP is active (pCR + near-pCR = 53.7%) but toxicity is significant. Further evaluation of this regimen in an unselected population is not recommended.
CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER - NCT00757172.
Chemotherapy-induced thrombotic microangiopathy is a severe illness that has occurred in a small number of patients treated with carboplatin and combination of docetaxel and trastuzumab chemotherapy. We describe herein the case of a patient with stage IIB breast cancer who developed thrombotic microangiopathy after five cycles of carboplatin, docetaxel, and trastuzumab.
The health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) implications of advanced metastatic prostate cancer are variable. There are several different HRQOL instruments that measure domains germane to patients with advanced metastatic disease. The burden of prostate cancer is inversely related to the magnitude of HRQOL declines. Treatment with androgen deprivation therapy commonly results in HRQOL declines that have served as the impetus for intermittent therapy. Conversely, chemotherapeutic agents have been associated with improvements in functional status for men with castrate-resistant disease. Emerging therapies may result in significant HRQOL improvements in this population, and careful prospective evaluation of patient-reported outcomes will be required.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
UNLABELLED - Study Type - Therapy (phase 1) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? High-risk and locally advanced prostate cancers are difficult to cure with the standard regimen of radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Multiple studies have explored the addition of docetaxel chemotherapy in attempt to improve patient outcomes. Prior Phase I studies have shown that docetaxel 20 mg/m(2) is a safe dose, when given concurrently with 70 Gy of radiation. But current standard RT for prostate cancer uses higher doses, and it is unclear if concurrent chemotherapy is safe with modern RT. This is a Phase I study that explored the addition of concurrent docetaxel chemotherapy to modern RT (intensity-modulated RT to 78 Gy) plus ADT. The study showed that weekly docetaxel at 20 mg/m(2) is safe with modern RT. At a median follow-up of 2.2 years, biochemical progression-free survival was 94%. This triple-therapy regimen is safe and promising for further evaluation in prospective trials.
OBJECTIVE - • To evaluate in a phase I trial, the feasibility of adding concurrent weekly docetaxel chemotherapy to high-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for treatment of high-risk prostate cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - • Patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated with a luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist (starting 2-3 months before IMRT and lasting 2 years), IMRT of 78 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles, and weekly docetaxel during RT. • All patients had computed tomography and bone scans to exclude metastatic disease. • A standard 3 + 3 design was used for docetaxel dose escalation. Successive patients were treated on dose levels of 10, 15, and 20 mg/m(2) of weekly docetaxel.
RESULTS - • In all, 18 patients participated in the study: 15 (83%) had Gleason 8-10 disease; the other three had either clinical T3 disease and/or a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of >20 ng/mL. • Grade 3 diarrhoea (a defined dose-limiting toxicity, DLT) occurred in one patient in each of the first two dose levels. However, when the cohorts were expanded, no further DLT was seen. • Weekly docetaxel at 20 mg/m(2) (dose level 3) was successfully given without DLT. • No patient had grade 4 or 5 toxicity. • At a median follow-up of 2.2 years, all patients achieved a PSA nadir of <1 ng/mL, including 13 patients who had an undetectable PSA level. The 2-year biochemical progression-free survival was 94%.
CONCLUSION - • A dose of 20 mg/m(2) of weekly docetaxel given concurrently with high-dose IMRT and ADT appears safe for further study in patients with high-risk prostate cancer.
© 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.
BACKGROUND - Upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (UGCs) respond poorly to current chemotherapeutic regimes. The authors and others have previously reported frequent Aurora kinase A (AURKA) gene amplification and mRNA and protein overexpression in UGCs. The objective of the current study was to determine the therapeutic potential of alisertib (MLN8237) alone and in combination with docetaxel in UGCs.
METHODS - After treatment with alisertib and/or docetaxel, clonogenic cell survival, cell cycle analyses, Western blot analyses, and tumor xenograft growth assays were carried out to measure cell survival, cell cycle progression, apoptotic protein expression, and tumor xenograft volumes, respectively.
RESULTS - By using the AGS, FLO-1, and OE33 UGC cell lines, which have constitutive AURKA overexpression and variable tumor protein 53 (p53) status, significantly enhanced inhibition of cancer cell survival was observed with alisertib and docetaxel treatment in combination (P < .001), compared with single-agent treatments. Cell cycle analyses, after 48 hours of treatment with alisertib, produced a significant increase in the percentage of polyploidy in UGC cells (P < .01) that was further enhanced by docetaxel (P < .001). In addition, an increase in the percentage of cells in sub-G1-phase observed with alisertib (P < .01) was significantly enhanced with the combination treatment (P < .001). Western blot analysis demonstrated higher induction of cleaved caspase 3 protein expression with the combined treatment compared with single-agent treatments. In addition, FLO-1 and OE33 cell xenograft models demonstrated enhanced antitumor activity for the alisertib and docetaxel combination compared with single-agent treatments (P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS - The current study demonstrated that alisertib combined with docetaxel can mediate a better therapeutic outcome in UGC cell lines.
Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.
We have developed a novel, portable, gravity-fed, microfluidics-based platform suitable for optical interrogation of long-term organotypic cell culture. This system is designed to provide convenient control of cell maintenance, nutrients, and experimental reagent delivery to tissue-like cell densities housed in a transparent, low-volume microenvironment. To demonstrate the ability of our Thick-Tissue Bioreactor (TTB) to provide stable, long-term maintenance of high-density cellular arrays, we observed the morphogenic growth of human mammary epithelial cell lines, MCF-10A and their invasive variants, cultured under three-dimensional (3D) conditions inside our system. Over the course of 21 days, these cells typically develop into hollow "mammospheres" if cultured in standard 3D Matrigel. This complex morphogenic process requires alterations in a variety of cellular functions, including degradation of extracellular matrix that is regulated by cell-produced matrix proteinases. For our "drug" delivery testing and validation experiments we have introduced proteinase inhibitors into the fluid supply system, and we observed both reduced proteinase activity and inhibited cellular morphogenesis. The size inhibition results correlated well with the overall proteinase activities of the tested cells.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE - Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, with most patients undergoing surgery followed by platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy. After initial clinical remission, the majority recur, leading to additional treatments, including not only platinums and taxanes but also pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), gemcitabine, topotecan, and, more recently, bevacizumab, which may extend survival times. PLD, in particular, has been extensively studied by our group, with encouraging therapeutic results. We, however, observed instances of chronic kidney disease (CKD) developing among patients who received long-term treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer. To document the frequency and contributing factors to the emergence of CKD, we initiated a retrospective review at two institutions.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - Fifty-six consecutive patients with recurrent ovarian cancer receiving treatment at New York University Cancer Institute were reviewed for the presence of renal disease in 1997-2010. At Shaare Zedek Medical Center, 73 consecutive patients with ovarian cancer were reviewed in 2002-2010. Patients were diagnosed with CKD if they had an estimated GFR <60 mL/minute per 1.73 m2 for >3 months and were staged according to the National Kidney Foundation guidelines.
RESULTS - Thirteen patients (23%) developed stage ≥3 CKD. Three patients had renal biopsies performed that showed thrombotic microangiopathy.
CONCLUSIONS - CKD is emerging as a potential long-term consequence of current chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer.
A number of cancers predominantly metastasize to bone, due to its complex microenvironment and multiple types of constitutive cells. Prostate cancer especially has been shown to localize preferentially to bones with higher marrow cellularity. Using an experimental prostate cancer metastasis model, we investigated the effects of cyclophosphamide, a bone marrow-suppressive chemotherapeutic drug, on the development and growth of metastatic tumors in bone. Priming the murine host with cyclophosphamide before intracardiac tumor cell inoculation was found to significantly promote tumor localization and subsequent growth in bone. Shortly after cyclophosphamide treatment, there was an abrupt expansion of myeloid lineage cells in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood, associated with increases in cytokines with myelogenic potential such as C-C chemokine ligand (CCL)2, interleukin (IL)-6, and VEGF-A. More importantly, neutralizing host-derived murine CCL2, but not IL-6, in the premetastatic murine host significantly reduced the prometastatic effects of cyclophosphamide. Together, our findings suggest that bone marrow perturbation by cytotoxic chemotherapy can contribute to bone metastasis via a transient increase in bone marrow myeloid cells and myelogenic cytokines. These changes can be reversed by inhibition of CCL2.