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Calcium signaling in phagocytes is essential for cellular activation, migration, and the potential resolution of infection or inflammation. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via activation of NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-oxidase activity in macrophages has been linked to altered intracellular calcium concentrations. Because of its role as an oxidative stress sensor in phagocytes, we investigated the function of the cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) in macrophages during oxidative stress responses induced by Helicobacter pylori infection. We show that Trpm2/ mice, when chronically infected with H. pylori, exhibit increased gastric inflammation and decreased bacterial colonization compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The absence of TRPM2 triggers greater macrophage production of inflammatory mediators and promotes classically activated macrophage M1 polarization in response to H. pylori. TRPM2-deficient macrophages upon H. pylori stimulation are unable to control intracellular calcium levels, which results in calcium overloading. Furthermore, increased intracellular calcium in TRPM2/ macrophages enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase and NADPH-oxidase activities, compared with WT macrophages. Our data suggest that augmented production of ROS and inflammatory cytokines with TRPM2 deletion regulates oxidative stress in macrophages and consequently decreases H. pylori gastric colonization while increasing inflammation in the gastric mucosa.
Some studies suggest that the calcium to magnesium ratio intakes modify the associations of calcium or magnesium with risk of colorectal adenoma, adenoma recurrence, and cancer. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a key role in the regulation of homeostasis for both calcium and magnesium. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in PTH and 13 other genes may modify the association between the calcium/magnesium intake ratio and colorectal neoplasia risk. We conducted a two-phase study including 1336 cases and 2891 controls from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study. In Phase I, we identified 19 SNPs that significantly interacted with the calcium/magnesium intake ratio in adenoma risk. In Phase II, rs11022858 in PTH was replicated. In combined analysis of phases I and II, we found high calcium/magnesium intake ratio tended to be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal adenoma (P for trend, 0.040) among those who carried the TT genotype in rs11022858. In stratified analyses, calcium intake (≥ 1000 mg/d) was significantly associated with 64% reduced adenoma risk (OR = 0.36 (95% CI : 0.18-0.74)) among those homozygous for the minor allele (TT genotype) (P for trend, 0.012), but not associated with risk in other genotypes (CC/TC). Conversely, we found that highest magnesium intake was significantly associated with 27% reduced risk (OR = 0.73 (95% CI : 0.54-0.97)) of colorectal adenoma (P for trend, 0.026) among those who possessed the CC/TC genotypes, particularly among those with the TC genotype, whereas magnesium intake was not linked to risk among those with the TT genotype. These findings, if confirmed, will help for the development of personalized prevention strategies for colorectal cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Mean magnesium intake in the US population does not differ from that in East Asian populations with traditionally low risks of colorectal cancer and other chronic diseases, but the ratio of calcium to magnesium (Ca:Mg) intake is much higher in the US population. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a newly found gene essential to magnesium absorption and homeostasis.
OBJECTIVE - We aimed to test whether the association of colorectal polyps with intake of calcium, magnesium, or both and Thr1482Ile polymorphism in the TRPM7 gene is modified by the Ca:Mg intake.
DESIGN - Included in the study were a total of 688 adenoma cases, 210 hyperplastic polyp cases, and 1306 polyp-free controls from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study.
RESULTS - We found that total magnesium consumption was linked to a significantly lower risk of colorectal adenoma, particularly in those subjects with a low Ca:Mg intake. An inverse association trend was found for hyperplastic polyps. We also found that the common Thr1482Ile polymorphism was associated with an elevated risk of both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Moreover, this polymorphism significantly interacted with the Ca:Mg intake in relation to both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. The subjects who carried >or=1 1482Ile allele and who consumed diets with a high Ca:Mg intake were at a higher risk of adenoma (odds ratio: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.29) and hyperplastic polyps (odds ratio: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.14) than were the subjects who did not carry the polymorphism.
CONCLUSION - These findings, if confirmed, may provide a new avenue for the personalized prevention of magnesium deficiency and, thus, colorectal cancer.