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Late immune consequences of combat trauma: a review of trauma-related immune dysfunction and potential therapies.
Thompson KB, Krispinsky LT, Stark RJ
(2019) Mil Med Res 6: 11
MeSH Terms: Adaptive Immunity, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Immunomodulation, Military Personnel, Multiple Organ Failure, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Wound Healing, Wounds and Injuries
Show Abstract · Added April 25, 2019
With improvements in personnel and vehicular body armor, robust casualty evacuation capabilities, and damage control resuscitation strategies, more combat casualties are surviving to reach higher levels of care throughout the casualty evacuation system. As such, medical centers are becoming more accustomed to managing the deleterious late consequences of combat trauma related to the dysregulation of the immune system. In this review, we aim to highlight these late consequences and identify areas for future research and therapeutic strategies. Trauma leads to the dysregulation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses, which places the injured at risk for several late consequences, including delayed wound healing, late onset sepsis and infection, multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which are significant for their association with the increased morbidity and mortality of wounded personnel. The mechanisms by which these consequences develop are complex but include an imbalance of the immune system leading to robust inflammatory responses, triggered by the presence of damage-associated molecules and other immune-modifying agents following trauma. Treatment strategies to improve outcomes have been difficult to develop as the immunophenotype of injured personnel following trauma is variable, fluid and difficult to determine. As more information regarding the triggers that lead to immune dysfunction following trauma is elucidated, it may be possible to identify the immunophenotype of injured personnel and provide targeted treatments to reduce the late consequences of trauma, which are known to lead to significant morbidity and mortality.
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9 MeSH Terms
A Two-Biomarker Model Predicts Mortality in the Critically Ill with Sepsis.
Mikacenic C, Price BL, Harju-Baker S, O'Mahony DS, Robinson-Cohen C, Radella F, Hahn WO, Katz R, Christiani DC, Himmelfarb J, Liles WC, Wurfel MM
(2017) Am J Respir Crit Care Med 196: 1004-1011
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Angiopoietins, Biomarkers, Cohort Studies, Critical Illness, Female, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Predictive Value of Tests, Prospective Studies, Sepsis, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
Show Abstract · Added September 19, 2017
RATIONALE - Improving the prospective identification of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis at low risk for organ dysfunction and death is a major clinical challenge.
OBJECTIVES - To develop and validate a multibiomarker-based prediction model for 28-day mortality in critically ill patients with SIRS and sepsis.
METHODS - A derivation cohort (n = 888) and internal test cohort (n = 278) were taken from a prospective study of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients meeting two of four SIRS criteria at an academic medical center for whom plasma was obtained within 24 hours. The validation cohort (n = 759) was taken from a prospective cohort enrolled at another academic medical center ICU for whom plasma was obtained within 48 hours. We measured concentrations of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, IL-6, IL-8, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and soluble Fas.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - We identified a two-biomarker model in the derivation cohort that predicted mortality (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve [AUC], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.83). It performed well in the internal test cohort (AUC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.85) and the external validation cohort (AUC, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.83). We determined a model score threshold demonstrating high negative predictive value (0.95) for death. In addition to a low risk of death, patients below this threshold had shorter ICU length of stay, lower incidence of acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and need for vasopressors.
CONCLUSIONS - We have developed a simple, robust biomarker-based model that identifies patients with SIRS/sepsis at low risk for death and organ dysfunction.
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18 MeSH Terms
Impact of intravenous fluid composition on outcomes in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
Shaw AD, Schermer CR, Lobo DN, Munson SH, Khangulov V, Hayashida DK, Kellum JA
(2015) Crit Care 19: 334
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Crystalloid Solutions, Female, Fluid Therapy, Humans, Infusions, Intravenous, Isotonic Solutions, Length of Stay, Male, Middle Aged, Severity of Illness Index, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Treatment Outcome, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added October 20, 2015
INTRODUCTION - Intravenous (IV) fluids may be associated with complications not often attributed to fluid type. Fluids with high chloride concentrations such as 0.9 % saline have been associated with adverse outcomes in surgery and critical care. Understanding the association between fluid type and outcomes in general hospitalized patients may inform selection of fluid type in clinical practice. We sought to determine if the type of IV fluid administered to patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is associated with outcome.
METHODS - This was a propensity-matched cohort study in hospitalized patients receiving at least 500 mL IV crystalloid within 48 hours of SIRS. Patient data was extracted from a large multi-hospital electronic health record database between January 1, 2009, and March 31, 2013. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, readmission, and complications measured by ICD-9 coding and clinical definitions. Outcomes were adjusted for illness severity using the Acute Physiology Score. Of the 91,069 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 89,363 (98%) received 0.9% saline whereas 1706 (2%) received a calcium-free balanced solution as the primary fluid.
RESULTS - There were 3116 well-matched patients, 1558 in each cohort. In comparison with the calcium-free balanced cohort, the saline cohort experienced greater in-hospital mortality (3.27% vs. 1.03%, P <0.001), length of stay (4.87 vs. 4.38 days, P = 0.016), frequency of readmission at 60 (13.54 vs. 10.91, P = 0.025) and 90 days (16.56 vs. 12.58, P = 0.002) and frequency of cardiac, infectious, and coagulopathy complications (all P < 0.002). Outcomes were defined by administrative coding and clinically were internally consistent. Patients in the saline cohort received more chloride and had electrolyte abnormalities requiring replacement more frequently (P < 0.001). No differences were found in acute renal failure.
CONCLUSIONS - In this large electronic health record, the predominant use of 0.9% saline in patients with SIRS was associated with significantly greater morbidity and mortality compared with predominant use of balanced fluids. The signal is consistent with that reported previously in perioperative and critical care patients. Given the large population of hospitalized patients receiving IV fluids, these differences may confer treatment implications and warrant corroboration via large clinical trials.
TRIAL REGISTRATION - NCT02083198 clinicaltrials.gov; March 5, 2014.
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17 MeSH Terms
Association between intravenous chloride load during resuscitation and in-hospital mortality among patients with SIRS.
Shaw AD, Raghunathan K, Peyerl FW, Munson SH, Paluszkiewicz SM, Schermer CR
(2014) Intensive Care Med 40: 1897-905
MeSH Terms: Administration, Intravenous, Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Chlorides, Colloids, Critical Illness, Female, Fluid Therapy, Hospital Mortality, Humans, Intensive Care Units, Male, Middle Aged, Resuscitation, Retrospective Studies, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Water-Electrolyte Imbalance, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added October 20, 2015
PURPOSE - Recent data suggest that both elevated serum chloride levels and volume overload may be harmful during fluid resuscitation. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the intravenous chloride load and in-hospital mortality among patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), with and without adjustment for the crystalloid volume administered.
METHODS - We conducted a retrospective analysis of 109,836 patients ≥ 18 years old that met criteria for SIRS and received fluid resuscitation with crystalloids. We examined the association between changes in serum chloride concentration, the administered chloride load and fluid volume, and the 'volume-adjusted chloride load' and in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS - In general, increases in the serum chloride concentration were associated with increased mortality. Mortality was lowest (3.7%) among patients with minimal increases in serum chloride concentration (0-10 mmol/L) and when the total administered chloride load was low (3.5% among patients receiving 100-200 mmol; P < 0.05 versus patients receiving ≥ 500 mmol). After controlling for crystalloid fluid volume, mortality was lowest (2.6%) when the volume-adjusted chloride load was 105-115 mmol/L. With adjustment for severity of illness, the odds of mortality increased (1.094, 95% CI 1.062, 1.127) with increasing volume-adjusted chloride load (≥ 105 mmol/L).
CONCLUSIONS - Among patients with SIRS, a fluid resuscitation strategy employing lower chloride loads was associated with lower in-hospital mortality. This association was independent of the total fluid volume administered and remained significant after adjustment for severity of illness, supporting the hypothesis that crystalloids with lower chloride content may be preferable for managing patients with SIRS.
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20 MeSH Terms
Sepsis in cirrhosis: report on the 7th meeting of the International Ascites Club.
Wong F, Bernardi M, Balk R, Christman B, Moreau R, Garcia-Tsao G, Patch D, Soriano G, Hoefs J, Navasa M, International Ascites Club
(2005) Gut 54: 718-25
MeSH Terms: Antibiotic Prophylaxis, Bacterial Infections, Bacterial Translocation, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Humans, Liver Cirrhosis, Sepsis, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Terminology as Topic
Show Abstract · Added February 19, 2015
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to the presence of infection, mediated via the production of many cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF-), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1, which cause changes in the circulation and in the coagulation cascade. There is stagnation of blood flow and poor oxygenation, subclinical coagulopathy with elevated D-dimers, and increased production of superoxide from nitric oxide synthase. All of these changes favour endothelial apoptosis and necrosis as well as increased oxidant stress. Reduced levels of activated protein C, which is normally anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic, can lead to further tissue injury. Cirrhotic patients are particularly susceptible to bacterial infections because of increased bacterial translocation, possibly related to liver dysfunction and reduced reticuloendothelial function. Sepsis ensues when there is overactivation of pathways involved in the development of the sepsis syndrome, associated with complications such as renal failure, encephalopathy, gastrointestinal bleed, and shock with decreased survival. Thus the treating physician needs to be vigilant in diagnosing and treating bacterial infections in cirrhosis early, in order to prevent the development and downward spiral of the sepsis syndrome. Recent advances in management strategies of infections in cirrhosis have helped to improve the prognosis of these patients. These include the use of prophylactic antibiotics in patients with gastrointestinal bleed to prevent infection and the use of albumin in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis to reduce the incidence of renal impairment. The use of antibiotics has to be judicious, as their indiscriminate use can lead to antibiotic resistance with potentially disastrous consequences.
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9 MeSH Terms
Plasma cytokine levels predict mortality in patients with acute renal failure.
Simmons EM, Himmelfarb J, Sezer MT, Chertow GM, Mehta RL, Paganini EP, Soroko S, Freedman S, Becker K, Spratt D, Shyr Y, Ikizler TA, PICARD Study Group
(2004) Kidney Int 65: 1357-65
MeSH Terms: Acute Kidney Injury, Aged, Biomarkers, C-Reactive Protein, Case-Control Studies, Cohort Studies, Critical Illness, Cytokines, Female, Humans, Inflammation, Inflammation Mediators, Interleukin-10, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Male, Middle Aged, Predictive Value of Tests, Prospective Studies, Renal Dialysis, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Show Abstract · Added September 29, 2014
BACKGROUND - Critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF) experience a high mortality rate. Animal and human studies suggest that proinflammatory cytokines lead to the development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is temporally followed by a counter anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). This process has not been specifically described in critically ill patients with ARF.
METHODS - The Program to Improve Care in Acute Renal Disease (PICARD) is a prospective, multicenter cohort study designed to examine the natural history, practice patterns, and outcomes of treatment in critically ill patients with ARF. In a subset of 98 patients with ARF, we measured plasma proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)], the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at study enrollment and over the course of illness.
RESULTS - When compared with healthy subjects and end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis, patients with ARF had significantly higher plasma levels of all measured cytokines. Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in nonsurvivors versus survivors [median 234.7 (interdecile range 64.8 to 1775.9) pg/mL vs. 113.5 (46.1 to 419.3) pg/mL, P= 0.02 for IL-6; 35.5 (14.1 to 237.9) pg/mL vs. 21.2 (8.5 to 87.1) pg/mL, P= 0.03 for IL-8]. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was also significantly higher in nonsurvivors [3.1 (0.5 to 41.9) pg/mL vs. 2.4 (0.5 to 16.9) pg/mL, P= 0.04]. For each natural log unit increase in the levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, the odds of death increased by 65%, 54%, and 34%, respectively, corresponding to increases in relative risk of approximately 30%, 25%, and 15%. The presence or absence of SIRS or sepsis was not a major determinant of plasma cytokine concentration in this group of patients.
CONCLUSION - There is evidence of ongoing SIRS with concomitant CARS in critically ill patients with ARF, with higher levels of plasma IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in patients with ARF who die during hospitalization. Strategies to modulate inflammation must take into account the complex cytokine biology in patients with established ARF.
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22 MeSH Terms
Repair of metabolic processes.
Shipman J, Guy J, Abumrad NN
(2003) Crit Care Med 31: S512-7
MeSH Terms: Acute-Phase Reaction, Autonomic Nervous System, Critical Illness, Energy Metabolism, Growth Hormone, Homeostasis, Humans, Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System, Inflammation Mediators, Insulin, Somatomedins, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, T-Lymphocytes
Added December 10, 2013
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13 MeSH Terms
Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis.
Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut JF, Lopez-Rodriguez A, Steingrub JS, Garber GE, Helterbrand JD, Ely EW, Fisher CJ, Recombinant human protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) study group
(2001) N Engl J Med 344: 699-709
MeSH Terms: Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal, Double-Blind Method, Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products, Fibrinolytic Agents, Hemorrhage, Humans, Infections, Interleukin-6, Prospective Studies, Protein C, Recombinant Proteins, Risk, Survival Analysis, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
BACKGROUND - Drotrecogin alfa (activated), or recombinant human activated protein C, has antithrombotic, antiinflammatory, and profibrinolytic properties. In a previous study, drotrecogin alfa activated produced dose-dependent reductions in the levels of markers of coagulation and inflammation in patients with severe sepsis. In this phase 3 trial, we assessed whether treatment with drotrecogin alfa activated reduced the rate of death from any cause among patients with severe sepsis.
METHODS - We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Patients with systemic inflammation and organ failure due to acute infection were enrolled and assigned to receive an intravenous infusion of either placebo or drotrecogin alfa activated (24 microg per kilogram of body weight per hour) for a total duration of 96 hours. The prospectively defined primary end point was death from any cause and was assessed 28 days after the start of the infusion. Patients were monitored for adverse events; changes in vital signs, laboratory variables, and the results of microbiologic cultures; and the development of neutralizing antibodies against activated protein C.
RESULTS - A total of 1690 randomized patients were treated (840 in the placebo group and 850 in the drotrecogin alfa activated group). The mortality rate was 30.8 percent in the placebo group and 24.7 percent in the drotrecogin alfa activated group. On the basis of the prospectively defined primary analysis, treatment with drotrecogin alfa activated was associated with a reduction in the relative risk of death of 19.4 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 6.6 to 30.5) and an absolute reduction in the risk of death of 6.1 percent (P=0.005). The incidence of serious bleeding was higher in the drotrecogin alfa activated group than in the placebo group (3.5 percent vs. 2.0 percent, P=0.06).
CONCLUSIONS - Treatment with drotrecogin alfa activated significantly reduces mortality in patients with severe sepsis and may be associated with an increased risk of bleeding.
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14 MeSH Terms
Multiorgan nuclear factor kappa B activation in a transgenic mouse model of systemic inflammation.
Blackwell TS, Yull FE, Chen CL, Venkatakrishnan A, Blackwell TR, Hicks DJ, Lancaster LH, Christman JW, Kerr LD
(2000) Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162: 1095-101
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cytokines, DNA, Complementary, HIV Enhancer, Humans, Lipopolysaccharides, Luciferases, Lung, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Inbred DBA, Mice, Transgenic, RNA, Messenger, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
We utilized a line of transgenic mice expressing Photinus luciferase complementary DNA (cDNA) under the control of a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB)-dependent promoter (from the 5' human immunodeficiency virus-1 [HIV-1] long terminal repeat) to examine the role of NF-kappaB activation in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). After intraperitoneal injection of E. coli LPS, these mice displayed a time- and dose-dependent, organ-specific pattern of luciferase expression, showing that NF-kappaB-dependent gene transcription is transiently activated in multiple organs by systemic LPS administration. Luciferase expression in liver could be specifically blocked by intravenous administration of replication-deficient adenoviral vectors expressing a dominant inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaB-alphaDN), confirming that luciferase gene expression is a surrogate marker for NF-kappaB activation in this line of mice. After treatment with intraperitoneal LPS, the mice were found to have increased lung tissue messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of a variety of cytokines that are thought to be NF-kappaB-dependent, as well as elevated serum concentrations of presumed NF-kappaB-dependent cytokines. In lung tissue homogenates, a close correlation was identified between luciferase activity and KC levels. These studies show that systemic treatment with LPS orchestrates a multiorgan NF-kappaB-dependent response that likely regulates the pathobiology of systemic inflammation.
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14 MeSH Terms
The role of nuclear factor-kappa B in pulmonary diseases.
Christman JW, Sadikot RT, Blackwell TS
(2000) Chest 117: 1482-7
MeSH Terms: Animals, Humans, Inflammation Mediators, Lung Diseases, NF-kappa B, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a family of DNA-binding protein factors that are required for transcription of most proinflammatory molecules, including adhesion molecules, enzymes, cytokines, and chemokines. NF-kappaB activation seems to be a key early event in a variety of cell and animal model systems developed to elucidate the pathobiology of lung diseases. The purpose of this short review is to describe what is known about the molecular biology of NF-kappaB and to review information that implicates NF-kappaB in the pathogenesis of lung disease, including ARDS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, asthma, respiratory viral infections, occupational and environmental lung disease, and cystic fibrosis.
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6 MeSH Terms