The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Islet β cells from newborn mammals exhibit high basal insulin secretion and poor glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Here we show that β cells of newborns secrete more insulin than adults in response to similar intracellular Ca concentrations, suggesting differences in the Ca sensitivity of insulin secretion. Synaptotagmin 4 (Syt4), a non-Ca binding paralog of the β cell Ca sensor Syt7, increased by ∼8-fold during β cell maturation. Syt4 ablation increased basal insulin secretion and compromised GSIS. Precocious Syt4 expression repressed basal insulin secretion but also impaired islet morphogenesis and GSIS. Syt4 was localized on insulin granules and Syt4 levels inversely related to the number of readily releasable vesicles. Thus, transcriptional regulation of Syt4 affects insulin secretion; Syt4 expression is regulated in part by Myt transcription factors, which repress Syt4 transcription. Finally, human SYT4 regulated GSIS in EndoC-βH1 cells, a human β cell line. These findings reveal the role that altered Ca sensing plays in regulating β cell maturation.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) directs the synthesis of viral RNA on discrete membranous complexes that are distributed throughout the cell cytoplasm. These putative replication complexes are composed of intimately associated but biochemically distinct membrane populations, each of which contains proteins processed from the replicase (gene 1) polyprotein. Specifically, one membrane population contains the gene 1 proteins p65 and p1a-22, while the other contains the gene 1 proteins p28 and helicase, as well as the structural nucleocapsid (N) protein and newly synthesized viral RNA. In this study, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy was used to define the relationship of the membrane populations comprising the putative replication complexes at different times of infection in MHV-A59-infected delayed brain tumor cells. At 5.5 h postinfection (p.i.) the membranes containing N and helicase colocalized with the membranes containing p1a-22/p65 at foci distinct from sites of M accumulation. By 8 to 12 h p.i., however, the membranes containing helicase and N had a predominantly perinuclear distribution and colocalized with M. In contrast, the p1a-22/p65-containing membranes retained a peripheral, punctate distribution at all times of infection and did not colocalize with M. By late times of infection, helicase, N, and M each also colocalized with ERGIC p53, a specific marker for the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi-intermediate compartment. These data demonstrated that the putative replication complexes separated into component membranes that relocalized during the course of infection. These results suggest that the membrane populations within the MHV replication complex serve distinct functions both in RNA synthesis and in delivery of replication products to sites of virus assembly.
Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
A genetic map of nine loci defined by polymorphic DNA markers was created using a single cross of F344/N and LEW/N rats. The markers contained polymorphic simple sequence repeats identified in five genes, renin (Ren), cardiac troponin T (Tnnt3), synaptotagmin (Syt2), Na+,K(+)-ATPase catalytic subunit (Atp1a2), and the Asp-, Gly-, Glu-, and Leu-tRNA gene cluster (Trnegl), as well as four anonymous DNA segments. Analysis of the segregation of the alleles of these markers in F2 intercross progeny of F344/N and LEW/N rats indicated the following locus order and distances between pairs of loci: D13N1-5 cM-Ren-1 cM-Tntt3-0 cM-Syt2-12 cM-D13N2-25 cM-Atp1a2-0 cM-Trnegl-7 cM-D13N3-4 cM-D13N4. Three of the loci, Ren, Trnegl, and Atp1a2, have previously been assigned to rat chromosome 13. Except for Ren, none of the loci have previously been mapped by linkage analysis. The markers for these loci were characterized in a total of 13 inbred rat strains (F344/N, LEW/N, LOU/MN, WBB1/N, WBB2/N, MR/N, MNR/N, ACI/N, SHR/N, WKY/N, BN/SsN, BUF/N, and LER/N) and were found to be highly polymorphic, with two to eight alleles detected for each marker. These markers expand the genetic map of the rat and should be valuable tools for future genetic studies. An examination of human and mouse comparative map information for all loci assigned to rat chromosome 13 shows significant synteny conservation with the q arm of human chromosome 1 and the distal portion of mouse chromosome 1.