The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
BACKGROUND - We sought to determine the outcome of suicidal hanging and the impact of targeted temperature management (TTM) on hanging-induced cardiac arrest (CA) through an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) multicenter retrospective study.
METHODS - We analyzed hanging patient data and TTM variables from January 1992 to December 2015. Cerebral performance category score of 1 or 2 was considered good neurologic outcome, while cerebral performance category score of 3 or 4 was considered poor outcome. Classification and Regression Trees recursive partitioning was used to develop multivariate predictive models for survival and neurologic outcome.
RESULTS - A total of 692 hanging patients from 17 centers were analyzed for this study. Their overall survival rate was 77%, and the CA survival rate was 28.6%. The CA patients had significantly higher severity of illness and worse outcome than the non-CA patients. Of the 175 CA patients who survived to hospital admission, 81 patients (46.3%) received post-CA TTM. The unadjusted survival of TTM CA patients (24.7% vs 39.4%, p < 0.05) and good neurologic outcome (19.8% vs 37.2%, p < 0.05) were worse than non-TTM CA patients. However, when subgroup analyses were performed between those with an admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 to 8, the differences between TTM and non-TTM CA survival (23.8% vs 30.0%, p = 0.37) and good neurologic outcome (18.8% vs 28.7%, p = 0.14) were not significant. Targeted temperature management implementation and post-CA management varied between the participating centers. Classification and Regression Trees models identified variables predictive of favorable and poor outcome for hanging and TTM patients with excellent accuracy.
CONCLUSION - Cardiac arrest hanging patients had worse outcome than non-CA patients. Targeted temperature management CA patients had worse unadjusted survival and neurologic outcome than non-TTM patients. These findings may be explained by their higher severity of illness, variable TTM implementation, and differences in post-CA management. Future prospective studies are necessary to ascertain the effect of TTM on hanging outcome and to validate our Classification and Regression Trees models.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE - Therapeutic study, level IV; prognostic study, level III.
BACKGROUND - The impact of re-resection of a positive intraoperative bile duct margin on clinical outcomes for resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) remains controversial. We sought to define the impact of re-resection of an initially positive frozen-section bile duct margin on outcomes of patients undergoing surgery for HCCA.
METHODS - Patients who underwent curative-intent resection for HCCA between 2000 and 2014 were identified at 10 hepatobiliary centers. Short- and long-term outcomes were analyzed among patients stratified by margin status.
RESULTS - Among 215 (83.7%) patients who underwent frozen-section evaluation of the bile duct, 80 (37.2%) patients had a positive (R1) ductal margin, 58 (72.5%) underwent re-resection, and 29 ultimately had a secondary negative margin (secondary R0). There was no difference in morbidity, 30-day mortality, and length of stay among patients who had primary R0, secondary R0, and R1 resection (all p > 0.10). Median and 5-year survival were 22.3 months and 23.3%, respectively, among patients who had a primary R0 resection compared with 18.5 months and 7.9%, respectively, for patients with an R1 resection (p = 0.08). In contrast, among patients who had a secondary R0 margin with re-resection of the bile duct margin, median and 5-year survival were 30.6 months and 44.3%, respectively, which was comparable to patients with a primary R0 margin (p = 0.804). On multivariable analysis, R1 margin resection was associated with decreased survival (R1: hazard ratio [HR] 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.7; p = 0.027), but secondary R0 resection was associated with comparable long-term outcomes as primary R0 resection (HR 0.9, 95% CI 0.4-2.3; p = 0.829).
CONCLUSIONS - Additional resection of a positive frozen-section ductal margin to achieve R0 resection was associated with improved long-term outcomes following curative-intent resection of HCCA.
BACKGROUND - The risk of recurrence after resection of non-metastatic gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) is poorly defined. We developed/validated a nomogram to predict risk of recurrence after curative-intent resection.
METHODS - A training set to develop the nomogram and test set for validation were identified. The predictive ability of the nomogram was assessed using c-indices.
RESULTS - Among 1477 patients, 673 (46%) were included in the training set and 804 (54%) in y the test set. On multivariable analysis, Ki-67, tumor size, nodal status, and invasion of adjacent organs were independent predictors of DFS. The risk of death increased by 8% for each percentage increase in the Ki-67 index (HR 1.08, 95% CI, 1.05-1.10; P < 0.001). GEP-NET invading adjacent organs had a HR of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.03-2.65; P = 0.038), similar to tumors ≥3 cm (HR 1.67, 95% CI, 1.11-2.51; P = 0.014). Patients with 1-3 positive nodes and patients with >3 positive nodes had a HR of 1.81 (95% CI, 1.12-2.87; P = 0.014) and 2.51 (95% CI, 1.50-4.24; P < 0.001), respectively. The nomogram demonstrated good ability to predict risk of recurrence (c-index: training set, 0.739; test set, 0.718).
CONCLUSION - The nomogram was able to predict the risk of recurrence and can be easily applied in the clinical setting.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BACKGROUND - The objective of this study was to determine the impact of caudate resection on margin status and outcomes during resection of extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
METHODS - A database of 1,092 patients treated for biliary malignancies at institutions of the Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium was queried for individuals undergoing curative-intent resection for extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Patients who did versus did not undergo concomitant caudate resection were compared with regard to demographic, baseline, and tumor characteristics as well as perioperative outcomes.
RESULTS - A total of 241 patients underwent resection for a hilar cholangiocarcinoma, of whom 85 underwent caudate resection. Patients undergoing caudate resection were less likely to have a final positive margin (P = .01). Kaplan-Meier curve of overall survival for patients undergoing caudate resection indicated no improvement over patients not undergoing caudate resection (P = .16). On multivariable analysis, caudate resection was not associated with improved overall survival or recurrence-free survival, although lymph node positivity was associated with worse overall survival and recurrence-free survival, and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was associated with improved overall survival and recurrence-free survival.
CONCLUSION - Caudate resection is associated with a greater likelihood of margin-negative resection in patients with extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Precise preoperative imaging is critical to assess the extent of biliary involvement, so that all degrees of hepatic resections are possible at the time of the initial operation.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Curative-intent treatment for localized hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) requires surgical resection. However, the effect of adjuvant therapy (AT) on survival is unclear. We analyzed the impact of AT on overall (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) in patients undergoing curative resection.
METHODS - We reviewed patients with resected HC between 2000 and 2015 from the ten institutions participating in the U.S. Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. We analyzed the impact of AT on RFS and OS. The probability of RFS and OS were calculated in the method of Kaplan and Meier and analyzed using multivariate Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS - A total of 249 patients underwent curative resection for HC. Patients who received AT and those who did not had similar demographic and preoperative features. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, AT conferred a significant protective effect on OS (HR 0.58, P = 0.013), and this was maintained in a propensity matched analysis (HR 0.66, P = 0.033). The protective effect of AT remained significant when node negative patients were excluded (HR 0.28, P = 0.001), while it disappeared (HR 0.76, P = 0.260) when node positive patients were excluded.
CONCLUSIONS - AT should be strongly considered after curative-intent resection for HC, particularly in patients with node positive disease.
© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - The objective of the current study was to define long-term survival of patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) after preoperative percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) versus endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD).
METHODS - Between 2000 and 2014, 240 patients who underwent curative-intent resection for HCCA were identified at 10 major hepatobiliary centers. Postoperative morbidity and mortality, as well as disease-specific survival (DSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed among patients.
RESULTS - The median decrease in total bilirubin levels after biliary drainage was similar comparing PTBD (n = 104) versus EBD (n = 92) (mg/dL, 4.9 vs 4.9, P = 0.589) before surgery. There was no difference in baseline demographic characteristics, type of surgical procedure performed, final AJCC tumor stage or postoperative morbidity among patients who underwent EBD only versus PTBD (all P > 0.05). Patients who underwent PTBD versus EBD had a comparable long-term DSS (median, 43.7 vs 36.9 months, P = 0.802) and RFS (median, 26.7 vs 24.0 months, P = 0.571). The overall pattern of recurrence relative to regional or distant disease was also the same among patients undergoing PTBD and EBD (P = 0.669) CONCLUSIONS: Oncologic outcomes including DSS and RFS were similar among patients who underwent PTBD versus EBD with no difference in tumor recurrence location.
© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BACKGROUND - A subset of patients with rectal cancer who undergo neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy will develop a complete pathologic tumor response. Complete nodal response is not universal in these patients and is difficult to assess clinically. Quantifying the risk of nodal disease would allow for targeted therapy with either radical resection or "watchful waiting."
OBJECTIVE - This study aimed to identify risk factors for residual nodal disease in ypT0 rectal adenocarcinoma.
DESIGN - This is a retrospective case control study.
SETTINGS - The National Cancer Database 2006 to 2014 was used to identify patients for this study.
PATIENTS - Patients with stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma who completed chemoradiation therapy followed by resection and who had ypT0 tumors were included. Patients with metastatic disease and <2 lymph nodes evaluated were excluded. Patients were divided into 2 groups: node positive and node negative.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - The main outcome was nodal disease. The secondary outcome was overall survival.
RESULTS - A total of 42,257 patients with stage II/III rectal cancer underwent chemoradiation therapy and radical resection; 4170 (9.9%) patients had ypT0 tumors and 395 (9.5%) were node positive. Of patients with clinically node-negative disease (ie, pretreatment imaging), 6.2% were node positive after chemoradiation therapy and resection. In multivariable analysis, factors predictive of nodal disease included increasing (pretreatment) clinical N-stage, high tumor grade (3/4), perineural invasion, and lymphovascular invasion. Higher clinical T-stage was inversely associated with residual nodal disease. Overall 5-year survival was significantly different between patients with ypN0, ypN1, and ypN2 disease (87.4%, 82.2%, and 62.5%, p = 0.002).
LIMITATIONS - This study was limited by the lack of clinical detail in the database and the inability to assess recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS - Ten percent of patients with ypT0 tumors had positive nodes after chemoradiation therapy and resection. Factors associated with residual nodal disease included clinical nodal disease at diagnosis and poor histologic features. Patients with any of these features should consider radical resection regardless of tumor response. Others could be suitable for "watchful waiting" strategies. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A458.
Importance - Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is diagnosed by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) value of at least 25 mm Hg during right heart catheterization (RHC). While several studies have demonstrated increased mortality in patients with mPAP less than that threshold, little is known about the natural history of borderline PH.
Objective - To test the hypothesis that patients with borderline PH have decreased survival compared with patients with lower mPAP and frequently develop overt PH and to identify clinical correlates of borderline PH.
Design, Setting, and Participants - Retrospective cohort study from 1998 to 2014 at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, comprising all patients undergoing routine RHC for clinical indication. We extracted demographics, clinical data, invasive hemodynamics, echocardiography, and vital status for all patients. Patients with mPAP values of 18 mm Hg or less, 19 to 24 mm Hg, and at least 25 mm Hg were classified as reference, borderline PH, and PH, respectively.
Exposures - Mean pulmonary arterial pressure.
Main Outcome and Measures - Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality after adjusting for clinically relevant covariates in a Cox proportional hazards model. Our secondary outcome was the diagnosis of overt PH in patients initially diagnosed with borderline PH. Both outcomes were determined prior to data analysis.
Results - We identified 4343 patients (mean [SD] age, 59  years, 51% women, and 86% white) among whom the prevalence of PH and borderline PH was 62% and 18%, respectively. Advanced age, features of the metabolic syndrome, and chronic heart and lung disease were independently associated with a higher likelihood of borderline PH compared with reference patients in a logistic regression model. After adjusting for 34 covariates in a Cox proportional hazards model, borderline PH was associated with increased mortality compared with reference patients (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65; P = .001). The hazard of death increased incrementally with higher mPAP, without an observed threshold. In the 70 patients with borderline PH who underwent a repeated RHC, 43 (61%) had developed overt PH, with a median increase in mPAP of 5 mm Hg (interquartile range, -1 to 11 mm Hg; P < .001).
Conclusions and Relevance - Borderline PH is common in patients undergoing RHC and is associated with significant comorbidities, progression to overt PH, and decreased survival. Small increases in mPAP, even at values currently considered normal, are independently associated with increased mortality. Prospective studies are warranted to determine whether early intervention or closer monitoring improves clinical outcomes in these patients.
OBJECTIVE - To investigate the influence of type of surgery (transplant vs resection) on overall survival (OS) in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (H-CCA).
BACKGROUND - Outcomes after resection for H-CCA are poor, yet transplantation is currently only reserved for well-selected patients with unresectable disease.
METHODS - All patients with H-CCA who underwent resection from 2000 to 2015 at 10 institutions were included. Three institutions additionally had active H-CCA transplant protocols with similar selection criteria over similar time periods.
RESULTS - Of 304 patients with suspected H-CCA, 234 underwent attempted resection and 70 were enrolled in a transplant protocol. Excluding incomplete/R2 resections (n = 43), patients who were enrolled, but did not undergo transplant (n = 24), and transplants without confirmed H-CCA diagnoses (n = 5), 191 patients underwent curative-intent resection and 41 curative-intent transplant. Compared with resection, transplant patients were younger (52 vs 65 years; P < 0.001), and more frequently had primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC; 61% vs 2%; P < 0.001) and received chemotherapy and/or radiation (98% vs 57%; P < 0.001). Groups were otherwise similar in demographics and comorbidities. Patients who underwent transplant for confirmed H-CCA diagnosis had improved OS compared with resection (3-year: 72% vs 33%; 5-year: 64% vs 18%; P < 0.001). Among patients who underwent resection for tumors <3 cm with lymph-node negative disease, and excluding PSC patients, transplant was still associated with improved OS (3-year: 54% vs 44%; 5-year: 54% vs 29%; P = 0.03). Transplant remained associated with improved survival on intention-to-treat analysis, even after accounting for tumor size, lymph node status, and PSC (P = 0.049).
CONCLUSIONS - Resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma that meets criteria for transplantation (<3 cm, lymph-node negative disease) is associated with substantially decreased survival compared to transplant for the same criteria with unresectable disease. Prospective trials are needed and justified.
BACKGROUND - The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) recently published the 8th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. Major changes were made to the staging algorithm for retroperitoneal sarcoma; however, whether these changes improve staging system performance is questionable.
METHODS - This retrospective cohort analysis of 3703 adult patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database compares a novel staging system incorporating histologic subtype of sarcoma with current and prior AJCC soft tissue sarcoma staging systems using multiple statistical techniques. The effect of tumor size on sarcoma-specific survival was also assessed by flexible, non-linear Cox proportional hazard regression using restricted cubic splines and fractional polynomials.
RESULTS - The relationship between the covariate-adjusted log hazard for disease-specific survival and tumor size is non-linear. Although the new AJCC T classification approximates this hazard fairly well, the overall prognostic impact of tumor size is limited after accounting for other predictive factors. Predictive accuracy and concordance indices of the AJCC 8th edition staging system for retroperitoneal sarcoma are significantly lower than the prior 7th edition. A proposed staging system incorporating histologic grade, tumor size, and histologic subtype is superior to both the AJCC 7th and 8th editions in predicting sarcoma-specific survival.
CONCLUSION - AJCC committees should not revise tumor staging algorithms unless the changes actually improve the staging system. A proposed staging scheme incorporating data regarding histologic subtype of sarcoma performs significantly better than both the 7th and 8th AJCC staging systems.