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We sought to replicate previous findings that low endogenous opioid (EO) function predicts greater morphine analgesia and extended these findings by examining whether circulating endocannabinoids and related lipids moderate EO-related predictive effects. Individuals with chronic low-back pain (n = 46) provided blood samples for endocannabinoid analyses, then underwent separate identical laboratory sessions under 3 drug conditions: saline placebo, intravenous (i.v.) naloxone (opioid antagonist; 12-mg total), and i.v. morphine (0.09-mg/kg total). During each session, participants rated low-back pain intensity, evoked heat pain intensity, and nonpain subjective effects 4 times in sequence after incremental drug dosing. Mean morphine effects (morphine-placebo difference) and opioid blockade effects (naloxone-placebo difference; to index EO function) for each primary outcome (low-back pain intensity, evoked heat pain intensity, and nonpain subjective effects) were derived by averaging across the 4 incremental doses. The association between EO function and morphine-induced back pain relief was significantly moderated by endocannabinoids [2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA)]. Lower EO function predicted greater morphine analgesia only for those with relatively lower endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids also significantly moderated EO effects on morphine-related changes in visual analog scale-evoked pain intensity (2-AG), drug liking (AEA and 2-AG), and desire to take again (AEA and 2-AG). In the absence of significant interactions, lower EO function predicted significantly greater morphine analgesia (as in past work) and euphoria. Results indicate that EO effects on analgesic and subjective responses to opioid medications are greatest when endocannabinoid levels are low. These findings may help guide development of mechanism-based predictors for personalized pain medicine algorithms.
OBJECTIVE - To assess drug reactions (ADRs) encountered by practicing urologists for contrast instilled into the urinary collecting system, and to describe current practice patterns regarding contrast administration into the urinary tract for patients with known contrast allergies.
METHODS - Endourological Society members were e-mailed a web-based survey about their prior experience with contrast-related ADRs and practices for contrast administration into the urinary tract among patients with known intravenous contrast allergies. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare management patterns between patients with established allergies and those without.
RESULTS - An estimated 2300-2500 e-mails were reached, resulting in an estimated response rate of 6.3%-8%. Over 75% of respondents were fellowship trained. Average time in practice was 16 years, and respondents performed a mean of 6.7 urologic contrast studies per week. Among respondents, 32.6%, 14.7%, and 4.0% had treated at least 1 patient with a mild, moderate, or severe reaction, respectively. Contrast-related ADRs were most commonly associated with retrograde pyelogram (50%). For patients with known contrast allergies, 5.4% pursue additional work-up before administering contrast in the urinary tract. Pretreatment with antihistamine or steroids is used by 24.8% and 23.4%, respectively. When performing retrograde pyelograms for such patients, urologists are more likely to use dilute contrast (P = .003), but otherwise do not significantly alter technique.
CONCLUSION - Contrast ADRs are encountered not infrequently among practicing urologists. There is notable practice variation in the management of patients with known contrast allergies, though the overall perceived risk of contrast use in these patients is low, provided good technique is used.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - The objective of this study was to assess toileting behaviors in community dwelling women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Women 18 years old or older were recruited through a national registry of research volunteers. They were asked to complete validated questionnaires assessing urinary symptoms and toileting behaviors, specifically place preference for voiding, convenience voiding, delayed voiding, straining during voiding and position preference for voiding. The PPBC (patient perception of bladder condition) was administered to assess the participant impression of bladder health. Analyses were done to determine the prevalence of each toileting behavior reported to occur sometimes or more often as well as differences in toileting behaviors in women with vs without self-perceived bladder problems based on the PPBC response.
RESULTS - The 6,695 women who completed the questionnaires were 18 to 89 years old (mean ± SD age 41.4 ± 15). Of the women 79.9% identified as white and 71.0% were college educated. Of the women 6,613 (98.8%) reported a place preference for voiding. The 3,552 women (53.1%) who reported a bladder problem were more likely to report convenience voiding, delayed voiding and strained voiding behaviors. While 6,657 women (99.4%) reported sitting to void at home only 5,108 (76.2%) reported sitting when using public toilets.
CONCLUSIONS - Certain toileting behaviors, of which some may be considered unhealthy, were common in this sample of women and most were associated with a perception of bladder problems. Voiding positions other than sitting were frequently used when away from home. These data have important implications for defining bladder health and implementing behavior based interventions for women with lower urinary tract symptoms.
PURPOSE - We investigated the relationship of painful bladder filling and urinary urgency to somatic and chronic pain symptoms in women with overactive bladder without an interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome diagnosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Women who met overactive bladder criteria based on symptoms were recruited, including 183 (83.9%) from the community and 35 (16.1%) from the urology clinic to complete validated questionnaires assessing urinary symptoms, somatic symptoms and pain syndromes. Participants were categorized into 1 of 3 groups, including 1) neither symptom, 2) either symptom or 3) both symptoms, based on their reports of painful urinary urgency and/or painful bladder filling. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine factors predictive of having painful urgency and/or painful filling.
RESULTS - Of 218 women with overactive bladder 101 (46%) had neither painful bladder filling nor urinary urgency, 94 (43%) had either symptom and 23 (11%) had both symptoms. When controlling for age, women with either or both urological pain symptoms were more likely to have irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pelvic pain and temporomandibular disorder than women in the neither group. Additionally, these women had higher pain intensity and somatic symptoms scores than women with neither symptom.
CONCLUSIONS - The majority of women with overactive bladder who had not been diagnosed with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome reported painful urgency and/or painful filling. Experiencing painful urgency and/or filling was associated with an increased somatic symptom burden and greater pain intensity. These findings support the hypothesis that overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome diagnoses may represent a continuum of bladder hypersensitivity.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
PURPOSE - Academic scientists work in competitive environments, and many institutions invest in career development supports. These investments may be imperiled when extraprofessional demands challenge a faculty member's reserve capacity. This research assessed prevalence of caregiving challenges and estimated incidence of stressful life events.
METHOD - In 2015-2016, the authors surveyed recipients of career development awards supporting ≥ 75% effort and individuals within the funding period of their first National Institutes of Health R01 or equivalent at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Domains included family structure, hospitalizations of family members, responsibility for coordination of caregiving, and an inventory of stressful life events.
RESULTS - Seventy-two percent (152 of 210) of early career researchers responded. Over half endorsed experiencing one or more substantial caregiving challenges in the prior year. This included 35 (23%) having a child or adult in the household hospitalized in the prior year and 36 (24%) being responsible for health care needs for a child or adult in the household, or for coordinating elder care, assisted living, or hospice care. The majority experienced one or more caregiving challenges. Stressful life events increased relative risk of "thinking about leaving academics" by 70% (risk ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.4). Prevalence and incidence of caregiving demands did not differ by gender.
CONCLUSIONS - Leaders, administrators, mentors, and faculty should anticipate that most women and men early career researchers will experience substantial caregiving challenges and life events in any given year. Sufficient need exists to warrant investigation of institutional programs to address caregiving challenges.
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES - The percentage of clinical scientists in radiology has historically been low. Increasing the pipeline of trainees interested in research could occur by recruiting MD-PhD trainees and providing protected research time during residency. The purpose of this work is to assess the attitudes of radiology program directors toward MD-PhD trainees, resident research productivity, and dedicated research time.
METHODS - An online survey was sent to residency program directors of all diagnostic radiology departments that received National Institutes of Health (NIH) awards in 2014 (n = 63). Survey questions included program size; perception of overall performance, clinical performance, and research productivity of MD-PhD residents compared to non-PhD residents; and presence of dedicated research time. Responses comparing MD-PhD residents to non-PhD residents were reported as a five-point Likert scale. Student t test was used to assess for significance (alpha = 0.05).
RESULTS - Response rate was 37%. Clinical performance of MD-PhD residents was judged inferior (P < .05) to non-PhD residents, although that of all residents engaged in research trended toward superiority compared to those not involved in research. Dedicated research time is offered by 61% of programs in years R1-R3 and all programs in year R4. Research productivity during residency was judged to be similar (P = .5) between MD-PhD and non-PhD residents.
CONCLUSIONS - Survey results suggest that clinical performance during residency and research involvement is often individually based and difficult to generalize based on prior PhD training. All programs offered dedicated research time, and the vast majority of residents were reported to engage in research during residency, which may increase the pipeline of trainees interested in an academic career.
Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - Little evidence exists regarding long-term diet quality and the risk of type 2 diabetes among Asian populations, who have undergone a nutrition transition and a diabetes epidemic.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 117,919 Chinese men and women, 40-74 years old, free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline, were followed from 1996 to 2015. Diet quality was assessed by a healthy diet score (HDS) based on eight commonly consumed food groups previously suggested to be related to diabetes. Long-term diet quality and its changes were assessed by repeated surveys using food-frequency questionnaires.
RESULTS - We identified 6,111 incident diabetes cases during a mean follow-up of 11.5 years. Higher HDS was associated with lower diabetes risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85 [95% CI 0.78-0.92] in the highest vs. lowest quintile, <0.0001) after adjustment for potential confounders including BMI. Maintaining a high HDS during follow-up was associated with 26% lower risk compared with a consistently low HDS (HR 0.74 [95% CI 0.63-0.85]). The inverse association between HDS and diabetes was observed regardless of participants' age, sex, smoking and exercise habits, obesity status, and metabolic disease status but was more prominent among those who participated in leisure-time exercise ( = 0.004). When considered jointly, a sustained high HDS plus exercise was associated with a 45% reduced risk of diabetes (HR 0.55 [95% CI 0.45-0.67]).
CONCLUSIONS - A high-quality diet, especially maintained over the long term and in conjunction with leisure-time exercise, is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes among urban Chinese adults.
© 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to understand the experience of parenting an adolescent with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), to develop a prototype of an eHealth program for parents of adolescents with T1DM, and to evaluate the prototype content and acceptability from the perspective of parents and health care providers. Methods A multiphase method was used generating both qualitative and quantitative data at multiple time points. There were 27 parents of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with T1DM and 16 health care providers who participated in semistructured interviews to identify parental challenges; 53 parents and 27 providers evaluated the prototype. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts, and descriptive statistics were used to summarize survey data. Results Challenges experienced by parents of adolescents with T1DM included understanding the developmental and hormonal changes of adolescence that affect diabetes care, feeling tension between adolescent independence and parent control, communicating without nagging or conflict, transferring diabetes care responsibility safely, dealing with feelings of stress and distress, and perceiving a lack of resources for T1DM care and insufficient personal time for self-care. In the prototype evaluation, both parents and providers found content to be relevant and provided feedback to guide the development of the full program. Conclusions Parents of adolescents with T1DM and providers expressed a need for parents to have more support in transitioning diabetes care from parent to adolescent. eHealth programs offer an ideal way to address these needs and ultimately can be linked to electronic medical records improving quality and efficiency of health care in this population.
OBJECTIVES - Sleep has physiological and behavioral impacts on diabetes outcomes, yet little is known about the impact of sleep disturbances in children with type 1 diabetes. The current study sought to characterize sleep in children with type 1 diabetes and in their parents and to examine the associations between child sleep, glycemic control and adherence, parent sleep and well-being, parental fear of hypoglycemia, and nocturnal caregiving behavior.
METHODS - Surveys were emailed to parents of 2- to 12-year-old participants in the Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Exchange clinic registry. Clinical data were obtained from the registry for the 515 respondents.
RESULTS - In our sample, 67% of children met criteria for poor sleep quality. Child sleep quality was related to glycemic control (HbA1c of 7.9% [63 mmol/mol] in children with poor sleep quality vs 7.6% [60 mmol/mol] in children with non-poor sleep quality; P < 0.001) but not mean frequency of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) (7.6 times/day vs 7.4 in poor/non-poor quality; P = 0.56). Associations were similar for sleep duration. Children with poor sleep quality were more likely to experience severe hypoglycemia (4% in children with poor sleep quality vs 1% in children with non-poor sleep quality; P = 0.05) and more likely to experience DKA (7% vs 4%, respectively; P < 0.001). Poorer child sleep quality was associated with poorer parental sleep quality, parental well-being, and fear of hypoglycemia (P < 0.001 for all). Child sleep was not related to the use of diabetes-related technology (CGM, insulin pump).
CONCLUSIONS - Sleep may be a modifiable factor to improve glycemic control and reduce parental distress.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Objective Osteoporosis, which is now recognized as a major comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), must be diagnosed by appropriate methods. The aims of this study were to clarify the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and COPD-related clinical variables and to explore the association of BMD with the updated Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification in men. Methods We enrolled 50 Japanese men with clinically stable COPD who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), pulmonary function testing, and computerized tomography (CT) and who had completed a questionnaire (COPD assessment test [CAT]). We determined the association between the T-score and other tested parameters and compared the BMD of patients in each GOLD category. Results Twenty-three of the 50 patients (46.0%) were diagnosed with osteopenia, and 7 (14.0%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The BMD findings were significantly correlated with the CAT score, forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentage predicted (FEV% predicted), low attenuation volume percentage (LAV%), and percentage of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels (%CSA) on CT images. Notably, the median T-score of the GOLD category D participants was significantly lower than that of the participants in each of the other categories (A [-0.98], B [-1.06], C [-1.05], and D [-2.19], p<0.05). Conclusion Reduced BMD was associated with airflow limitation, extent of radiographic findings, and a poor quality of life (QOL) in patients with COPD. The BMD of GOLD category D patients was the lowest of all of the patients evaluated, and category D patients may benefit from active intervention for osteoporosis.