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BACKGROUND - Abnormal mucus composition and bacterial biofilms are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of rhinosinusitis. Addition of a mucoactive surfactant to saline irrigation solution has been hypothesized to address these factors. We evaluated the safety and tolerability of a reformulated surfactant in a sample of normal subjects.
METHODS - A total of 33 volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either surfactant solution or buffered saline at baseline in a controlled crossover study design. Each subject underwent rhinoscopic exam and in-office smell testing via the 40-question smell identification test (SIT). Those with non-normosmic results or active rhinitis symptoms were excluded. Subjects were instructed to irrigate twice daily with the selected solution for 1 week while keeping a daily diary. For week 2, treatment was stopped. During week 3, each group switched to the other treatment. Exam, SIT, and degree of congestion were assessed after each phase.
RESULTS - Use of surfactant led to a marginal reduction in mean SIT score of 1.5 points, which was statistically significant (p = 0.012). A clinically meaningful reduction in SIT score, defined as ≥4 points, was observed in 18% (6/33) of subjects after surfactant vs 3% (1/33) after saline (p = 0.046). During the surfactant phase, moderate or severe congestion was reported in 29% (8/28) of subjects completing the diary. In contrast, only 6% (2/32) of subjects reported moderate congestion after the saline phase (p = 0.021).
CONCLUSION - In normal volunteers, surfactant nasal irrigation may be associated with tolerability issues due to congestion. A subset may experience reduction in olfactory acuity that appears reversible.
© 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Gold nanorods with varying aspect ratios have been utilized in recent years for a wide range of applications including vaccines, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates, and as medicinal therapeutic agents. The surfactant-directed seed mediated approach is an aqueous based protocol that produces monodisperse nanorods with controlled aspect ratios. However, an inherent problem with this approach is poor efficiency of gold conversion from HAuCl4 into nanorods. In fact only ∼15% of gold is converted, motivating the need for alternate synthetic protocols in order to make the process more scalable and efficient as gold nanorods progress toward commercial applications. In the current study, we have significantly improved this conversion by growing rods in several iterations of supernatant solutions that were previously discarded as waste. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data indicates ∼14% gold conversion per nanorod solution with a total recovery of ∼75%. Gold nanorods prepared in consecutive supernatant solutions generally have slightly increased aspect ratios and maintain stability and monodispersity as measured by UV-vis and TEM. The increased nanorod yield minimizes gold waste and results in a greener synthetic approach.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bimodal imaging agents that combine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nearinfrared (NIR) imaging formulated as nanoemulsions became increasingly popular for imaging inflammation in vivo. Quality of in vivo imaging using nanoemulsions is directly dependent on their integrity and stability. Here we report the design of nanoemulsions for bimodal imaging, where both photostability and colloidal stability are equally addressed. A highly chemically and photo stable quaterrylenediimide dye was introduced into perfluoro-15-crown-5 ether (PCE) nanoemulsions. The nanoemulsions were prepared with PCE and Miglyol 812N mixed at 1:1 v/v ratio as internal phase stabilized by non-ionic surfactants. Data shows exceptional colloidal stability demonstrated as unchanged droplet size (~130 nm) and polydispersity (<0.15) after 182 days follow up at both 4 and 25 °C. Nanoemulsions also sustained the exposure to mechanical and temperature stress, and prolonged exposure to light without changes in droplet size, (19)F signal or fluorescence signal. No toxicity was observed in vitro in model inflammatory cells upon 24 h exposure while confocal microscopy showed that nanoemulsions droplets accumulated in the cytoplasm. Overall, our data demonstrates that design of bimodal imaging agents requires consideration of stability of each imaging component and that of the nanosystem as a whole to achieve excellent imaging performance.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of lauriminodipropionic acid, sodium lauriminodipropionate, and disodium lauriminodipropionate as used in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics as hair-conditioning agents and surfactant-cleansing agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the safety of these ingredients in cosmetics. The Panel concluded that lauriminodipropionic acid, sodium lauriminodipropionate, and disodium lauriminodipropionate are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentration.
Two different techniques - replica-exchange Wang-Landau (REWL) and statistical temperature molecular dynamics (STMD) - were applied to systematically study the phase transition behavior of self-assembling lipids as a function of temperature using an off-lattice lipid model. Both methods allow the direct calculation of the density of states with improved efficiency compared to the original Wang-Landau method. A 3-segment model of amphiphilic lipids solvated in water has been studied with varied particle interaction energies (ε) and lipid concentrations. The phase behavior of the lipid molecules with respect to bilayer formation has been characterized through the calculation of the heat capacity as a function of temperature, in addition to various order parameters and general visual inspection. The simulations conducted by both methods can go to very low temperatures with the whole system exhibiting well-ordered structures. With optimized parameters, several bilayer phases are observed within the temperature range studied, including gel phase bilayers with frozen water, mixed water (i.e., frozen and liquid water), and liquid water, and a more fluid bilayer with liquid water. The results obtained from both methods, STMD and REWL, are consistently in excellent agreement with each other, thereby validating both the methods and the results.
The functions of alkyl benzoates in cosmetics include fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents--emollient, skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, preservatives, solvents, and plasticizers. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed the relevant animal and human data and noted gaps in the available safety data for some of the alkyl benzoates. Similar structure activity relationships, biologic functions, and cosmetic product usage allowed the available data of many of the alkyl benzoates to be extended to the entire group. Carcinogenicity data were not available, but available data indicated that these alkyl benzoate cosmetic ingredients are not genotoxic. Also benzoic acid and tested component alcohols were not reproductive or developmental toxicants, are not genotoxic in almost all assays, and are not carcinogenic. These ingredients were determined to be safe in the present practices of use and concentration.
The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of Alkyl PEG Ethers as used in cosmetics. These ingredients primarily function in cosmetics as surfactants, and some have additional functions as skin-conditioning agents, fragrance ingredients, and emulsion stabilizers. The Panel reviewed available relevant animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports; when data were not available for individual ingredients, the Panel extrapolated from the existing data to support safety. The Panel concluded that the Alkyl PEG ethers are safe as used when formulated to be nonirritating, and the same applies to future alkyl PEG ether cosmetic ingredients that vary from those ingredients recited herein only by the number of ethylene glycol repeat units.
The sodium salts of amino acids with hydrophobic fluorenyl methyloxy carbonyl (FMOC) group and short alkyl side chains are found to have surfactant properties. This was ascertained first through visual observation of concentration dependent solution behavior and then confirmed by tensiometry measurements. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) for the sodium salts of FMOC-l-valine, FMOC-L-leucine, and FMOC-L-isoleucine have been determined to be ~0.1 M. The sodium salt of FMOC-l-norleucine forms a gel at >0.2 M. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that these surfactants adopt bilayer structures. Three different chiroptical spectroscopic properties, namely optical rotation, electronic circular dichroism, and vibrational circular dichroism, are presented for these surfactants. The specific rotation is found to exhibit an unprecedented increase with concentration beyond CMC. This observation opens up a new area of research relating the concentration dependent increase in specific rotation to the size and shape of aggregates formed by the surfactants.
Xylene sulfonic acid, toluene sulfonic acid, and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes used in cosmetics as surfactants, hydrotropes, were reviewed in this safety assessment. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to these ingredients. The panel concluded that xylene sulfonic acid and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentrations as described in this safety assessment, when formulated to be nonirritating.