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The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria has accelerated the search for new antibiotics. Many clinically used antibacterials were discovered through culturing a single microbial species under nutrient-rich conditions, but in the environment, bacteria constantly encounter poor nutrient conditions and interact with neighboring microbial species. In an effort to recapitulate this environment, we generated a nine-strain actinomycete community and used 16S rDNA sequencing to deconvolute the stochastic production of antimicrobial activity that was not observed from any of the axenic cultures. We subsequently simplified the community to just two strains and identified sp. AA4 as the producing strain and M145 as an inducing strain. Bioassay-guided isolation identified amycomicin (AMY), a highly modified fatty acid containing an epoxide isonitrile warhead as a potent and specific inhibitor of Amycomicin targets an essential enzyme (FabH) in fatty acid biosynthesis and reduces infection in a mouse skin-infection model. The discovery of AMY demonstrates the utility of screening complex communities against specific targets to discover small-molecule antibiotics.
The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor has a complex life cycle involving the formation of hair-like aerial mycelia on the colony surface, which differentiate into chains of spores. Genes required for the initiation of aerial mycelium formation have been termed 'bld' (bald), describing the smooth, undifferentiated colonies of mutant strains. We report the identification of a new bld gene designated as sco3099 and biochemical analysis of its encoded enzyme, cytochrome P450 (P450, or CYP) 107U1. Deletion of sco3099 resulted in a mutant defective in aerial hyphae sporulation and sensitive to heat shock, indicating that P450 107U1 plays a key role in growth and development of S. coelicolor. This is the first P450 reported to participate in a sporulation process in Streptomycetes. The substrate and catalytic properties of P450 107U1 were further investigated in mass spectrometry-based metabolomic studies. Glycocholic acid (from the medium) was identified as a substrate of P450 107U1 and was oxidized to glyco-7-oxo-deoxycholic acid. Although this reaction is apparently not relevant to the observed sporulation deficiency, it suggests that P450 107U1 might exert its physiological function by oxidizing other steroid-like molecules.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coelibactin is a putative non-ribosomally synthesized peptide with predicted zincophore activity and which has been implicated in antibiotic regulation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The coelibactin biosynthetic pathway contains a stereo- and regio-specific monooxygenation step catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP105N1). We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of CYP105N1 at 2.9 Å and analyzed it in the context of the bacterial CYP105 family as a whole. The crystal structure reveals a channel between the α-helical domain and the β-sheet domain exposing the heme pocket and the long helix I to the solvent. This wide-open conformation of CYP105N1 may be related to the bulky substrate coelibactin. The ligand-free CYP105N1 structure has enough room in the substrate access channel to allow the coelibactin to enter into the active site. Analysis of typical siderophore ligands suggests that CYP105N1 may produce derivatives of coelibactin, which would then be able to chelate the zinc divalent cation.
Both CYP158A1 and CYP158A2 are able to catalyze an oxidative C-C coupling reaction producing biflaviolin or triflaviolin in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The substrate-bound crystal structures of CYP158A2 and CYP158A1 reveal that the side chain of Ile87 in CYP158A2 points to the active site contacting the distal flaviolin molecule, however, the bulkier side chain of Lys90 in CYP158A1 (corresponding to Ile87 in CYP158A2) is toward the distal surface of the protein. These results suggest that these residues could be important in determining product regiospecificity. In order to explore the role of the two residues in catalysis, the reciprocal mutants, Ile87Lys and Lys90Ile, of CYP158A2 and CYP158A1, respectively, were generated and characterized. The mutant Ile87Lys enzyme forms two isomers of biflaviolin instead of three isomers of biflaviolin in wild-type CYP158A2. CYP158A1 containing the substitution of lysine with isoleucine has the same catalytic activity compared with the wild-type CYP158A1. The crystal structure of Ile87Lys showed that the BC loop in the mutant is in a very different orientation compared with the BC loop in both CYP158A1/A2 structures. These results shed light on the mechanism of the oxidative coupling reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P450.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Albaflavenone, a tricyclic sesquiterpene antibiotic, is biosynthesized in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by enzymes encoded in a two-gene operon. Initially, sesquiterpene cyclase catalyzes the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to the terpenoid epi-isozizaene, which is oxidized to the final albaflavenone by cytochrome P450 (CYP)170A1. Additionally, this CYP is a bifunctional enzyme, being able to also generate farnesene isomers from farnesyl diphosphate, owing to a terpene synthase active site moonlighting on the CYP molecule. To explore the functionality of this operon in other streptomycetes, we have examined culture extracts by GC/MS and established the presence of albaflavenone in five Streptomyces species. Bioinformatics examination of the predicted CYP170 primary amino acid sequences revealed substitutions in the CYP terpene synthase active site. To examine whether the terpene synthase site was catalytically active in another CYP170, we characterized the least related CYP170 orthologue from Streptomyces albus (CYP170B1). Following expression and purification, CYP170B1 showed a normal reduced CO difference spectrum at 450 nm, in contrast to the unusual 440-nm peak observed for S. coelicolor A3(2) CYP170A1. CYP170B1 can catalyze the conversion of epi-isozizaene to albaflavenone, but was unable to catalyze the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to farnesene. Molecular modeling with our crystal structure of CYP170A1 suggests that the absence of key amino acids for binding the essential terpene synthase cofactor Mg(2+) may be the explanation for the loss of CYP170B1 bifunctionality.
© 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.
We report a comprehensive genetic, metabolomic, and biochemical study on the catalytic properties of Streptomyces coelicolor cytochrome P450 (P450) 154A1, known to have a unique heme orientation in its crystal structure. Deletion of the P450 154A1 gene compromised the long-term stability of the bacterial spores. A novel dipentaenone (1) with a high degree of conjugation was identified as an endogenous substrate of P450 154A1 using a metabolomics approach. The biotransformation of 1 by P450 154A1 was shown to be an unexpected intramolecular cyclization to a Paternò-Büchi-like product, without oxidation/reduction.
One of the general problems in biology today is that we are characterizing genomic sequences much faster than identifying the functions of the gene products, and the same problem exists with cytochromes P450 (P450). One fourth of the human P450s are not well-characterized and therefore considered "orphans." A number of approaches to deorphanization are discussed generally. Several liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approaches have been applied to some of the human and Streptomyces coelicolor P450s. One current limitation is that too many fatty acid oxidations have been identified and we are probably missing more relevant substrates, possibly due to limits of sensitivity.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The gene from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) encoding CYP102B1, a recently discovered CYP102 subfamily which exists solely as a single P450 heme domain, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, characterized, and compared to its fusion protein family members. Purified reconstitution metabolism experiments with spinach ferredoxin, ferredoxin reductase, and NADPH revealed differences in the regio- and stereoselective metabolism of arachidonic acid compared to that of CYP102A1, exclusively producing 11,12-epoxyeicosa-5,8,14-trienoic acid in addition to the shared metabolites 18-hydroxy arachidonic acid and 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5,8,11-trienoic acid. Consequently, in order to elucidate the physiological function of CYP102B1, transposon mutagenesis was used to generate an S. coelicolor A3(2) strain lacking CYP102B1 activity and the phenotype was assessed.
Albaflavenone synthase (CYP170A1) is a monooxygenase catalyzing the final two steps in the biosynthesis of this antibiotic in the soil bacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Interestingly, CYP170A1 shows no stereo selection forming equal amounts of two albaflavenol epimers, each of which is oxidized in turn to albaflavenone. To explore the structural basis of the reaction mechanism, we have studied the crystal structures of both ligand-free CYP170A1 (2.6 A) and complex of endogenous substrate (epi-isozizaene) with CYP170A1 (3.3 A). The structure of the complex suggests that the proximal epi-isozizaene molecules may bind to the heme iron in two orientations. In addition, much to our surprise, we have found that albaflavenone synthase also has a second, completely distinct catalytic activity corresponding to the synthesis of farnesene isomers from farnesyl diphosphate. Within the cytochrome P450 alpha-helical domain both the primary sequence and x-ray structure indicate the presence of a novel terpene synthase active site that is moonlighting on the P450 structure. This includes signature sequences for divalent cation binding and an alpha-helical barrel. This barrel is unusual because it consists of only four helices rather than six found in all other terpene synthases. Mutagenesis establishes that this barrel is essential for the terpene synthase activity of CYP170A1 but not for the monooxygenase activity. This is the first bifunctional P450 discovered to have another active site moonlighting on it and the first time a terpene synthase active site is found moonlighting on another protein.
Cytochrome P450 170A1 (CYP170A1) is encoded by the sco5223 gene of the Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as part of a two-gene cluster with the sco5222 gene. The SCO5222 protein is a sesquiterpene synthase that catalyzes the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to the novel tricyclic hydrocarbon, epi-isozizaene (Lin, X., Hopson, R., and Cane, D. E. (2006) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 6022-6023). The presence of CYP170A1 (sco5223) suggested that epiisozizaene might be further oxidized by the transcriptionally coupled P450. We have now established that purified CYP170A1 carries out two sequential allylic oxidations to convert epi-isozizaene to an epimeric mixture of albaflavenols and thence to the sesquiterpene antibiotic albaflavenone. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of S. coelicolor culture extracts established the presence of albaflavenone in the wild-type strain, along with its precursors epi-isozizaene and the albaflavenols. Disruption of the CYP170A1 gene abolished biosynthesis of both albaflavenone and the albaflavenols, but not epi-isozizaene. The combined results establish for the first time the presence of albaflavenone in S. coelicolor and clearly demonstrate that the biosynthesis of this antibiotic involves the coupled action of epi-isozizaene synthase and CYP170A1.