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The majority of esophageal atresia (EA) patients undergo surgical repair soon after birth. However, factors due to patient characteristics, esophageal length, or surgical complications can limit the ability to obtain esophageal continuity. A number of techniques have been described to treat these patients with "long-gap" EA. Magnets are a nonsurgical alternative for esophageal anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to report long-term outcomes for the use of magnets in EA. Between July 2001 and December 2017, 13 patients underwent placement of a magnetic catheter-based system under fluoroscopic guidance at six institutions. Daily chest radiographs were obtained until there was union of the magnets. Magnets were then removed and replaced with an oro- or nasogastric tube. Complications and outcomes were recorded. The average length of follow-up was 9.3 years (range 1.42-17.75). A total of 85% of the patients had type A, pure EA, and 15% had type C with previous fistula ligation. The average length of time to achieve anastomosis was 6.3 days (range 3-13). No anastomotic leaks occurred, and all of the patients had an expected esophageal stenosis that required dilation given the 10F coupling surface of the magnets (average 9.8, range 3-22). Six patients (46%) had retrievable esophageal stents, and two underwent surgery; yet all maintained their native esophagus without interposition. A total of 92% were on full oral feeds at the time of follow-up. The use of magnets for treatment of long-gap EA is safe and feasible and accomplished good long-term outcomes. The main complication was esophageal stricture, although all patients maintained their native esophagus. A prospective observational study is currently enrolling patients to evaluate the safety and benefit of a catheter-based magnetic device for EA.
AIMS - Clopidogrel is prescribed for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. While investigations have identified genetic determinants of inter-individual variability in on-treatment platelet inhibition (e.g. CYP2C19*2), evidence that these variants have clinical utility to predict major adverse cardiovascular events (CVEs) remains controversial.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We assessed the impact of 31 candidate gene polymorphisms on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated platelet reactivity in 3391 clopidogrel-treated coronary artery disease patients of the International Clopidogrel Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ICPC). The influence of these polymorphisms on CVEs was tested in 2134 ICPC patients (N = 129 events) in whom clinical event data were available. Several variants were associated with on-treatment ADP-stimulated platelet reactivity (CYP2C19*2, P = 8.8 × 10-54; CES1 G143E, P = 1.3 × 10-16; CYP2C19*17, P = 9.5 × 10-10; CYP2B6 1294 + 53 C > T, P = 3.0 × 10-4; CYP2B6 516 G > T, P = 1.0 × 10-3; CYP2C9*2, P = 1.2 × 10-3; and CYP2C9*3, P = 1.5 × 10-3). While no individual variant was associated with CVEs, generation of a pharmacogenomic polygenic response score (PgxRS) revealed that patients who carried a greater number of alleles that associated with increased on-treatment platelet reactivity were more likely to experience CVEs (β = 0.17, SE 0.06, P = 0.01) and cardiovascular-related death (β = 0.43, SE 0.16, P = 0.007). Patients who carried eight or more risk alleles were significantly more likely to experience CVEs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-2.76, P = 0.01] and cardiovascular death (OR = 4.39, 95% CI 1.35-14.27, P = 0.01) compared to patients who carried six or fewer of these alleles.
CONCLUSION - Several polymorphisms impact clopidogrel response and PgxRS is a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. Additional investigations that identify novel determinants of clopidogrel response and validating polygenic models may facilitate future precision medicine strategies.
Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Inhalation injury is an independent risk factor in burn mortality, imparting a 20% increased risk of death. Yet there is little information on the natural history, functional outcome, or pathophysiology of thermal injury to the laryngotracheal complex, limiting treatment progress. This paper demonstrates a case series (n = 3) of significant thermal airway injuries. In all cases, the initial injury was far exceeded by the subsequent immune response and aggressive fibroinflammatory healing. Serial examination demonstrated progressive epithelial injury, mucosal inflammation, airway remodeling, and luminal compromise. Histologic findings in the first case demonstrate an early IL-17A response in the human airway following thermal injury. This is the first report implicating IL-17A in the airway mucosal immune response to thermal injury. Their second and third patients received Azithromycin targeting IL-17A and showed clinical responses. The third patient also presented with exposed tracheal cartilage and underwent mucosal reconstitution via split-thickness skin graft over an endoluminal stent in conjunction with tracheostomy. This was associated with rapid abatement of mucosal inflammation, resolution of granulation tissue, and return of laryngeal function. Patients who present with thermal inhalation injury should receive a thorough multidisciplinary airway evaluation, including early otolaryngologic evaluation. New early endoscopic approaches (scar lysis and mucosal reconstitution with autologous grafting over an endoluminal stent), when combined with targeted medical therapy aimed at components of mucosal airway inflammation (local corticosteroids and systemic Azithromycin targeting IL-17A), may have potential to limit chronic cicatricial complications.
© American Burn Association 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Patients presenting acutely with obstructing stones often have a ureteral stent placed as a temporizing solution. Ureteroscopy is then commonly performed in a staged fashion, but occasionally the stone is found to have passed. We aimed to identify the frequency and predictors of ureteral stone passage with a stent in place. Records were reviewed to identify patients who had a stent placed for a single ureteral stone. Subsequent ureteroscopy or CT scan was used to ascertain stone passage. Effect of age, gender, BMI, stone diameter, alpha blocker use, urinary tract infection, hydronephrosis, and stent duration on stone passage was assessed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were met in 209 patients. Mean maximum stone diameter was 6.5 ± 2.5 mm. Passage rates for stones < 3 mm, 3-4.9 mm, 5-6.9 mm, and ≥ 7 mm were 50%, 13%, 10%, and 0%, respectively. The overall rate of passage was 8%. Stone passage was associated with smaller maximum stone diameter, more distal stone location, and longer duration of stent before ureteroscopy/CT on univariate analysis (p < 0.01). Stone diameter and stent duration remained significantly associated on multivariable analysis (p = 0.001 and p = 0.05, respectively). Our findings suggest ureteral stone passage with a concurrent ureteral stent is not a rare event as it occurred in 14% of stones less then 7 mm in maximum diameter. Stone size and duration of stent before ureteroscopy or CT were found to be independent predictors of passage. Select patients with small ureteral stones who have been stented should be considered for a trial of urine straining or repeat imaging before subsequent ureteroscopy.
PURPOSE - Nephrolithiasis is an increasingly common ailment in the United States. Ureteroscopic management has supplanted shockwave lithotripsy as the most common treatment of upper tract stone disease. Ureteral stricture is a rare but serious complication of stone disease and its management. The impact of new technologies and more widespread ureteroscopic management on stricture rates is unknown. We describe our experience in managing strictures incurred following ureteroscopy for upper tract stone disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Records for patients managed at four tertiary care centers between December 2006 and October 2015 with the diagnosis of ureteral stricture following ureteroscopy for upper tract stone disease were retrospectively reviewed. Study outcomes included number and type (endoscopic, reconstructive, or nephrectomy) of procedures required to manage stricture.
RESULTS - Thirty-eight patients with 40 ureteral strictures following URS for upper tract stone disease were identified. Thirty-five percent of patients had hydronephrosis or known stone impaction at the time of initial URS, and 20% of cases had known ureteral perforation at the time of initial URS. After stricture diagnosis, the mean number of procedures requiring sedation or general anesthesia performed for stricture management was 3.3 ± 1.8 (range 1-10). Eleven strictures (27.5%) were successfully managed with endoscopic techniques alone, 37.5% underwent reconstruction, 10% had a chronic stent/nephrostomy, and 10 (25%) required nephrectomy.
CONCLUSIONS - The surgical morbidity of ureteral strictures incurred following ureteroscopy for stone disease can be severe, with a low success rate of endoscopic management and a high procedural burden that may lead to nephrectomy. Further studies that assess specific technical risk factors for ureteral stricture following URS are needed.
BACKGROUND - The optimal revascularization technique in patients with left main coronary artery disease (CAD) remains controversial. We aimed to compare the long-term performance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in treatment of left main CAD.
METHODS - PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched until November 16, 2016.
RESULTS - Six randomized controlled trials and 22 matched observational studies including 22,487 patients and 90,167 patient-years of follow-up were included. PCI was associated with an overall higher risk for the major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (hazard ratio (HR), 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.77), mainly driven by higher rates of myocardial infarction (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.22-2.34) and revascularization (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.86-4.22). The overall risks for all-cause death (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.93-1.20), cardiac death (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.69-1.59), stroke (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.33-1.24), and the composite safety endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.97-1.16) were similar between PCI and CABG. Stratified analysis based on stent types showed that the increased risk for myocardial infarction associated with PCI was only evident in patients with bare-metal stents or early-generation drug-eluting stents (DES), but not newer-generation DES. Stratified analyses based on study designs showed largely similar findings with the overall analyses, except for a significantly higher incidence of myocardial infarction in adjusted studies (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.64-2.45) but a trend toward higher incidence in randomized trials (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.85-2.27) associated with PCI.
CONCLUSIONS - Compared with CABG, PCI with newer-generation DES might be a safe alternative revascularization strategy for treatment of left main CAD, but is associated with more repeat revascularization.
Stenting has long been used in the paranasal sinuses with the goals of maintaining a patent sinus cavity during the postoperative healing process and preventing restenosis from inflammation or scarring. More recently, drug-eluting stents have been introduced. Steroid-impregnated dressings and implants appear to be safe, although likely have increased systemic absorption compared with topical nasal steroid sprays and rinses. There is evidence to support the use of steroid-releasing implants in the ethmoid cavity in the postoperative period; however, more study is needed to truly define the role of these implants.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Veins used as grafts in heart bypass or as access points in hemodialysis exhibit high failure rates, thereby causing significant morbidity and mortality for patients. Interventional or revisional surgeries required to correct these failures have been met with limited success and exorbitant costs, particularly for the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Vein stenosis or occlusion leading to failure is primarily the result of neointimal hyperplasia. Systemic therapies have achieved little long-term success, indicating the need for more localized, sustained, biomaterial-based solutions. Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of external stents to reduce neointimal hyperplasia. However, successful results from animal models have failed to translate to the clinic thus far, and no external stent is currently approved for use in the US to prevent vein graft or hemodialysis access failures. This review discusses current progress in the field, design considerations, and future perspectives for biomaterial-based external stents. More comparative studies iteratively modulating biomaterial and biomaterial-drug approaches are critical in addressing mechanistic knowledge gaps associated with external stent application to the arteriovenous environment. Addressing these gaps will ultimately lead to more viable solutions that prevent vein graft and hemodialysis access failures.
© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
OBJECTIVE - To investigate whether the use of a belladonna and opium (B&O) rectal suppository administered immediately before ureteroscopy (URS) and stent placement could reduce stent-related discomfort.
METHODS - A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was performed from August 2013 to December 2014. Seventy-one subjects were enrolled and randomized to receive a B&O (15 mg/30 mg) or a placebo suppository after induction of general anesthesia immediately before URS and stent placement. Baseline urinary symptoms were assessed using the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS). The Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire and AUASS were completed on postoperative days (POD) 1, 3, and after stent removal. Analgesic use intraoperatively, in the recovery unit, and at home was recorded.
RESULTS - Of the 71 subjects, 65 had treatment for ureteral (41%) and renal (61%) calculi, 4 for renal urothelial carcinoma, and 2 were excluded for no stent placed. By POD3, the B&O group reported a higher mean global quality of life (QOL) score (P = .04), a better mean quality of work score (P = .05), and less pain with urination (P = .03). The B&O group reported an improved AUASS QOL when comparing POD1 with post-stent removal (P = .04). There was no difference in analgesic use among groups (P = .67). There were no episodes of urinary retention. Age was associated with unplanned emergency visits (P <.00) and "high-pain" measure (P = .02) CONCLUSION: B&O suppository administered preoperatively improved QOL measures and reduced urinary-related pain after URS with stent. Younger age was associated with severe stent pain and unplanned hospital visits.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Colonic obstruction is a surgical emergency, and delay in decompression results in added morbidity and mortality. Advances have led to less invasive procedures such as stenting as a bridge for definitive surgery. The aim of this article was to perform a systematic review regarding colon obstruction (malignant or benign) and to provide recommendations following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework.
METHODS - A systematic literature review was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases of published studies. The search was last performed on January 2, 2015. Two independent reviewers extracted the desired variables from the studies. For our meta-analysis, we used Review Manager X.6 (RevMan). Recommendations are provided using GRADE methodology. A single POPULATION, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome (PICO) question with two outcomes was addressed as follows:
POPULATION - in adult patients with a colonic obstruction (malignant or benign).
INTERVENTION - should surgery be performed.Comparator: versus endoscopic stenting.
OUTCOMES - decreased mortality and decreased emergency, nonplanned procedures?
RESULTS - The search yielded 210 results. Screening of the titles excluded 102 articles, leaving 108 for review. After abstract review, 71 additional articles were excluded because of failure to address the PICO questions of this guideline. Thirty-seven articles were reviewed in their entirety, of those six randomized control trials that evaluated the use of stents versus emergency surgery in colonic obstruction caused by malignant disease were included in the final qualitative review.
CONCLUSION - We conditionally recommend endoscopic, colonic stenting (if available) as initial therapy for colonic obstruction. In our review, stent use was associated with decreased mortality and rates for emergency, nonplanned procedures to include reoperations. This conditional recommendation is limited to those with malignancy because of the lack of literature supporting this practice in benign colonic disease.