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The goal of this pilot study is to use complementary MRI strategies to quantify and relate cerebrovascular reactivity, resting cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity alterations in the first week following sports concussion in college varsity athletes. Seven college athletes (3F/4M, age = 19.7 ± 1.2 years) were imaged 3-6 days following a diagnosed sports related concussion and compared to eleven healthy controls with no history of concussion (5M/6F, 18-23 years, 7 athletes). Cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity were measured using functional MRI during a hypercapnia challenge and via resting-state regional partial correlations, respectively. Resting cerebral blood flow was quantified using arterial spin labeling MRI methods. Group comparisons were made within and between 18 regions of interest. Cerebrovascular reactivity was increased after concussion when averaged across all regions of interest (p = 0.04), and within some default-mode network regions, the anterior cingulate and the right thalamus (p < 0.05) independently. The FC was increased in the concussed athletes within the default-mode network including the left and right hippocampus, precuneus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (p < 0.01), with measures being linearly related to cerebrovascular reactivity in the hippocampus in the concussed athletes. Significant resting cerebral blood flow changes were not detected between the two groups. This study provides evidence for increased cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity in the medial regions of the default-mode network within days of a single sports related concussion in college athletes. Our findings emphasize the utility of complementary cerebrovascular measures in the interpretation of alterations in functional connectivity following concussion.
Most sudden cardiac deaths in young athletes are caused by previously undetected inherited cardiac diseases. Here, we report a case of a young male athlete in whom a presumptive diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was made following a near sudden cardiac death. Although his imaging studies initially suggested HCM, a detailed clinical and genetic evaluation of the patient and his asymptomatic father led to the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVD) in both. DNA sequencing revealed that each individual was heterozygous for two rare variants in the PKP2 and DSC2 genes, both of which were previously shown to be associated with ARVD and to encode desmosomal proteins, i.e. the previously reported splicing variant c2489 + 1A > G in the PKP2 gene and the novel p.I109M variant in the DSC2 gene. Imaging and electrophysiologic studies further supported a diagnosis of ARVD in the father. This case highlights the importance of detailed clinical evaluation and genetic testing of family members when dealing with sudden cardiac death or unexplained cardiomyopathies in the young.
Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
OBJECTIVE - To determine the frequency and clinical importance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in student athletes.
DESIGN - Prospective observational cohort study.
SETTING - A major university in the southeastern United States.
PARTICIPANTS - Student athletes participating in the men's football and women's lacrosse programs (N = 126). Main Exposure Monthly assessment of S aureus nasal colonization.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Trends in S aureus colonization over time and the occurrence of skin and soft tissue infections.
RESULTS - Methicillin-resistant S aureus nasal colonization varied significantly through the athletic season (4%-23%), peaking during times of highest athletic activity. This increase in colonization was not associated with the development of an outbreak of skin and soft tissue infections, and no single MRSA clone emerged as a dominant isolate.
CONCLUSIONS - During the athletic season, there is a considerable burden of MRSA colonization in student athletes; however, colonization alone appears to be insufficient to trigger an outbreak of staphylococcal infections. A combination of distinct molecular characteristics in the organism and specific host factors may govern the development of staphylococcal disease.
INTRODUCTION - the use of movement monitors (accelerometers) for measuring physical activity (PA) in intervention and population-based studies is becoming a standard methodology for the objective measurement of sedentary and active behaviors and for the validation of subjective PA self-reports. A vital step in PA measurement is the classification of daily time into accelerometer wear and nonwear intervals using its recordings (counts) and an accelerometer-specific algorithm.
PURPOSE - the purpose of this study was to validate and improve a commonly used algorithm for classifying accelerometer wear and nonwear time intervals using objective movement data obtained in the whole-room indirect calorimeter.
METHODS - we conducted a validation study of a wear or nonwear automatic algorithm using data obtained from 49 adults and 76 youth wearing accelerometers during a strictly monitored 24-h stay in a room calorimeter. The accelerometer wear and nonwear time classified by the algorithm was compared with actual wearing time. Potential improvements to the algorithm were examined using the minimum classification error as an optimization target.
RESULTS - the recommended elements in the new algorithm are as follows: 1) zero-count threshold during a nonwear time interval, 2) 90-min time window for consecutive zero or nonzero counts, and 3) allowance of 2-min interval of nonzero counts with the upstream or downstream 30-min consecutive zero-count window for detection of artifactual movements. Compared with the true wearing status, improvements to the algorithm decreased nonwear time misclassification during the waking and the 24-h periods (all P values < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS - the accelerometer wear or nonwear time algorithm improvements may lead to more accurate estimation of time spent in sedentary and active behaviors.
Pediatric arterial ischemic stroke may occur as the result of trivial head or neck trauma sustained during a sports activity. We describe three cases of sports-related stroke in previously healthy school-age children and discuss acute and long-term stroke care. Possible mechanisms of sports-related stroke are addressed, as is evaluation for cause of stroke in children. In one of the reported cases, the child was found to have a vertebral artery dissection as the cause of his stroke, but no definitive cause of stroke was identified in the other two cases despite extensive evaluation. The advisability and timing of returning to athletic activities after stroke is also discussed. Many children with sports-related stroke are initially seen by a sports trainer, a pediatrician, or an ER physician. Thus, it is particularly important that these professionals are aware of the possibility of ischemic stroke occurring after even mild athletic injury. Childhood stroke may result from injuries sustained during athletic activities and should be considered when a child has acute focal neurologic signs.
BACKGROUND - Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai.
METHODS - Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40-70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997-2000), an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework). Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression.
RESULTS - While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement), history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities.
CONCLUSION - This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain-specific. These findings provide important information for research on the health benefits of physical activity and have public health implications for designing interventions to promote participation in physical activity.
PURPOSE - This study was designed to examine the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) feedings on physical and central nervous system (CNS) function during intermittent high-intensity exercise with physical demands similar to those of team sports such as basketball.
METHODS - Twenty active men (N = 10) and women (N = 10), with experience competing in team sports, performed three practice sessions before two experimental trials during which they were fed either a 6% CHO solution or a flavored placebo (PBO). Experimental trials consisted of four 15-min quarters of shuttle running with variable intensities ranging from walking (30% VO(2max)), to running (120% VO(2max)), to maximal sprinting, and 40 jumps at a target hanging at 80% of their maximum vertical jump height. Subjects received 5 mL.kg(-1) of fluid before exercise and 3 mL.kg(-1) after exercise, in addition to 3 mL.kg(-1) over a 5-min span after the first and third quarters, and 8 mL.kg(-1) during a 20-min halftime. During each break, the subjects performed a battery of tests measuring peripheral and CNS function, including 20-m sprints, a 60-s maximal jumping test, internal and external mood evaluation, cognitive function, force sensation, tests of motor skills, and target-jumping accuracy.
RESULTS - Compared with PBO, CHO feedings during exercise resulted in faster 20-m sprint times and higher average jump height in the fourth quarter (P < 0.05). CHO feedings also reduced force sensation, enhanced motor skills, and improved mood late in exercise versus PBO (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION - These results suggest that CHO feedings during intermittent high-intensity exercise similar to that of team sports benefited both peripheral and CNS function late in exercise compared with a flavored placebo.
Metabolically well controlled insulin-dependent diabetic subjects (IDDM) have deficient autonomic adrenomedullary responses to hypoglycemia. This defect, coupled with the characteristic deficient glucagon response to hypoglycemia, predisposes well-controlled IDDM subjects to an increased incidence of severe hypoglycemic episodes. In this report we describe a physically trained subject with long-duration IDDM (9 years) who was rigorously well-controlled (normal HBA1c), yet had exaggerated epinephrine responses to hypoglycemia compared with normal controls. Steady state epinephrine levels during a low-dose insulin (9 pM/kg/min) hypoglycemic clamp (2.9 +/- 0.1 mM) were approximately 2-fold higher compared with normal controls (10.6 vs. 5.5 +/- 0.7 nM). Epinephrine levels during a high-dose insulin (30 pM/kg/min) hypoglycemic clamp (2.8 +/- 0.1 mM) were also increased compared with normal controls (13.1 vs. 8.8 +/- 0.6 nM). We conclude that physical training in this metabolically well-controlled IDDM subject was associated with an augmented autonomic adrenomedullary response to hypoglycemia.