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The SLC8A1 (solute carrier family 8, member 1) gene, encoding Na /Ca exchanger, is essential in regulating calcium reabsorption and homeostasis. Calcium homeostasis plays a key role in cell proliferation and apoptosis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in five calcium-regulating genes (SLC8A1, ATP2B1, CALB1, CALB2, and CABP1) interact with calcium intake in relation to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. A two-phase (discovery and replication) study was conducted within the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study, including a total of 1275 cases and 2811 controls. In Phase I, we identified six out of 135 SNPs that significantly interacted with calcium intake in relation to adenoma risk. In Phase II, the calcium intake by rs4952490 (SLC8A1) interaction was replicated (P = 0.048). We found an inverse association between calcium intake (1000-2000 mg/day) and colorectal adenomas, particularly for multiple/advanced adenomas, among the G-allele carriers but not among homozygous carriers of the common variant (A) in rs4952490. In the joint analysis of SLC8A1, KCNJ1, and SLC12A1 SNPs, carriers of variant alleles in at least two genes and with calcium intake above the DRI (1000 mg/day) were approximately 30-57% less likely to have adenomas than those whose calcium intake was below the DRI. The association was stronger for multiple/advanced adenomas. No association was found among those who did not carry any variant alleles in these genes when calcium intake was below 2500 mg/day. These findings, if confirmed, may provide a new avenue for the personalized prevention of colorectal adenoma and cancer.
© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The treatment of heart failure (HF) is challenging and morbidity and mortality are high. The goal of this study was to determine if inhibition of the late Na(+) current with ranolazine during early hypertensive heart disease might slow or stop disease progression. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (aged 7 mo) were subjected to echocardiographic study and then fed either control chow (CON) or chow containing 0.5% ranolazine (RAN) for 3 mo. Animals were then restudied, and each heart was removed for measurements of t-tubule organization and Ca(2+) transients using confocal microscopy of the intact heart. RAN halted left ventricular hypertrophy as determined from both echocardiographic and cell dimension (length but not width) measurements. RAN reduced the number of myocytes with t-tubule disruption and the proportion of myocytes with defects in intracellular Ca(2+) cycling. RAN also prevented the slowing of the rate of restitution of Ca(2+) release and the increased vulnerability to rate-induced Ca(2+) alternans. Differences between CON- and RAN-treated animals were not a result of different expression levels of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel 1.2, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a, ryanodine receptor type 2, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-1, or voltage-gated Na(+) channel 1.5. Furthermore, myocytes with defective Ca(2+) transients in CON rats showed improved Ca(2+) cycling immediately upon acute exposure to RAN. Increased late Na(+) current likely plays a role in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy, a key pathological step in the development of HF. Early, chronic inhibition of this current slows both hypertrophy and development of ultrastructural and physiological defects associated with the progression to HF.
The cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1.1) serves as the primary means of Ca(2+) extrusion across the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes after the rise in intracellular Ca(2+) during contraction. The exchanger is regulated by binding of Ca(2+) to its intracellular domain, which contains two structurally homologous Ca(2+) binding domains denoted as CBD1 and CBD2. NMR and x-ray crystallographic studies have provided structures for the isolated CBD1 and CBD2 domains and have shown how Ca(2+) binding affects their structures and motional dynamics. However, structural information on the entire Ca(2+) binding domain, denoted CBD12, and how binding of Ca(2+) alters its structure and dynamics is more limited. Site-directed spin labeling has been employed in this work to address these questions. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on singly labeled constructs of CBD12 have identified the regions that undergo changes in dynamics as a result of Ca(2+) binding. Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) measurements on doubly labeled constructs of CBD12 have shown that the β-sandwich regions of the CBD1 and CBD2 domains are largely insensitive to Ca(2+) binding and that these two domains are widely separated at their N and C termini. Interdomain distances measured by DEER have been employed to construct structural models for CBD12 in the presence and absence of Ca(2+). These models show that there is not a major change in the relative orientation of the two Ca(2+) binding domains as a result of Ca(2+) binding in the NCX1.1 isoform. Additional measurements have shown that there are significant changes in the dynamics of the F-G loop region of CBD2 that merit further characterization with regard to their possible involvement in regulation of NCX1.1 activity.
Mitochondria are structurally complex organelles that undergo fragmentation or fission in apoptotic cells. Mitochondrial fission requires the cytoplasmic dynamin-related protein, Drp1, which translocates to the mitochondria during apoptosis and interacts with the mitochondrial protein, Fis1. Finely tuned changes in cellular calcium modulate a variety of intracellular functions; in resting cells, the level of mitochondrial calcium is low, while it is higher during apoptosis. Mitochondria take up Ca(2+) via the Uniporter and extrude it to the cytoplasm through the mitochondrial Na+/Ca(2+) exchanger. Overload of Ca(2+) in the mitochondria leads to their damage, affecting cellular function and survival. The mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger was blocked by benzodiazepine, CGP37157 (CGP) leading to increased mitochondrial calcium and enhancing the apoptotic effects of TRAIL, TNFalpha related apoptosis inducing ligand. In the present study, we observed that increasing mitochondrial calcium induced mitochondrial fragmentation, which correlated with the presence of Drp1 at the mitochondria in CGP treated cells. Under these conditions, we observed interactions between Drp1 and Fis1. The importance of Drp1 in fragmentation was confirmed by transfection of dominant negative Drp1 construct. However, fragmentation of the mitochondria was not sufficient to induce apoptosis, although it enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, oligomerization of Bak was partially responsible for the increased apoptosis in cells treated with both CGP and TRAIL. Thus, our results show that combination of an apoptogenic agent and an appropriate calcium channel blocker provide therapeutic advantages.
Mutations in the transcription factor Pdx1 cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young 4 (MODY4). Islet transduction with dominant-negative Pdx1 (RIPDN79PDX1) impairs mitochondrial metabolism and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Transcript profiling revealed suppression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial factor A (TFAM). Herein, we show that Pdx1 suppression in adult mice reduces islet TFAM expression coinciding with hyperglycemia. We define TFAM as a direct target of Pdx1 both in rat INS1 cells and human islets. Adenoviral overexpression of TFAM along with RIPDN79PDX1 in isolated rat islets rescued mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and restored respiratory chain activity as well as glucose-induced ATP synthesis and insulin secretion. CGP37157, which blocks the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, restored ATP generation and GSIS in RIPDN79PDX1 islets, thereby bypassing the transcriptional defect. Thus, the genetic control by the beta cell-specific factor Pdx1 of the ubiquitous gene TFAM maintains beta cell mtDNA vital for ATP production and normal GSIS.
Dimethyl amiloride (DMA) enhances insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell. DMA also enhances time-dependent potentiation (TDP) and enables TDP to occur in situations where it is normally absent. As we have demonstrated before, these effects are mediated in part through inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), resulting in increased availability of arginine. Thus both DMA and arginine have the potential to correct the secretory defect in diabetes by enabling or enhancing TDP. In the current study we have demonstrated the ability of these agents to improve blood glucose homeostasis in three mouse models of type 2 diabetes. The pattern of TDP under different conditions indicates that inhibition of NOS is not the only mechanism through which DMA exerts its positive effects. Thus we also have explored another possible mechanism through which DMA enables/enhances TDP, via the activation of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.
Cardiac Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in heart has been implicated in Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) facilitation, enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release and frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation (FDAR) via enhanced SR Ca(2+) uptake. However, questions remain about how CaMKII may work in these three processes. Here we tested the role of CaMKII in these processes using transgenic mice (SR-AIP) that express four concatenated repeats of the CaMKII inhibitory peptide AIP selectively in the SR membrane. Wild type mice (WT) and mice expressing AIP exclusively in the nucleus (NLS-AIP) served as controls. Increasing stimulation frequency produced typical FDAR in WT and NLS-AIP, but FDAR was markedly inhibited in SR-AIP. Quantitative analysis of cytosolic Ca(2+) removal during [Ca(2+)](i) decline revealed that FDAR is due to an increased apparent V(max) of SERCA. CaMKII-dependent RyR phosphorylation at Ser2815 and SR Ca(2+) leak was both decreased in SR-AIP vs. WT. This decrease in SR Ca(2+) leak may partly balance the reduced SERCA activity leading to relatively unaltered SR-Ca(2+) load in SR-AIP vs. WT myocytes. Surprisingly, CaMKII regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel (I(Ca) facilitation and recovery from inactivation) was abolished by the SR-targeted CaMKII inhibition in SR-AIP mice. Inhibition of CaMKII effects on I(Ca) and RyR function by the SR-localized AIP places physical constraints on the localization of these proteins at the junctional microdomain. Thus SR-targeted CaMKII inhibition can directly inhibit the activation of SR Ca(2+) uptake, SR Ca(2+) release and I(Ca) by CaMKII, effects which have all been implicated in triggered arrhythmias.
Overexpression of calsequestrin (CSQ) induces severe cardiac hypertrophy, whereas overexpression of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) does not affect cardiac weight. To investigate a possible beneficial effect of NCX in hypertrophy, we produced transgenic mice overexpressing both NCX and CSQ (NCX/CSQ). Surprisingly, these mice developed severe heart failure. The heart/body weight ratio was enhanced and the mRNA expression of ANF, as a marker of hypertrophy, was highest in double transgenic mice. In isolated muscle strips, the basal relaxation time was prolonged in CSQ and NCX/CSQ mice. Moreover, in the presence of caffeine, force of contraction was increased only in CSQ and NCX/CSQ and was accompanied by elevated diastolic tension. In some respects, however, additional overexpression of NCX altered the CSQ phenotype into the wild-type phenotype. The expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)-Ca(2+)-ATPase and phospholamban, proteins involved in the Ca(2+) uptake of the SR, were only increased in CSQ, indicating a possible influence of NCX in the regulation of SR-Ca(2+) uptake proteins. The Ca(2+) transients and the L-type Ca(2+) currents in the presence of caffeine were very large in CSQ, but smaller increases were noted in double transgenic mice. Therefore, the successful co-overexpression of CSQ and NCX in these mice provides a novel model in which to investigate the interaction of proteins tightly linked to maintain Ca(2+) homeostasis.