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A compendium of G-protein-coupled receptors and cyclic nucleotide regulation of adipose tissue metabolism and energy expenditure.
Ceddia RP, Collins S
(2020) Clin Sci (Lond) 134: 473-512
MeSH Terms: Adipocytes, Adipose Tissue, Animals, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Energy Metabolism, Humans, Lipolysis, Nucleotides, Cyclic, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2020
With the ever-increasing burden of obesity and Type 2 diabetes, it is generally acknowledged that there remains a need for developing new therapeutics. One potential mechanism to combat obesity is to raise energy expenditure via increasing the amount of uncoupled respiration from the mitochondria-rich brown and beige adipocytes. With the recent appreciation of thermogenic adipocytes in humans, much effort is being made to elucidate the signaling pathways that regulate the browning of adipose tissue. In this review, we focus on the ligand-receptor signaling pathways that influence the cyclic nucleotides, cAMP and cGMP, in adipocytes. We chose to focus on G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), guanylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase regulation of adipocytes because they are the targets of a large proportion of all currently available therapeutics. Furthermore, there is a large overlap in their signaling pathways, as signaling events that raise cAMP or cGMP generally increase adipocyte lipolysis and cause changes that are commonly referred to as browning: increasing mitochondrial biogenesis, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression and respiration.
© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
0 Communities
2 Members
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10 MeSH Terms
Neuronal L-Type Calcium Channel Signaling to the Nucleus Requires a Novel CaMKIIα-Shank3 Interaction.
Perfitt TL, Wang X, Dickerson MT, Stephenson JR, Nakagawa T, Jacobson DA, Colbran RJ
(2020) J Neurosci 40: 2000-2014
MeSH Terms: Animals, Calcium Channels, L-Type, Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2, Cell Nucleus, Gene Expression Regulation, Hippocampus, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Neurons, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
The activation of neuronal plasma membrane Ca channels stimulates many intracellular responses. Scaffolding proteins can preferentially couple specific Ca channels to distinct downstream outputs, such as increased gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie the exquisite specificity of these signaling pathways are incompletely understood. Here, we show that complexes containing CaMKII and Shank3, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein known to interact with L-type calcium channels (LTCCs), can be specifically coimmunoprecipitated from mouse forebrain extracts. Activated purified CaMKIIα also directly binds Shank3 between residues 829 and 1130. Mutation of Shank3 residues Arg-Arg-Lys to three alanines disrupts CaMKII binding and CaMKII association with Shank3 in heterologous cells. Our shRNA/rescue studies revealed that Shank3 binding to both CaMKII and LTCCs is important for increased phosphorylation of the nuclear CREB transcription factor and expression of c-Fos induced by depolarization of cultured hippocampal neurons. Thus, this novel CaMKII-Shank3 interaction is essential for the initiation of a specific long-range signal from LTCCs in the plasma membrane to the nucleus that is required for activity-dependent changes in neuronal gene expression during learning and memory. Precise neuronal expression of genes is essential for normal brain function. Proteins involved in signaling pathways that underlie activity-dependent gene expression, such as CaMKII, Shank3, and L-type calcium channels, are often mutated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. Shank3 and CaMKII were previously shown to bind L-type calcium channels, and we show here that Shank3 also binds to CaMKII. Our data show that each of these interactions is required for depolarization-induced phosphorylation of the CREB nuclear transcription factor, which stimulates the expression of c-Fos, a neuronal immediate early gene with key roles in synaptic plasticity, brain development, and behavior.
Copyright © 2020 the authors.
1 Communities
1 Members
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11 MeSH Terms
Local, nonlinear effects of cGMP and Ca2+ reduce single photon response variability in retinal rods.
Caruso G, Gurevich VV, Klaus C, Hamm H, Makino CL, DiBenedetto E
(2019) PLoS One 14: e0225948
MeSH Terms: Algorithms, Animals, Biomarkers, Calcium, Cyclic GMP, Mice, Models, Biological, Photons, Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells, Rod Cell Outer Segment, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
The single photon response (SPR) in vertebrate photoreceptors is inherently variable due to several stochastic events in the phototransduction cascade, the main one being the shutoff of photoactivated rhodopsin. Deactivation is driven by a random number of steps, each of random duration with final quenching occurring after a random delay. Nevertheless, variability of the SPR is relatively low, making the signal highly reliable. Several biophysical and mathematical mechanisms contributing to variability suppression have been examined by the authors. Here we investigate the contribution of local depletion of cGMP by PDE*, the non linear dependence of the photocurrent on cGMP, Ca2+ feedback by making use of a fully space resolved (FSR) mathematical model, applied to two species (mouse and salamander), by varying the cGMP diffusion rate severalfold and rod outer segment diameter by an order of magnitude, and by introducing new, more refined, and time dependent variability functionals. Globally well stirred (GWS) models, and to a lesser extent transversally well stirred models (TWS), underestimate the role of nonlinearities and local cGMP depletion in quenching the variability of the circulating current with respect to fully space resolved models (FSR). These distortions minimize the true extent to which SPR is stabilized by locality in cGMP depletion, nonlinear effects linking cGMP to current, and Ca2+ feedback arising from the physical separation of E* from the ion channels located on the outer shell, and the diffusion of these second messengers in the cytoplasm.
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1 Members
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11 MeSH Terms
Biased M receptor-positive allosteric modulators reveal role of phospholipase D in M-dependent rodent cortical plasticity.
Moran SP, Xiang Z, Doyle CA, Maksymetz J, Lv X, Faltin S, Fisher NM, Niswender CM, Rook JM, Lindsley CW, Conn PJ
(2019) Sci Signal 12:
MeSH Terms: Allosteric Site, Animals, CHO Cells, Calcium, Cerebral Cortex, Cognition, Cricetinae, Cricetulus, Electrophysiology, Female, Humans, Long-Term Synaptic Depression, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Neuronal Plasticity, Phospholipase D, Prefrontal Cortex, Receptor, Muscarinic M1, Signal Transduction, Type C Phospholipases
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Highly selective, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor have emerged as an exciting new approach to potentially improve cognitive function in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Discovery programs have produced a structurally diverse range of M receptor PAMs with distinct pharmacological properties, including different extents of agonist activity and differences in signal bias. This includes biased M receptor PAMs that can potentiate coupling of the receptor to activation of phospholipase C (PLC) but not phospholipase D (PLD). However, little is known about the role of PLD in M receptor signaling in native systems, and it is not clear whether biased M PAMs display differences in modulating M-mediated responses in native tissue. Using PLD inhibitors and PLD knockout mice, we showed that PLD was necessary for the induction of M-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Furthermore, biased M PAMs that did not couple to PLD not only failed to potentiate orthosteric agonist-induced LTD but also blocked M-dependent LTD in the PFC. In contrast, biased and nonbiased M PAMs acted similarly in potentiating M-dependent electrophysiological responses that were PLD independent. These findings demonstrate that PLD plays a critical role in the ability of M PAMs to modulate certain central nervous system (CNS) functions and that biased M PAMs function differently in brain regions implicated in cognition.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
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2 Members
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22 MeSH Terms
Interpreting an apoptotic corpse as anti-inflammatory involves a chloride sensing pathway.
Perry JSA, Morioka S, Medina CB, Iker Etchegaray J, Barron B, Raymond MH, Lucas CD, Onengut-Gumuscu S, Delpire E, Ravichandran KS
(2019) Nat Cell Biol 21: 1532-1543
MeSH Terms: Animals, Apoptosis, Biological Transport, Cell Line, Cell Line, Tumor, Chlorides, Humans, Inflammation, Jurkat Cells, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Oxidative Stress, Phagocytes, Phagocytosis, Signal Transduction, Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters, Transcription, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
Apoptotic cell clearance (efferocytosis) elicits an anti-inflammatory response by phagocytes, but the mechanisms that underlie this response are still being defined. Here, we uncover a chloride-sensing signalling pathway that controls both the phagocyte 'appetite' and its anti-inflammatory response. Efferocytosis transcriptionally altered the genes that encode the solute carrier (SLC) proteins SLC12A2 and SLC12A4. Interfering with SLC12A2 expression or function resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic corpse uptake per phagocyte, whereas the loss of SLC12A4 inhibited corpse uptake. In SLC12A2-deficient phagocytes, the canonical anti-inflammatory program was replaced by pro-inflammatory and oxidative-stress-associated gene programs. This 'switch' to pro-inflammatory sensing of apoptotic cells resulted from the disruption of the chloride-sensing pathway (and not due to corpse overload or poor degradation), including the chloride-sensing kinases WNK1, OSR1 and SPAK-which function upstream of SLC12A2-had a similar effect on efferocytosis. Collectively, the WNK1-OSR1-SPAK-SLC12A2/SLC12A4 chloride-sensing pathway and chloride flux in phagocytes are key modifiers of the manner in which phagocytes interpret the engulfed apoptotic corpse.
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MeSH Terms
Sox6 as a new modulator of renin expression in the kidney.
Saleem M, Hodgkinson CP, Xiao L, Gimenez-Bastida JA, Rasmussen ML, Foss J, Payne AJ, Mirotsou M, Gama V, Dzau VJ, Gomez JA
(2020) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 318: F285-F297
MeSH Terms: Animals, Arterioles, Blood Pressure, Cell Differentiation, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cultured, Diet, Sodium-Restricted, Diuretics, Furosemide, Gene Expression Regulation, Juxtaglomerular Apparatus, Male, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Myocytes, Smooth Muscle, Renin, SOXD Transcription Factors, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added August 24, 2020
Juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, major sources of renin, differentiate from metanephric mesenchymal cells that give rise to JG cells or a subset of smooth muscle cells of the renal afferent arteriole. During periods of dehydration and salt deprivation, renal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentiate from JG cells. JG cells undergo expansion and smooth muscle cells redifferentiate to express renin along the afferent arteriole. Gene expression profiling comparing resident renal MSCs with JG cells indicates that the transcription factor Sox6 is highly expressed in JG cells in the adult kidney. In vitro, loss of Sox6 expression reduces differentiation of renal MSCs to renin-producing cells. In vivo, Sox6 expression is upregulated after a low-Na diet and furosemide. Importantly, knockout of Sox6 in Ren1d+ cells halts the increase in renin-expressing cells normally seen during a low-Na diet and furosemide as well as the typical increase in renin. Furthermore, Sox6 ablation in renin-expressing cells halts the recruitment of smooth muscle cells along the afferent arteriole, which normally express renin under these conditions. These results support a previously undefined role for Sox6 in renin expression.
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MeSH Terms
miR-302a Inhibits Metastasis and Cetuximab Resistance in Colorectal Cancer by Targeting NFIB and CD44.
Sun L, Fang Y, Wang X, Han Y, Du F, Li C, Hu H, Liu H, Liu Q, Wang J, Liang J, Chen P, Yang H, Nie Y, Wu K, Fan D, Coffey RJ, Lu Y, Zhao X, Wang X
(2019) Theranostics 9: 8409-8425
MeSH Terms: Caco-2 Cells, Cetuximab, Colorectal Neoplasms, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, HCT116 Cells, Humans, Hyaluronan Receptors, In Vitro Techniques, MicroRNAs, NFI Transcription Factors, Neoplasm Metastasis, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
: Metastasis and drug resistance contribute substantially to the poor prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms by which CRC develops metastatic and drug-resistant characteristics remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-302a in the metastasis and molecular-targeted drug resistance of CRC and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. : miR-302a expression in CRC cell lines and patient tissue microarrays was analyzed by qPCR and fluorescence hybridization. The roles of miR-302a in metastasis and cetuximab (CTX) resistance were evaluated both and . Bioinformatic prediction algorithms and luciferase reporter assays were performed to identify the miR-302a binding regions in the NFIB and CD44 3'-UTRs. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to examine NFIB occupancy in the ITGA6 promoter region. Immunoblotting was performed to identify the EGFR-mediated pathways altered by miR-302a. : miR-302a expression was frequently reduced in CRC cells and tissues, especially in CTX-resistant cells and patient-derived xenografts. The decreased miR-302a levels correlated with poor overall CRC patient survival. miR-302a overexpression inhibited metastasis and restored CTX responsiveness in CRC cells, whereas miR-302a silencing exerted the opposite effects. NFIB and CD44 were identified as novel targets of miR-302a. miR-302a inhibited the metastasis-promoting effect of NFIB that physiologically activates ITGA6 transcription. miR-302a restored CTX responsiveness by suppressing CD44-induced cancer stem cell-like properties and EGFR-mediated MAPK and AKT signaling. These results are consistent with clinical observations indicating that miR-302a expression is inversely correlated with the expression of its targets in CRC specimens. : Our findings show that miR-302a acts as a multifaceted regulator of CRC metastasis and CTX resistance by targeting NFIB and CD44, respectively. Our study implicates miR-302a as a candidate prognostic predictor and a therapeutic agent in CRC.
© The author(s).
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1 Members
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13 MeSH Terms
Metabolic effects of skeletal muscle-specific deletion of beta-arrestin-1 and -2 in mice.
Meister J, Bone DBJ, Godlewski G, Liu Z, Lee RJ, Vishnivetskiy SA, Gurevich VV, Springer D, Kunos G, Wess J
(2019) PLoS Genet 15: e1008424
MeSH Terms: Animals, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diet, High-Fat, Disease Models, Animal, Glucose, Glucose Clamp Technique, Glycogen, Humans, Insulin, Insulin Resistance, Male, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Muscle, Skeletal, Obesity, Signal Transduction, beta-Arrestin 1, beta-Arrestin 2
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a major health problem worldwide. Skeletal muscle (SKM) is the key tissue for whole-body glucose disposal and utilization. New drugs aimed at improving insulin sensitivity of SKM would greatly expand available therapeutic options. β-arrestin-1 and -2 (Barr1 and Barr2, respectively) are two intracellular proteins best known for their ability to mediate the desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recent studies suggest that Barr1 and Barr2 regulate several important metabolic functions including insulin release and hepatic glucose production. Since SKM expresses many GPCRs, including the metabolically important β2-adrenergic receptor, the goal of this study was to examine the potential roles of Barr1 and Barr2 in regulating SKM and whole-body glucose metabolism. Using SKM-specific knockout (KO) mouse lines, we showed that the loss of SKM Barr2, but not of SKM Barr1, resulted in mild improvements in glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. SKM-specific Barr1- and Barr2-KO mice did not show any significant differences in exercise performance. However, lack of SKM Barr2 led to increased glycogen breakdown following a treadmill exercise challenge. Interestingly, mice that lacked both Barr1 and Barr2 in SKM showed no significant metabolic phenotypes. Thus, somewhat surprisingly, our data indicate that SKM β-arrestins play only rather subtle roles (SKM Barr2) in regulating whole-body glucose homeostasis and SKM insulin sensitivity.
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MeSH Terms
Developmentally regulated KCC2 phosphorylation is essential for dynamic GABA-mediated inhibition and survival.
Watanabe M, Zhang J, Mansuri MS, Duan J, Karimy JK, Delpire E, Alper SL, Lifton RP, Fukuda A, Kahle KT
(2019) Sci Signal 12:
MeSH Terms: Animals, Animals, Newborn, Binding Sites, Cells, Cultured, Central Nervous System, Chlorides, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Male, Mice, 129 Strain, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Neurons, Phosphorylation, Signal Transduction, Symporters, gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
Despite its importance for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition and involvement in neurodevelopmental disease, the regulatory mechanisms of the K/Cl cotransporter KCC2 (encoded by ) during maturation of the central nervous system (CNS) are not entirely understood. Here, we applied quantitative phosphoproteomics to systematically map sites of KCC2 phosphorylation during CNS development in the mouse. KCC2 phosphorylation at Thr and Thr, which inhibits KCC2 activity, underwent dephosphorylation in parallel with the GABA excitatory-inhibitory sequence in vivo. Knockin mice expressing the homozygous phosphomimetic KCC2 mutations T906E/T1007E ( ), which prevented the normal developmentally regulated dephosphorylation of these sites, exhibited early postnatal death from respiratory arrest and a marked absence of cervical spinal neuron respiratory discharges. mice also displayed disrupted lumbar spinal neuron locomotor rhythmogenesis and touch-evoked status epilepticus associated with markedly impaired KCC2-dependent Cl extrusion. These data identify a previously unknown phosphorylation-dependent KCC2 regulatory mechanism during CNS development that is essential for dynamic GABA-mediated inhibition and survival.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
0 Communities
1 Members
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16 MeSH Terms
Breast Cancer Dormancy in Bone.
Clements ME, Johnson RW
(2019) Curr Osteoporos Rep 17: 353-361
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bone Marrow, Bone Neoplasms, Breast Neoplasms, Disease Models, Animal, Disease Progression, Female, Humans, Mice, Neoplasm Metastasis, Signal Transduction, Tumor Microenvironment
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
PURPOSE OF REVIEW - The goal of this review is to summarize recent experimental and clinical evidence for metastatic latency and the molecular mechanisms that regulate tumor dormancy in the bone.
RECENT FINDINGS - Tumor dormancy contributes to the progression of metastasis and thus has significant clinical implications for prognosis and treatment. Tumor-intrinsic signaling and specialized bone marrow niches play a pivotal role in determining the dormancy status of bone disseminated tumor cells. Experimental models have provided significant insight into the effects of the bone microenvironment on tumor cells; however, these models remain limited in their ability to study dormancy. Despite recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of how tumor cells remain dormant in the bone for prolonged periods of time, the signals that trigger spontaneous dormancy escape remain unclear. This review highlights the need for further investigation of mechanisms underlying tumor dormancy using clinically relevant models.
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12 MeSH Terms