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Direct Activation of Human MLKL by a Select Repertoire of Inositol Phosphate Metabolites.
McNamara DE, Dovey CM, Hale AT, Quarato G, Grace CR, Guibao CD, Diep J, Nourse A, Cai CR, Wu H, Kalathur RC, Green DR, York JD, Carette JE, Moldoveanu T
(2019) Cell Chem Biol 26: 863-877.e7
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Survival, HT29 Cells, Humans, Inositol Phosphates, Protein Kinases, Sf9 Cells, Spodoptera
Show Abstract · Added March 30, 2020
Necroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death executed through plasma membrane rupture by the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). We previously showed that MLKL activation requires metabolites of the inositol phosphate (IP) pathway. Here we reveal that I(1,3,4,6)P, I(1,3,4,5,6)P, and IP promote membrane permeabilization by MLKL through directly binding the N-terminal executioner domain (NED) and dissociating its auto-inhibitory region. We show that IP and inositol pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IPPK) are required for necroptosis as IPPK deletion ablated IP production and inhibited necroptosis. The NED auto-inhibitory region is more extensive than originally described and single amino acid substitutions along this region induce spontaneous necroptosis by MLKL. Activating IPs bind three sites with affinity of 100-600 μM to destabilize contacts between the auto-inhibitory region and NED, thereby promoting MLKL activation. We therefore uncover MLKL's activating switch in NED triggered by a select repertoire of IP metabolites.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8 MeSH Terms
Potent anti-influenza H7 human monoclonal antibody induces separation of hemagglutinin receptor-binding head domains.
Turner HL, Pallesen J, Lang S, Bangaru S, Urata S, Li S, Cottrell CA, Bowman CA, Crowe JE, Wilson IA, Ward AB
(2019) PLoS Biol 17: e3000139
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibody Specificity, Baculoviridae, Binding Sites, Cloning, Molecular, Cryoelectron Microscopy, Gene Expression, Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus, Hydrogen Bonding, Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments, Influenza A virus, Molecular Docking Simulation, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical, Protein Conformation, beta-Strand, Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs, Recombinant Proteins, Sequence Alignment, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Sf9 Cells, Spodoptera
Show Abstract · Added March 31, 2019
Seasonal influenza virus infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality, but the threat from the emergence of a new pandemic influenza strain might have potentially even more devastating consequences. As such, there is intense interest in isolating and characterizing potent neutralizing antibodies that target the hemagglutinin (HA) viral surface glycoprotein. Here, we use cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) to decipher the mechanism of action of a potent HA head-directed monoclonal antibody (mAb) bound to an influenza H7 HA. The epitope of the antibody is not solvent accessible in the compact, prefusion conformation that typifies all HA structures to date. Instead, the antibody binds between HA head protomers to an epitope that must be partly or transiently exposed in the prefusion conformation. The "breathing" of the HA protomers is implied by the exposure of this epitope, which is consistent with metastability of class I fusion proteins. This structure likely therefore represents an early structural intermediate in the viral fusion process. Understanding the extent of transient exposure of conserved neutralizing epitopes also may lead to new opportunities to combat influenza that have not been appreciated previously.
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23 MeSH Terms
The molecular basis of subtype selectivity of human kinin G-protein-coupled receptors.
Joedicke L, Mao J, Kuenze G, Reinhart C, Kalavacherla T, Jonker HRA, Richter C, Schwalbe H, Meiler J, Preu J, Michel H, Glaubitz C
(2018) Nat Chem Biol 14: 284-290
MeSH Terms: Animals, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Insecta, Kinins, Ligands, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Models, Molecular, Molecular Docking Simulation, Mutation, Peptides, Protein Binding, Protein Domains, Protein Structure, Secondary, Receptor, Bradykinin B1, Receptor, Bradykinin B2, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Sf9 Cells, Signal Transduction, Static Electricity
Show Abstract · Added March 17, 2018
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most important signal transducers in higher eukaryotes. Despite considerable progress, the molecular basis of subtype-specific ligand selectivity, especially for peptide receptors, remains unknown. Here, by integrating DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy with advanced molecular modeling and docking, the mechanism of the subtype selectivity of human bradykinin receptors for their peptide agonists has been resolved. The conserved middle segments of the bound peptides show distinct conformations that result in different presentations of their N and C termini toward their receptors. Analysis of the peptide-receptor interfaces reveals that the charged N-terminal residues of the peptides are mainly selected through electrostatic interactions, whereas the C-terminal segments are recognized via both conformations and interactions. The detailed molecular picture obtained by this approach opens a new gateway for exploring the complex conformational and chemical space of peptides and peptide analogs for designing GPCR subtype-selective biochemical tools and drugs.
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20 MeSH Terms
Molecular Basis for Subtype Specificity and High-Affinity Zinc Inhibition in the GluN1-GluN2A NMDA Receptor Amino-Terminal Domain.
Romero-Hernandez A, Simorowski N, Karakas E, Furukawa H
(2016) Neuron 92: 1324-1336
MeSH Terms: 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine, Animals, Binding Sites, Blotting, Western, Crystallography, Hydrogen Bonding, Piperidines, Protein Structure, Quaternary, Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate, Sf9 Cells, Spodoptera, Xenopus laevis, Zinc
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
Zinc is vastly present in the mammalian brain and controls functions of various cell surface receptors to regulate neurotransmission. A distinctive characteristic of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors containing a GluN2A subunit is that their ion channel activity is allosterically inhibited by a nano-molar concentration of zinc that binds to an extracellular domain called an amino-terminal domain (ATD). Despite physiological importance, the molecular mechanism underlying the high-affinity zinc inhibition has been incomplete because of the lack of a GluN2A ATD structure. Here we show the first crystal structures of the heterodimeric GluN1-GluN2A ATD, which provide the complete map of the high-affinity zinc-binding site and reveal distinctive features from the ATD of the GluN1-GluN2B subtype. Perturbation of hydrogen bond networks at the hinge of the GluN2A bi-lobe structure affects both zinc inhibition and open probability, supporting the general model in which the bi-lobe motion in ATD regulates the channel activity in NMDA receptors.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Competition and allostery govern substrate selectivity of cyclooxygenase-2.
Mitchener MM, Hermanson DJ, Shockley EM, Brown HA, Lindsley CW, Reese J, Rouzer CA, Lopez CF, Marnett LJ
(2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112: 12366-71
MeSH Terms: Algorithms, Allosteric Regulation, Allosteric Site, Animals, Arachidonic Acid, Arachidonic Acids, Binding, Competitive, Catalytic Domain, Cell Line, Computer Simulation, Cyclooxygenase 2, Endocannabinoids, Glycerides, Kinetics, Macrophages, Mice, Oxidation-Reduction, Prostaglandins, Protein Binding, Protein Multimerization, Sf9 Cells, Spodoptera, Substrate Specificity, Zymosan
Show Abstract · Added February 15, 2016
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) oxygenates arachidonic acid (AA) and its ester analog, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), to prostaglandins (PGs) and prostaglandin glyceryl esters (PG-Gs), respectively. Although the efficiency of oxygenation of these substrates by COX-2 in vitro is similar, cellular biosynthesis of PGs far exceeds that of PG-Gs. Evidence that the COX enzymes are functional heterodimers suggests that competitive interaction of AA and 2-AG at the allosteric site of COX-2 might result in differential regulation of the oxygenation of the two substrates when both are present. Modulation of AA levels in RAW264.7 macrophages uncovered an inverse correlation between cellular AA levels and PG-G biosynthesis. In vitro kinetic analysis using purified protein demonstrated that the inhibition of 2-AG oxygenation by high concentrations of AA far exceeded the inhibition of AA oxygenation by high concentrations of 2-AG. An unbiased systems-based mechanistic model of the kinetic data revealed that binding of AA or 2-AG at the allosteric site of COX-2 results in a decreased catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward 2-AG, whereas 2-AG binding at the allosteric site increases COX-2's efficiency toward AA. The results suggest that substrates interact with COX-2 via multiple potential complexes involving binding to both the catalytic and allosteric sites. Competition between AA and 2-AG for these sites, combined with differential allosteric modulation, gives rise to a complex interplay between the substrates, leading to preferential oxygenation of AA.
1 Communities
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24 MeSH Terms
Quantitative proteomics analysis of CaMKII phosphorylation and the CaMKII interactome in the mouse forebrain.
Baucum AJ, Shonesy BC, Rose KL, Colbran RJ
(2015) ACS Chem Neurosci 6: 615-31
MeSH Terms: Animals, Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2, Cell Membrane, Cytosol, Gene Knock-In Techniques, HEK293 Cells, Holoenzymes, Humans, Immunoprecipitation, Male, Mass Spectrometry, Mice, Transgenic, Phosphorylation, Prosencephalon, Proteomics, Recombinant Proteins, Sf9 Cells, Spodoptera, Synapses
Show Abstract · Added February 15, 2016
Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) autophosphorylation at Thr286 and Thr305/Thr306 regulates kinase activity and modulates subcellular targeting and is critical for normal synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Here, a mass spectrometry-based approach was used to identify Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent in vitro autophosphorylation sites in recombinant CaMKIIα and CaMKIIβ. CaMKII holoenzymes were then immunoprecipitated from subcellular fractions of forebrains isolated from either wild-type (WT) mice or mice with a Thr286 to Ala knock-in mutation of CaMKIIα (T286A-KI mice) and analyzed using the same approach in order to characterize in vivo phosphorylation sites in both CaMKII isoforms and identify CaMKII-associated proteins (CaMKAPs). A total of six and seven autophosphorylation sites in CaMKIIα and CaMKIIβ, respectively, were detected in WT mice. Thr286-phosphorylated CaMKIIα and Thr287-phosphorylated CaMKIIβ were selectively enriched in WT Triton-insoluble (synaptic) fractions compared to Triton-soluble (membrane) and cytosolic fractions. In contrast, Thr306-phosphorylated CaMKIIα and Ser315- and Thr320/Thr321-phosphorylated CaMKIIβ were selectively enriched in WT cytosolic fractions. The T286A-KI mutation significantly reduced levels of phosphorylation of CaMKIIα at Ser275 across all subcellular fractions and of cytosolic CaMKIIβ at Ser315 and Thr320/Thr321. Significantly more CaMKAPs coprecipitated with WT CaMKII holoenzymes in the synaptic fraction compared to that in the membrane fraction, with functions including scaffolding, microtubule organization, actin organization, ribosomal function, vesicle trafficking, and others. The T286A-KI mutation altered the interactions of multiple CaMKAPs with CaMKII, including several proteins linked to autism spectrum disorders. These data identify CaMKII isoform phosphorylation sites and a network of synaptic protein interactions that are sensitive to the abrogation of Thr286 autophosphorylation of CaMKIIα, likely contributing to the diverse synaptic and behavioral deficits of T286A-KI mice.
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19 MeSH Terms
Predicted structure and domain organization of rotavirus capping enzyme and innate immune antagonist VP3.
Ogden KM, Snyder MJ, Dennis AF, Patton JT
(2014) J Virol 88: 9072-85
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Capsid Proteins, Catalytic Domain, Cell Line, Immunity, Innate, Molecular Sequence Data, Orbivirus, Phylogeny, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Rotavirus, Rotavirus Infections, Sequence Alignment, Sf9 Cells, Spodoptera, Transcription, Genetic, Virion
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2017
UNLABELLED - Rotaviruses and orbiviruses are nonturreted Reoviridae members. The rotavirus VP3 protein is a multifunctional capping enzyme and antagonist of the interferon-induced cellular oligoadenylate synthetase-RNase L pathway. Despite mediating important processes, VP3 is the sole protein component of the rotavirus virion whose structure remains unknown. In the current study, we used sequence alignment and homology modeling to identify features common to nonturreted Reoviridae capping enzymes and to predict the domain organization, structure, and active sites of rotavirus VP3. Our results suggest that orbivirus and rotavirus capping enzymes share a domain arrangement similar to that of the bluetongue virus capping enzyme. Sequence alignments revealed conserved motifs and suggested that rotavirus and orbivirus capping enzymes contain a variable N-terminal domain, a central guanine-N7-methyltransferase domain that contains an additional inserted domain, and a C-terminal guanylyltransferase and RNA 5'-triphosphatase domain. Sequence conservation and homology modeling suggested that the insertion in the guanine-N7-methyltransferase domain is a ribose-2'-O-methyltransferase domain for most rotavirus species. Our analyses permitted putative identification of rotavirus VP3 active-site residues, including those that form the ribose-2'-O-methyltransferase catalytic tetrad, interact with S-adenosyl-l-methionine, and contribute to autoguanylation. Previous reports have indicated that group A rotavirus VP3 contains a C-terminal 2H-phosphodiesterase domain that can cleave 2'-5' oligoadenylates, thereby preventing RNase L activation. Our results suggest that a C-terminal phosphodiesterase domain is present in the capping enzymes from two additional rotavirus species. Together, these findings provide insight into a poorly understood area of rotavirus biology and are a springboard for future biochemical and structural studies of VP3.
IMPORTANCE - Rotaviruses are an important cause of severe diarrheal disease. The rotavirus VP3 protein caps viral mRNAs and helps combat cellular innate antiviral defenses, but little is known about its structure or enzymatic mechanisms. In this study, we used sequence- and structure-based alignments with related proteins to predict the structure of VP3 and identify enzymatic domains and active sites therein. This work provides insight into the mechanisms of rotavirus transcription and evasion of host innate immune defenses. An improved understanding of these processes may aid our ability to develop rotavirus vaccines and therapeutics.
Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
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17 MeSH Terms
Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C protein (XPC) serves as a general sensor of damaged DNA.
Shell SM, Hawkins EK, Tsai MS, Hlaing AS, Rizzo CJ, Chazin WJ
(2013) DNA Repair (Amst) 12: 947-53
MeSH Terms: Animals, Base Sequence, Binding Sites, DNA, DNA Damage, DNA Repair, DNA Repair Enzymes, DNA-Binding Proteins, Fluorescence Polarization, High-Throughput Screening Assays, Humans, Sf9 Cells, Spodoptera
Show Abstract · Added March 7, 2014
The Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C protein (XPC) serves as the primary initiating factor in the global genome nucleotide excision repair pathway (GG-NER). Recent reports suggest XPC also stimulates repair of oxidative lesions by base excision repair. However, whether XPC distinguishes among various types of DNA lesions remains unclear. Although the DNA binding properties of XPC have been studied by several groups, there is a lack of consensus over whether XPC discriminates between DNA damaged by lesions associated with NER activity versus those that are not. In this study we report a high-throughput fluorescence anisotropy assay used to measure the DNA binding affinity of XPC for a panel of DNA substrates containing a range of chemical lesions in a common sequence. Our results demonstrate that while XPC displays a preference for binding damaged DNA, the identity of the lesion has little effect on the binding affinity of XPC. Moreover, XPC was equally capable of binding to DNA substrates containing lesions not repaired by GG-NER. Our results suggest XPC may act as a general sensor of damaged DNA that is capable of recognizing DNA containing lesions not repaired by NER.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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13 MeSH Terms
Gβγ inhibits exocytosis via interaction with critical residues on soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein-25.
Wells CA, Zurawski Z, Betke KM, Yim YY, Hyde K, Rodriguez S, Alford S, Hamm HE
(2012) Mol Pharmacol 82: 1136-49
MeSH Terms: Alanine, Animals, Binding Sites, Botulinum Toxins, Calcium, Cell Line, Exocytosis, GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits, GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits, Lampreys, Mutation, Neurons, Peptides, Protein Binding, Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, SNARE Proteins, Sf9 Cells, Spodoptera, Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25, Synaptotagmin I, Syntaxin 1
Show Abstract · Added December 10, 2013
Spatial and temporal regulation of neurotransmitter release is a complex process accomplished by the exocytotic machinery working in tandem with numerous regulatory proteins. G-protein βγ dimers regulate the core process of exocytosis by interacting with the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein-25 (SNAP-25), syntaxin 1A, and synaptobrevin. Gβγ binding to ternary SNAREs overlaps with calcium-dependent binding of synaptotagmin, inhibiting synaptotagmin-1 binding and fusion of the synaptic vesicle. To further explore the binding sites of Gβγ on SNAP-25, peptides based on the sequence of SNAP-25 were screened for Gβγ binding. Peptides that bound Gβγ were subjected to alanine scanning mutagenesis to determine their relevance to the Gβγ-SNAP-25 interaction. Peptides from this screen were tested in protein-protein interaction assays for their ability to modulate the interaction of Gβγ with SNAP-25. A peptide from the C terminus, residues 193 to 206, significantly inhibited the interaction. In addition, Ala mutants of SNAP-25 residues from the C terminus of SNAP-25, as well as from the amino-terminal region decreased binding to Gβ₁γ₁. When SNAP-25 with eight residues mutated to alanine was assembled with syntaxin 1A, there was significantly reduced affinity of this mutated t-SNARE for Gβγ, but it still interacted with synaptotagmin-1 in a Ca²⁺ -dependent manner and reconstituted evoked exocytosis in botulinum neurotoxin E-treated neurons. However, the mutant SNAP-25 could no longer support 5-hydroxytryptamine-mediated inhibition of exocytosis.
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22 MeSH Terms