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OBJECTIVE - To estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) and STIs and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women participating in the Efficacy of HPV Vaccine to Reduce HIV Infection (EVRI) trial.
METHODS - HIV-negative women aged 16-24 years old were enrolled in the EVRI trial (NCT01489527) and randomised to receive the licensed four-valent HPV vaccine or placebo. At study entry, participants were clinically evaluated for five STIs: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and disease-causing HPV genotypes (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/68). Demographic and sexual history characteristics were compared among women with STI co-infections, single infection and no infection using Pearson χ and Mann-Whitney tests. ORs were calculated to evaluate factors associated with STI co-infection prevalence.
RESULTS - Among 388 young women, STI co-infection prevalence was high: 47% had ≥2 concurrent STIs, 36% had a single STI and 17% had none of the five evaluated STIs. HPV/HSV-2 (26%) was the most prevalent co-infection detected followed by HPV/HSV-2/ (CT) (17%) and HPV/CT (15%). Co-infection prevalence was independently associated with alcohol use (adjusted OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.06) and having a sexual partner with an STI (adjusted OR=6.96, 95% CI 1.53 to 30.08).
CONCLUSIONS - Among high-risk young women from underserved communities such as in Southern Africa, a multicomponent prevention strategy that integrates medical and behavioural interventions targeting both men and women is essential to prevent acquisition of concurrent STI infections and consequent disease.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER - NCT01489527; Post-results.
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The purpose of this study was to assess whether the incidence of histopathologically confirmed condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) and rates of genital HPV infection progression to these lesions differs by country (Brazil, Mexico and the U.S.). At each visit, lesions were biopsied and were categorized by pathologic diagnoses. The Linear Array genotyping method was used to identify HPV genotypes from genital swabs, while the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra method was used for tissue specimens. Age-specific analyses were conducted for lesion incidence by country, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to condyloma and PeIN, the median time to lesion development and the incidence rates were estimated by country. When comparing demographic and sexual characteristics across the three countries, sexual orientation (p = 0.008) and lifetime number of female sexual partners (p < 0.0001) were differentially associated with lesion incidence in the three countries. Condyloma incidence in Brazil and the U.S. decreased with age, while incidence remained constant across the lifespan in Mexico. There were no differences by country and age for PeIN incidence. HPV types 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to condyloma and HPV types 16, 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to PeIN in all three countries. The continuous risk of condyloma and PeIN across all age groups and countries in this study emphasizes the need to ensure that strong HPV immunity, such as that obtained through vaccination, is maintained across the lifespan of men.
© 2016 UICC.
Young adults (ages 18-26) with (n = 20) and without (n = 55) a history of child abuse (CA) completed self-report and laboratory-based measures of impulsivity and risk-taking. Relative to individuals without abuse histories, individuals with a history of CA self-reported a greater number of lifetime sexual partners as well as elevated trait impulsivity (specifically, elevated lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance). No group differences were observed for self-reported safety-related behaviors and risk-taking propensity. Notably, however, laboratory-based measures suggested that individuals with a history of CA showed significantly less impulsivity and risk-taking than individuals without abuse histories. These results suggest that self-report and laboratory measures of risk-taking and impulsivity measured in emerging adulthood may differentially relate to CA. Specifically, whereas laboratory-based measures may be influenced by hypervigilance or in the moment actions, self-report measures may assess more general behaviors related to real-world impulsivity and risk-taking.
© The Author(s) 2014.
INTRODUCTION - In this prospective study of localized prostate cancer patients and their partners, we analyzed how partner issues evolve over time, focusing on satisfaction with care, influence of cancer treatment, and its impact on relationship with patient, cancer worry, and personal activities.
AIMS - Our study aims were twofold: (i) to determine whether the impact of treatment on patients and partners moderate over time and (ii) if receiving surgery (i.e., radical prostatectomy) influences partner issues more than other treatments.
METHODS - Patients newly diagnosed with localized prostate cancer and their female partners were recruited from three states to complete surveys by mail at three time points over 12 months.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - The four primary outcomes assessed in the partner analysis included satisfaction with treatment, cancer worry, and the influence of cancer and its treatment on their relationship (both general relationship and sexual relationship).
RESULTS - This analysis included 88 patient-partner pairs. At 6 months, partners reported that cancer had a negative impact on their sexual relationship (39%--somewhat negative and 12%--very negative). At 12 months, this proportion increased substantially (42%--somewhat negative and 29%--very negative). Partners were significantly more likely to report that their sexual relationship was worse when the patient reported having surgery (P = 0.0045, odds ratio = 9.8025, 95% confidence interval 2.076-46.296). A minority of partners reported significant negative impacts in other areas involving their personal activities (16% at 6 months and 25% at 12 months) or work life (6% at 6 months, which increased to 12% at 12 months).
CONCLUSION - From partners' perspectives, prostate cancer therapy has negative impact on sexual relationships and appears to worsen over time.
© 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
In this study, we used data from Add Health Waves II and III to compare men who had been incarcerated to those who had not, and examined whether incarceration was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners and increased odds of concurrent partnerships. We used multivariate regression and propensity-score matching to compare sexual behavior of Wave III male respondents who had been incarcerated with those who had not, and compared sexual behavior at Wave II to identify differences in sexual behavior prior to incarceration. Incarceration was associated with an increased rate of lifetime sexual partnership, but this was attenuated by substance use. Criminal justice involvement was associated with increased odds of having partners who report concurrent partnerships, but no further increase was seen with incarceration. There were no significant sexual behavior differences prior to incarceration. These results suggest that the criminal justice system and substance use may interact to shape sexual behavior.
Partner notification for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is acceptable and feasible among female sex workers attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Guatemala, especially for regular partners. Intention to refer the sexual partner was best predicted by attitude followed by social norms and baby's protection. Women preferred notification via patient-based referral.
This study assessed the correlates of recent HIV testing and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. A cross-sectional study probed demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, HIV testing, and prevention services. Of 500 participants, 39.3% recently received a test for HIV. Recent testing was independently associated with expressing lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes, more male sex partners, no female sexual partners and knowing HIV status of their last male partner. Expressing lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes was independently associated with recent testing, younger age, and knowing HIV status of their last male partner. This study revealed that HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes were common and inversely associated with recent HIV testing. Low levels of testing highlighted the urgent needs to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination and expand HIV testing among MSM in Beijing.
BACKGROUND - Violence against women (VAW), including intimate partner violence (IPV) in its various forms (sexual, physical, or stalking), and childhood violence (sexual or physical) are common and are associated with depressive symptoms. We examined the association between these violence exposures and self-reported history of postpartum depression (PPD).
METHODS - Women from the Kentucky Women's Health Registry (KWHR) who reported at least one live birth were included in this study. Individual IPV and child abuse histories were examined for association with self-reported history of PPD. Multivariate regression analysis estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), controlling for age, obstetrical history, and substance abuse history.
RESULTS - The 5380 women in the KWHR reporting at least one live birth were included in this study. Of these women, 2508 (46.6%) reported a history of any VAW. A history of adult VAW was associated with a history of PPD (aRR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.95). Physical IPV (aRR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.95) and stalking IPV (aRR 1.39, 95% CI1.03-1.87) were individually associated with PPD. Other types of violence were not individually associated with a history of PPD. The strength of association increased with each additional type of violence experienced (aRR1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.30).
CONCLUSIONS - Adult VAW is associated with self-reported history of PPD. With an increase in the number of types of abuse experienced, this association became stronger. Our findings highlight the need for thorough VAW screening in obstetrical populations.
Few studies examine the influence of body mass index (BMI) on sexual risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether BMI among 704 young mothers (ages 14-25) related to STI incidence and sexual risk. We examined the effect of BMI groups (normal weight, overweight, and obese) at 6 months postpartum on STI incidence and risky sex (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, risky and casual partner) at 12 months postpartum. At 6 months postpartum, 31% of participants were overweight and 40% were obese. Overweight women were more likely to have an STI (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.11-2.89, P < .05) and a risky partner (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.01-2.08, P < .05) at 12 months postpartum compared to normal weight women. However, obese women were less likely to have an STI than normal weight women (OR = .57, 95% CI = .34-.96, P < .01). BMI related to STI incidence and sexual risk behavior. Integrated approaches to weight loss and sexual risk prevention should be explored.
Understanding the demographic, behavioural and psychosocial factors associated with partner referral for patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is important for designing appropriate intervention strategies. A survey was conducted among STI clients in three government and three non-governmental organization-operated clinics in Dhaka and Chittagong city in Bangladesh. Demographic and psychosocial information was collected using a questionnaire guided by the Attitude-Social Influence-Self Efficacy model. Partner referral data were collected by verification of referral cards when partners appeared at the clinics within one month of interviewing the STI clients. Of the 1339 clients interviewed, 81% accepted partner referral cards but only 32% actually referred their partners; 37% of these referrals were done by clients randomly assigned to a single counselling session vs. 27% by clients not assigned to a counselling session (p < 0.0001). Among psychosocial factors, partner referral intention was best predicted by attitudes and perceived social norms of the STI clients. Actual partner referral was significantly associated with intention to refer partner and attitudes of the index clients. Married clients were significantly more likely to refer their partners, and clients with low income were less likely to refer partners. Intervention programmes must address psychosocial and socio-economic issues to improve partner referral for STIs in Bangladesh.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.