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HSCT can be curative for many PID. Little is known about the outcome of HSCT for patients with PID in the developing countries. We retrospectively reviewed all children with PID who received HSCT at KHCC in Jordan between August 2003 and October 2011. Twenty-eight patients were identified. The median age was 16 months (3 months-17 yr). Patients' diagnoses were SCID (n = 16), CHS (n = 3), HLH (n = 3), WAS (n = 2), Griscelli syndrome (n = 1), ALPS (n = 1), Omenn's syndrome (n = 1), and DiGeorge syndrome (n = 1). Seventeen patients received HLA-matched related HSCT, eight received maternal un-manipulated haploidentical HSCT, and three received unrelated cord blood transplantation. Nine patients (32%) developed BCGosis secondary to reactivation of pretransplant vaccination. Three died while still receiving anti-tuberculosis drugs, one still on treatment, and all others have recovered. Six patients had graft failure; four of them received no conditioning regimens. At a median follow up of 32 months (range 1-67), 21 patients are alive, with overall survival of 72%. We conclude that HSCT for PID patients can be performed with a good outcome in developing countries; however, delayed diagnosis or referral and BCG reactivation are unique challenges.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
The existence of multipotent cardiac stromal cells expressing stem cell antigen (Sca)-1 has been reported, and their proangiogenic properties have been demonstrated in myocardial infarction models. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that stimulation of adenosine receptors on cardiac Sca-1(+) cells up-regulates their secretion of proangiogenic factors. We found that Sca-1 is expressed in subsets of mouse cardiac stromal CD31(-) and endothelial CD31(+) cells. The population of Sca-1(+)CD31(+) endothelial cells was significantly reduced, whereas the population of Sca-1(+)CD31(-) stromal cells was increased 1 week after myocardial infarction, indicating their relative functional importance in this pathophysiological process. An increase in adenosine levels in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice in vivo significantly augmented vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in cardiac Sca-1(+)CD31(-) stromal cells but not in Sca-1(+)CD31(+) endothelial cells. We found that mouse cardiac Sca-1(+)CD31(-) stromal cells predominantly express mRNA encoding A(2B) adenosine receptors. Stimulation of adenosine receptors significantly increased interleukin (IL)-6, CXCL1 (a mouse ortholog of human IL-8), and VEGF release from these cells. Using conditionally immortalized Sca-1(+)CD31(-) stromal cells obtained from wild-type and A(2B) receptor knockout mouse hearts, we demonstrated that A(2B) receptors are essential for adenosine-dependent up-regulation of their paracrine functions. We found that the human heart also harbors a population of stromal cells similar to the mouse cardiac Sca-1(+)CD31(-) stromal cells that increase release of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF in response to A(2B) receptor stimulation. Thus, our study identified A(2B) adenosine receptors on cardiac stromal cells as potential targets for up-regulation of proangiogenic factors in the ischemic heart.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS - To develop and validate a new immunodeficient mouse strain that spontaneously develops a non-autoimmune hyperglycaemia to serve as a diabetic host for human islets and human beta stem and progenitor cells without the need for induction of hyperglycaemia by toxic chemicals with their associated side effects.
METHODS - We generated and characterised a new strain of immunodeficient spontaneously hyperglycaemic mice, the NOD-Rag1null Prf1null Ins2Akita strain and compared this strain with the NOD-scid Il2rgammanull (also known as Il2rg) immunodeficient strain rendered hyperglycaemic by administration of a single dose of streptozotocin. Hyperglycaemic mice were transplanted with human islets ranging from 1,000 to 4,000 islet equivalents (IEQ) and were monitored for normalisation of blood glucose levels.
RESULTS - NOD-Rag1null Prf1null Ins2Akita mice developed spontaneous hyperglycaemia, similar to Ins2Akita-harbouring strains of immunocompetent mice. Histological examination of islets in the host pancreas validated the spontaneous loss of beta cell mass in the absence of mononuclear cell infiltration. Human islets transplanted into spontaneously diabetic NOD-Rag1null Prf1null Ins2Akita and chemically diabetic NOD-scid Il2rgammanull mice resulted in a return to euglycaemia that occurred with transplantation of similar beta cell masses.
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION - The NOD-Rag1null Prf1null Ins2Akita mouse is the first immunodeficient, spontaneously hyperglycaemic mouse strain described that is based on the Ins2Akita mutation. This strain is suitable as hosts for human islet and human beta stem and progenitor cell transplantation in the absence of the need for pharmacological induction of diabetes. This strain of mice also has low levels of innate immunity and can be engrafted with a human immune system for the study of human islet allograft rejection.
Review of liver biopsy or autopsy material from 33 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency or combined immunodeficiency and four patients with DiGeorge syndrome revealed a wide range of hepatic pathology. The most common abnormality was graft-versus-host disease (16 patients), followed by viral infection (4 patients had adenovirus hepatitis, 3 had cytomegalovirus hepatitis). Centrilobular fibrosis with or without veno-occlusive disease was seen in five patients. Three patients had nonspecific hepatitis, four had changes attributed to total parenteral nutrition, and two had lymphoproliferative disorders involving the liver. Both patients with lymphoproliferative disorders had received transplants. Two patients had resolving necrosis probably secondary to non-A, non-B hepatitis. One had atypical mycobacterial infection. Hemosiderosis was a common nonspecific abnormality, seen in nine patients. All patients with hepatic graft-versus-host disease had received transplants or nonirradiated blood products. Hepatic graft-versus-host disease varied in severity from hepatic necrosis with destruction of both large and small bile ducts in a transfusion-associated case to subtle damage to interlobular bile ducts. Even minimal bile duct changes correlated with the clinical impression of graft-versus-host disease in these patients. Late chronic graft-versus-host disease was not seen in any patient, although acute graft-versus-host disease sometimes occurred late after transplant.
Review of autopsies of 28 children with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or combined immunodeficiency (CID) and three with DiGeorge syndrome showed a high incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the pancreas. Acute GVHD (seven cases: four SCID, two CID, and one DiGeorge syndrome) was characterized by lymphocytes around large to medium ducts, damage to ductal epithelium (focal necrosis, reactive nuclear changes, inspissated secretions in duct lumens), and periductal edema. Changes were judged indeterminate but suspicious for GVHD when ductal damage was slight (six cases: three SCID, two CID, and one DiGeorge syndrome). All patients with pancreatic GVHD had received allogeneic bone marrow, fetal liver or thymus transplant, or nonirradiated blood products and had evidence of GVHD in other organs. Immunoperoxidase stain for HLA-DR showed strong-to-moderate staining of duct epithelium in two of four GVHD cases for which blocks were available. This change was nonspecific; weaker staining for HLA-DR was seen in cases with nonspecific abnormalities and in viral pancreatitis. Four cases had histological evidence of viral infection: two had cytomegalovirus pancreatitis, one had patchy parenchymal necrosis caused by adenovirus, and one had giant cell pancreatitis caused by parainfluenza virus. Mild nonspecific changes, such as focal fat necrosis or acinar dilatation, were seen in seven cases. One case had unexplained marked pancreatic atrophy and fibrosis. Acute pancreatic GVHD is not uncommon in autopsies of children with congenital immune deficiencies with GVHD of other organs; however, this finding may not have strong clinical implications in this group of patients. Careful attention to pancreatic ducts is necessary for diagnosis. Unusual viral pancreatitis may also be seen in this group, as well as nonspecific abnormalities.