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Shotgun proteomics produces collections of tandem mass spectra that contain all the data needed to identify mutated peptides from clinical samples. Identifying these sequence variations, however, has not been feasible with conventional database search strategies, which require exact matches between observed and expected sequences. Searching for mutations as mass shifts on specified residues through database search can incur significant performance penalties and generate substantial false positive rates. Here we describe TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify unanticipated mutations in clinical proteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies unmodified peptides as sensitively as the related MyriMatch database search engine. In both LTQ and Orbitrap data sets, TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing sequence mismatches from data sets with known variants. We developed guidelines for filtering putative mutations from clinical samples, and we applied them in an analysis of cancer cell lines and an examination of colon tissue. Mutations were found in up to 6% of identified peptides, and only a small fraction corresponded to dbSNP entries. The RKO cell line, which is DNA mismatch repair deficient, yielded more mutant peptides than the mismatch repair proficient SW480 line. Analysis of colon cancer tumor and adjacent tissue revealed hydroxyproline modifications associated with extracellular matrix degradation. These results demonstrate the value of using sequence tagging algorithms to fully interrogate clinical proteomic data sets.
The present study describes a genome-wide method for biallelic mutagenesis in mammalian cells. Novel poly(A) gene trap vectors, which contain features for direct cloning vector-cell fusion transcripts and for post-entrapment genome engineering, were used to generate a library of 979 mutant ES cells. The entrapment mutations generally disrupted gene expression and were readily transmitted through the germline, establishing the library as a resource for constructing mutant mice. Cells homozygous for most entrapment loci could be isolated by selecting for enhanced expression of an inserted neomycin-resistance gene that resulted from losses of heterozygosity (LOH). The frequencies of LOH measured at 37 sites in the genome ranged from 1.3 x 10(-5) to 1.2 x 10(-4) per cell and increased with increasing distance from the centromere, implicating mitotic recombination in the process. The ease and efficiency of obtaining homozygous mutations will (i) facilitate genetic studies of gene function in cultured cells, (ii) permit genome-wide studies of recombination events that result in LOH and mediate a type of chromosomal instability important in carcinogenesis, and (iii) provide new strategies for phenotype-driven mutagenesis screens in mammalian cells.
Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome are associated with parent-of-origin-specific abnormalities of chromosome 15q11-q13, most frequently a deletion of an approximately 4-Mb region. Because of genomic imprinting, paternal deficiency of this region leads to PWS and maternal deficiency to AS. Additionally, this region is frequently involved in other chromosomal rearrangements including duplications, triplications, or supernumerary marker formation. A detailed physical map of this region is important for elucidating the genes and mechanisms involved in genomic imprinting, as well as for understanding the mechanism of recurrent chromosomal rearrangments. An initial YAC contig extended from D15S18 to D15S12 and was comprised of 23 YACs and 21 STSs providing an average resolution of about one STS per 200 kb. To close two gaps in this contig, YAC screening was performed using two STSs that flank the gap between D15S18 and 254B5R and three STSs located distal to the GABRA5-149A9L gap. Additionally, we developed 11 new STSs, including seven polymorphic markers. Although several groups have developed whole-genome genetic and radiation hybrid maps, the depth of coverage for 15q11-q13 has been somewhat limited and discrepancies in marker order exist between the maps. To resolve the inconsistencies and to provide a more detailed map order of STSs in this region, we have constructed an integrated YAC STS-based physical map of chromosome 15q11-q13 containing 118 YACs and 118 STSs, including 38 STRs and 49 genes/ESTs. Using an estimate of 4 Mb for the size of this region, the map provides an average STS spacing of 35 kb. This map provides a valuable resource for identification of disease genes localized to this region as well as a framework for complete DNA sequencing.
Stimulation via the T-cell growth factor interleukin 2 (IL-2) leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc, the interaction of Shc with Grb2, and the Ras GTP/GDP exchange factor, mSOS. Shc also coprecipitates with the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), and therefore, may link IL-2R to Ras activation. We have further characterized the Shc-IL-2R interaction and have made the following observations. (i) Among the two phosphotyrosine-interaction domains present in Shc, the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, rather than its SH2 domain, interacts with the tyrosine-phosphorylated IL-2R beta chain. Moreover, the Shc-PTB domain binds a phosphopeptide derived from the IL-2R beta chain (corresponding to residues surrounding Y338, SCFTNQGpYFF) with high affinity. (ii) In vivo, mutant IL-2R beta chains lacking the acidic region of IL-2Rbeta (which contains Y338) fail to phosphorylate Shc. Furthermore, when wild type or mutant Shc proteins that lack the PTB domain were expressed in the IL-2-dependent CTLL-20 cell line, an intact Shc-PTB domain was required for Shc phosphorylation by the IL-2R, which provides further support for a Shc-PTB-IL-2R interaction in vivo. (iii) PTB and SH2 domains of Shc associate with different proteins in IL-2- and T-cell-receptor-stimulated lysates, suggesting that Shc, through the concurrent use of its two different phosphotyrosine-binding domains, could assemble multiple protein complexes. Taken together, our in vivo and in vitro observations suggest that the PTB domain of Shc interacts with Y338 of the IL-2R and provide evidence for a functional role for the Shc-PTB domain in IL-2 signaling.
We have generated a physical map of human chromosome bands 20q11.2-20q13.1, a region containing a gene involved in the development of one form of early-onset, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, MODY1, as well as a putative myeloid tumor suppressor gene. The yeast artificial chromosome contig consists of 71 clones onto which 71 markers, including 20 genes, 5 expressed sequence tags, 32 simple tandem repeat DNA polymorphisms, and 14 sequence-tagged sites have been ordered. This region spans about 18 Mb, which represents about 40% of the physical length of 20q. Using this physical map, we have refined the location of MODY1 to a 13-centimorgan interval (approximately equal to 7 Mb) between D20S169 and D20S176. The myeloid tumor suppressor gene was localized to an 18-centimorgan interval (approximately equal to 13 Mb) between RPN2 and D20S17. This physical map will facilitate the isolation of MODY1 and the myeloid tumor suppressor gene.