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Successful separation of two daughter cells (i.e., cytokinesis) is essential for life. Many eukaryotic cells divide using a contractile apparatus called the cytokinetic ring (CR) that associates dynamically with the plasma membrane (PM) and generates force that contributes to PM ingression between daughter cells. In important membrane-CR scaffolds include the paralogous F-BAR proteins Cdc15 and Imp2. Their conserved protein structure consists of the archetypal F-BAR domain linked to an SH3 domain by an intrinsically disordered region (IDR). Functions have been assigned to the F-BAR and SH3 domains. In this study we probed the function of the central IDR. We found that the IDR of Cdc15 is essential for viability and cannot be replaced by that of Imp2, whereas the F-BAR domain of Cdc15 can be swapped with several different F-BAR domains, including that of Imp2. Deleting part of the IDR results in CR defects and abolishes calcineurin phosphatase localization to the CR. Together these results indicate that Cdc15's IDR has a nonredundant essential function that coordinates regulation of CR architecture.
Arp2/3 complex-nucleated branched actin networks provide the key force necessary for endocytosis. The Arp2/3 complex is activated by nucleation-promoting factors including the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (Wsp1) and myosin-1 (Myo1). There are >40 known yeast endocytic proteins with distinct spatial and temporal localizations and functions; however, it is still unclear how these proteins work together to drive endocytosis. Here, we used quantitative live-cell imaging to determine the function of the uncharacterized protein Bbc1. We discovered that Myo1 interacts with and recruits Bbc1 to sites of endocytosis. Bbc1 competes with the verprolin Vrp1 for localization to patches and association with Myo1, thus releasing Vrp1 and its binding partner Wsp1 from Myo1. Normally Myo1 remains at the base of the endocytic invagination and Vrp1-Wsp1 internalizes with the endocytic vesicle. However, in the absence of Bbc1, a portion of Vrp1-Wsp1 remains with Myo1 at the base of the invagination, and endocytic structures internalize twice as far. We propose that Bbc1 disrupts a transient interaction of Myo1 with Vrp1 and Wsp1 and thereby limits Arp2/3 complex-mediated nucleation of actin branches at the plasma membrane.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
© 2019. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Animal cells, amoebas and yeast divide using a force-generating, actin- and myosin-based contractile ring or 'cytokinetic ring' (CR). Despite intensive research, questions remain about the spatial organization of CR components, the mechanism by which the CR generates force, and how other cellular processes are coordinated with the CR for successful membrane ingression and ultimate cell separation. This Review highlights new findings about the spatial relationship of the CR to the plasma membrane and the arrangement of molecules within the CR from studies using advanced microscopy techniques, as well as mechanistic information obtained from approaches. We also consider advances in understanding coordinated cellular processes that impact the architecture and function of the CR.
© 2019. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
In animals and fungi, cytokinesis is facilitated by the constriction of an actomyosin contractile ring (CR) . In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the CR forms mid-cell during mitosis from clusters of proteins at the medial cell cortex called nodes . The anillin-like protein Mid1 localizes to nodes and is required for CR assembly at mid-cell . When CR constriction begins, Mid1 leaves the division site. How Mid1 disassociates and whether this step is important for cytokinetic progression has been unknown. The septation initiation network (SIN), analogous to the Hippo pathway of multicellular organisms, is a signaling cascade that triggers node dispersal, CR assembly and constriction, and septum formation [4, 5]. We report that the terminal SIN kinase, Sid2 , phosphorylates Mid1 to drive its removal from the cortex at CR constriction onset. A Mid1 mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by Sid2 remains cortical during cytokinesis, over-accumulates in interphase nodes following cell division in a manner dependent on the SAD kinase Cdr2, advances the G2/M transition, precociously recruits other CR components to nodes, pulls Cdr2 aberrantly into the CR, and reduces rates of CR maturation and constriction. When combined with cdr2 mutants that affect node assembly or disassembly, gross defects in division site positioning result. Our findings identify Mid1 as a key Sid2 substrate for SIN-mediated remodeling of the division site for efficient cytokinesis and provide evidence that nodes serve to integrate signals coordinating cell cycle progression and cytokinesis.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
F-BAR proteins bind the plasma membrane (PM) to scaffold and organize the actin cytoskeleton. To understand how F-BAR proteins achieve their PM association, we studied the localization of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe F-BAR protein Rga7, which requires the coiled-coil protein Rng10 for targeting to the division site during cytokinesis. We find that the Rga7 F-BAR domain directly binds a motif in Rng10 simultaneously with the PM, and that an adjacent Rng10 motif independently binds the PM. Together, these multivalent interactions significantly enhance Rga7 F-BAR avidity for membranes at physiological protein concentrations, ensuring the division site localization of Rga7. Moreover, the requirement for the F-BAR domain in Rga7 localization and function in cytokinesis is bypassed by tethering an Rga7 construct lacking its F-BAR to Rng10, indicating that at least some F-BAR domains are necessary but not sufficient for PM targeting and are stably localized to specific cortical positions through adaptor proteins.
Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
During cell division, the timing of mitosis and cytokinesis must be ordered to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete, undamaged copy of the genome. In fission yeast, the septation initiation network (SIN) is responsible for this coordination, and a mitotic checkpoint dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase Dma1 and the protein kinase CK1 controls SIN signaling to delay cytokinesis when there are errors in mitosis. The participation of kinases and ubiquitin ligases in cell cycle checkpoints that maintain genome integrity is conserved from yeast to human, making fission yeast an excellent model system in which to study checkpoint mechanisms. In this review, we highlight recent advances and remaining questions related to checkpoint regulation, which requires the synchronized modulation of protein ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization.
In , cytokinesis requires the assembly and constriction of an actomyosin-based contractile ring (CR). A single essential formin, Cdc12, localizes to the cell middle upon mitotic onset and nucleates the F-actin of the CR. Cdc12 medial recruitment is mediated in part by its direct binding to the F-BAR scaffold Cdc15. Given that Cdc12 is hyperphosphorylated in M phase, we explored whether Cdc12 phosphoregulation impacts its association with Cdc15 during mitosis. We found that Cdk1, a major mitotic kinase, phosphorylates Cdc12 on six N-terminal residues near the Cdc15-binding site, and phosphorylation on these sites inhibits its interaction with the Cdc15 F-BAR domain. Consistent with this finding, a mutant with all six Cdk1 sites changed to phosphomimetic residues () displays phenotypes similar to , in which the Cdc15-binding motif is disrupted; both show reduced Cdc12 at the CR and delayed CR formation. Together, these results indicate that Cdk1 phosphorylation of formin Cdc12 antagonizes its interaction with Cdc15 and thereby opposes Cdc12's CR localization. These results are consistent with a general role for Cdk1 in inhibiting cytokinesis until chromosome segregation is complete.
© 2018 Willet et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
The contractile ring is a complex molecular apparatus which physically divides many eukaryotic cells. Despite knowledge of its protein composition, the molecular architecture of the ring is not known. Here we have applied super-resolution microscopy and FRET to determine the nanoscale spatial organization of contractile ring components relative to the plasma membrane. Similar to other membrane-tethered actin structures, we find proteins localize in specific layers relative to the membrane. The most membrane-proximal layer (0-80 nm) is composed of membrane-binding scaffolds, formin, and the tail of the essential myosin-II. An intermediate layer (80-160 nm) consists of a network of cytokinesis accessory proteins as well as multiple signaling components which influence cell division. Farthest from the membrane (160-350 nm) we find F-actin, the motor domains of myosins, and a major F-actin crosslinker. Circumferentially within the ring, multiple proteins proximal to the membrane form clusters of different sizes, while components farther from the membrane are uniformly distributed. This comprehensive organizational map provides a framework for understanding contractile ring function.
Many eukaryotic cells divide by assembling and constricting an actin- and myosin-based contractile ring (CR) that is physically linked to the plasma membrane (PM). In this study, we report that cells lacking , which encodes a conserved PM scaffold for the phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase Stt4, build CRs that can slide away from the cell middle during anaphase in a myosin V-dependent manner. The Efr3-dependent CR-anchoring mechanism is distinct from previously reported pathways dependent on the Fes/CIP4 homology Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs167 (F-BAR) protein Cdc15 and paxillin Pxl1. In , the concentrations of several membrane-binding proteins were reduced in the CR and/or on the PM. Our results suggest that proper PM lipid composition is important to stabilize the central position of the CR and resist myosin V-based forces to promote the fidelity of cell division.
© 2017 Snider et al.
Some alleles of the gene family can increase their chances of spreading by using poisons to kill other alleles, and antidotes to save themselves.