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PURPOSE - A method is described for characterizing magnetically inhomogeneous media and the spatial scales of intrinsic susceptibility variations within samples. The rate of spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame, R1ρ , is affected by diffusion effects to a degree that depends on the magnitude of an applied spin-locking field. Appropriate analysis of the dispersion of R1ρ with locking field may be used to characterize susceptibility variations in inhomogeneous tissues.
THEORY AND METHODS - The contribution of diffusion to R1ρ is quantified by an analytic expression derived by analyzing of the effects of diffusion through periodic variations of magnetic susceptibility and is used to predict the effects of inhomogeneities in simple phantoms. The theory is further applied to imaging to derive parametric images that portray the dimensions of susceptibility inhomogeneities independent of their magnitude.
RESULTS - Significant dispersion of R1ρ with locking field was predicted and measured experimentally for suspensions of microspheres ranging from 1 to 90 μm in diameter. For scales of practical interest, these dispersion effects occur at much lower locking fields than the range in which chemical exchange effects cause similar dispersion.
CONCLUSION - There is good agreement between theory and experiment, and the method has potential for quantitative tissue characterization and functional imaging.
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Obtaining high-resolution information from a complex system, while maintaining the global perspective needed to understand system function, represents a key challenge in biology. Here we address this challenge with a method (termed CLARITY) for the transformation of intact tissue into a nanoporous hydrogel-hybridized form (crosslinked to a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers) that is fully assembled but optically transparent and macromolecule-permeable. Using mouse brains, we show intact-tissue imaging of long-range projections, local circuit wiring, cellular relationships, subcellular structures, protein complexes, nucleic acids and neurotransmitters. CLARITY also enables intact-tissue in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry with multiple rounds of staining and de-staining in non-sectioned tissue, and antibody labelling throughout the intact adult mouse brain. Finally, we show that CLARITY enables fine structural analysis of clinical samples, including non-sectioned human tissue from a neuropsychiatric-disease setting, establishing a path for the transmutation of human tissue into a stable, intact and accessible form suitable for probing structural and molecular underpinnings of physiological function and disease.
Accurate and precise displacement estimation has been a hallmark of clinical ultrasound. Displacement estimation accuracy has largely been considered to be limited by the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). However, the CRLB only describes the minimum variance obtainable from unbiased estimators. Unbiased estimators are generally implemented using Bayes' theorem, which requires a likelihood function. The classic likelihood function for the displacement estimation problem is not discriminative and is difficult to implement for clinically relevant ultrasound with diffuse scattering. Because the classic likelihood function is not effective, a perturbation is proposed. The proposed likelihood function was evaluated and compared against the classic likelihood function by converting both to posterior probability density functions (PDFs) using a noninformative prior. Example results are reported for bulk motion simulations using a 6λ tracking kernel and 30 dB SNR for 1000 data realizations. The canonical likelihood function assigned the true displacement a mean probability of only 0.070 ± 0.020, whereas the new likelihood function assigned the true displacement a much higher probability of 0.22 ± 0.16. The new likelihood function shows improvements at least for bulk motion, acoustic radiation force induced motion, and compressive motion, and at least for SNRs greater than 10 dB and kernel lengths between 1.5 and 12λ.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - With the increasing use of fluorescence in medical applications, a comprehensive understanding of the effect of temperature on tissue autofluorescence is essential. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of temperature on the fluorescence of porcine cornea and rat skin and determine the relative contributions of irreversible changes in optical properties and in fluorescence yield.
STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS - Fluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and temperature measurements were acquired from excised porcine cornea and rat skin over a temperature range of 0-80 °C. A dual excitation system was used with a 337 nm pulsed nitrogen laser for the fluorescence and a white light source for the diffuse reflectance measurements. A thermal camera measured tissue temperature. Optical property changes were inferred from diffuse reflectance measurements. The reversibility of the change in fluorescence was examined by acquiring measurements while the tissue sample cooled from the highest induced temperature to room temperature.
RESULTS - The fluorescence intensity decreased with increasing tissue temperature. This fluorescence change was reversible when the tissue was heated to a temperature of 45 °C, but irreversible when heated to a temperature of 80 °C.
CONCLUSION - Auto-fluorescence intensity dependence on temperature appears to be a combination of temperature-induced optical property changes and reduced fluorescence quantum yield due to changes in collagen structure. Temperature-induced changes in measured fluorescence must be taken into consideration in applications where fluorescence is used to diagnose disease or guide therapy.
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Micro-Brillouin scattering (μ-BR) and a 200 MHz scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) with similar spatial resolutions were applied to evaluate tissue elastic properties in two directions in a trabecula. Acoustic impedance measured by SAM was in the range of 5-9 Mrayl. Wave velocities determined by μ-BR were in the range of (4.75-5.11) × 10(3) m/s. Both exhibited a similar trend of variation across the trabecula and were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.63-0.67, p < 0.01). μ-BR is useful for the evaluation of tissue stiffness within a trabecula. Combined with SAM or nanoindentation, it can provide additional information to assess elastic anisotropy at the micro-scale.
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) can be activated by various extracellular stimuli, including hormones, peptides, odorants, neurotransmitters, nucleotides, or light. After activation, receptors interact with heterotrimeric G proteins and catalyze GDP release from the Gα subunit, the rate limiting step in G protein activation, to form a high affinity nucleotide-free GPCR-G protein complex. In vivo, subsequent GTP binding reduces affinity of the Gα protein for the activated receptor. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and structural characteristics of the prototypical GPCR, rhodopsin, and its signaling partner, transducin (G(t)), in bicelles to better understand the effects of membrane composition on high affinity complex formation, stability, and receptor mediated nucleotide release. Our results demonstrate that the high-affinity complex (rhodopsin-G(t)(empty)) forms more readily and has dramatically increased stability when rhodopsin is integrated into bicelles of a defined composition. We increased the half-life of functional complex to 1 week in the presence of negatively charged phospholipids. These data suggest that a membrane-like structure is an important contributor to the formation and stability of functional receptor-G protein complexes and can extend the range of studies that investigate properties of these complexes.
Back-scattering interferometry (BSI) is a label-free, free-solution, small-volume technique used for characterizing binding interactions, which is also relevant to a growing number of biosensing applications including drug discovery. Here, we use BSI to characterize the interaction of carbonic anhydrase enzyme II with five well-known carbonic anhydrase enzyme II inhibitors (± sulpiride, sulfanilamide, benzene sulfonamide, dansylamide, and acetazolamide) in the presence of DMSO. Dissociation constants calculated for each interaction were consistent with literature values previously obtained using surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence-based competition assays. Results demonstrate the potential of BSI as a drug-screening tool which is fully compatible with DMSO and does not require immobilization or labeling, therefore allowing binding interactions to be characterized in the native state. BSI has the potential for reducing labor costs, sample consumption, and assay time while providing enhanced reliability over existing techniques.
With continuing developments in computed tomography (CT) technology and its increasing use of CT imaging, the ionizing radiation dose from CT is becoming a major public concern particularly for high-dose applications such as cardiac imaging. We recently proposed a novel interior tomography approach for x-ray dose reduction that is very different from all the previously proposed methods. Our method only uses the projection data for the rays passing through the desired region of interest. This method not only reduces x-ray dose but scatter as well. In this paper, we quantify the reduction in the amount of x-ray dose and scattered radiation that could be achieved using this method. Results indicate that interior tomography may reduce the x-ray dose by 18% to 58% and scatter to the detectors by 19% to 59% as the FOV is reduced from 50 to 8.6 cm.
The characteristics of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) are challenging to measure, as macromolecular solutes in blood may be metabolized or transported by various cells in the kidney. Urinary solute concentrations generally reflect the cumulative influence of multiple transport processes rather than the intrinsic behavior of the GFB alone. Synthetic tracer molecules which are not secreted, absorbed, or modified by the kidney are useful tools. Ficoll, a globular polymer of epichlorohydrin and sucrose, is round, physiologically inert, and easily labeled, making it a nearly ideal glomerular probe. Fissell et al. reported filtration data suggesting that Ficoll was not as spherical as had been previously suggested (Fissell WH, Manley S, Dubnisheva A, Glass J, Magistrelli J, Eldridge AN, Fleischman AJ, Zydney AL, Roy S. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 293: F1209-F1213, 2007). More recently, two investigators published comparisons of neutral and anionic Ficoll clearance that suggest Ficoll may undergo conformational changes when chemically derivatized (Asgeirsson D, Venturoli D, Rippe B, Rippe C. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 291: F1083-F1089, 2006; Guimaraes MAM, Nikolovski J, Pratt LM, Greive K, Comper WD. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 285: F1118-F1124, 2003). To investigate Ficoll's characteristics further, we examined two commercial preparations, Ficoll 70 and Ficoll 400, by size-exclusion chromatography using a differential refractive index detector combined with light-scattering and viscosity detectors. A slope of 0.45 was obtained from the plot of the logarithm of molecular mass against the logarithm of root-mean square radius. The Mark-Houwink exponent values of 0.34 and 0.36 were calculated for Ficoll 70 and Ficoll 400, respectively. These results suggest Ficoll's conformation in physiological saline solution is likely intermediate between a solid sphere and a well-solvated linear random coil. The measurements help explain our previous observations and guide interpretation of in vivo experiments.
Infrared free-electron lasers ablate tissue with high efficiency and low collateral damage when tuned to the 6-microm range. This wavelength-dependence has been hypothesized to arise from a multi-step process following differential absorption by tissue water and proteins. Here, we test this hypothesis at wavelengths for which cornea has matching overall absorption, but drastically different differential absorption. We measure etch depth, collateral damage and plume images and find that the hypothesis is not confirmed. We do find larger etch depths for larger spot sizes--an effect that can lead to an apparent wavelength dependence. Plume imaging at several wavelengths and spot sizes suggests that this effect is due to increased post-pulse ablation at larger spots.