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Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients display significant nutritional abnormalities. Insulin is an anabolic hormone with direct effects on skeletal muscle (SM). We examined the anabolic actions of insulin, whole-body (WB), and SM protein turnover in 33 MHD patients and 17 participants without kidney disease using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic (dual) clamp. Gluteal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the dual clamp. At baseline, WB protein synthesis and breakdown rates were similar in MHD patients. During dual clamp, controls had a higher increase in WB protein synthesis and a higher suppression of WB protein breakdown compared with MHD patients, resulting in statistically significantly more positive WB protein net balance [2.02 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.79 and 2.36) vs. 1.68 (IQR: 1.46 and 1.91) mg·kg fat-free mass·min for controls vs. for MHD patients, respectively, P < 0.001]. At baseline, SM protein synthesis and breakdown rates were higher in MHD patients versus controls, but SM net protein balance was similar between groups. During dual clamp, SM protein synthesis increased statistically significantly more in controls compared with MHD patients ( P = 0.03), whereas SM protein breakdown decreased comparably between groups. SM net protein balance was statistically significantly more positive in controls compared with MHD patients [67.3 (IQR: 46.4 and 97.1) vs. 15.4 (IQR: -83.7 and 64.7) μg·100 ml·min for controls and MHD patients, respectively, P = 0.03]. Human SM biopsy showed a positive correlation between glucose and leucine disposal rates, phosphorylated AKT to AKT ratio, and muscle mitochondrial markers in controls but not in MHD patients. Diminished response to anabolic actions of insulin in the stimulated setting could lead to muscle wasting in MHD patients.
Patients with chronic kidney disease experience substantial loss of muscle mass, weakness, and poor physical performance. As kidney disease progresses, skeletal muscle dysfunction forms a common pathway for mobility limitation, loss of functional independence, and vulnerability to disease complications. Screening for those at high risk for mobility disability by self-reported and objective measures of function is an essential first step in developing an interdisciplinary approach to treatment that includes rehabilitative therapies and counseling on physical activity. Exercise has beneficial effects on systemic inflammation, muscle, and physical performance in chronic kidney disease. Kidney health providers need to identify patient and care delivery barriers to exercise in order to effectively counsel patients on physical activity. A thorough medical evaluation and assessment of baseline function using self-reported and objective function assessment is essential to guide an effective individualized exercise prescription to prevent function decline in persons with kidney disease. This review focuses on the impact of kidney disease on skeletal muscle dysfunction in the context of the disablement process and reviews screening and treatment strategies that kidney health professionals can use in clinical practice to prevent functional decline and disability.
Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - Sarcopenic obesity (SO), a combination of low muscle mass and high fat mass, is considered as risk factor for mortality in general population. It is unclear if SO affects mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. In this study, we aimed to determine whether body composition as assessed by currently available SO definitions is related to all-cause mortality in MHD subjects. We also examined the impact of applying different definitions on the prevalence of SO in our MHD database.
DESIGN - Retrospective analysis.
SUBJECTS - Adult patients on MHD for at least 3 months with no acute illness studied in the clinical research center between 2003 and 2011.
INTERVENTION - Assessment of body composition was performed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SO (appendicular skeletal mass: arm lean mass + leg lean mass and fat mass) was defined according to Baumgartner definition, Janssen criteria 1, and Janssen criteria 2.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE - All-cause mortality and prevalence of SO. Patient deaths were ascertained from medical records and United States social security death index.
RESULTS - Of 122 participants, 62% were male; mean age was 46 years (interquartile range: 40, 54) in men and 50 years (44, 61) in women. Prevalence of SO ranged from 12% to 62% in men and 2% to 74% in female according to different definitions. SO prevalence was lowest using the Baumgartner criteria (all: 8%, men 12%, women: 2%) and highest according to the Janssen criteria 2 (all: 57%, men 46%, women 74%). There were 45 deaths during a median follow-up period of 44 (20, 76) months. SO by any definition was not statistically significantly associated with mortality during follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS - The current SO definitions are not applicable to predict increased risk of death in MHD patients. We found high degree of variation in the rates of SO when using different definitions. Future studies should focus on establishing MHD population-specific thresholds of muscle mass and adiposity for accurate prognostication.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
OBJECTIVE - Loss of lean body mass (sarcopenia) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis (CHD). Insulin resistance (IR), which is highly prevalent in patients receiving CHD, has been proposed to play a critical role in the development of sarcopenia. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of IR on amino acid metabolism in patients receiving CHD.
DESIGN - This was a cross-sectional study.
SUBJECTS - The study included 12 prevalent (i.e., patients that have been on dialysis for more than 90 days) African American patients receiving CHD.
METHODS - IR was measured as glucose disposal rate (GDR) determined from hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HGEC) studies performed 3 consecutive times. Plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations were measured by real-time high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) throughout the clamp study. The primary outcome was percentage change in leucine concentrations during the clamp study. The main predictor was the GDR measured simultaneously during the HGEC studies. Mixed model analysis was used to account for repeated measures.
RESULTS - All individual AA concentrations declined significantly in response to high-dose insulin administration (P < .001). There was a significant direct association between GDR by HECG studies and the percentage change in leucine concentration (P = .02). Although positive correlations were observed between GDR values and concentration changes from baseline for other AAs, these associations did not reach statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results suggest that the severity of IR of carbohydrate metabolism is associated with a lesser decline in plasma leucine concentrations, suggesting a similar resistance to protein anabolism. Insulin resistance represents a potential mechanism for sarcopenia commonly observed in patients receiving CHD.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Age-related increases in ectopic fat accumulation are associated with greater risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and physical disability. Reducing skeletal muscle fat and preserving lean tissue are associated with improved physical function in older adults. PPARγ-agonist treatment decreases abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and resistance training preserves lean tissue, but their effect on ectopic fat depots in nondiabetic overweight adults is unclear. We examined the influence of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older (65-79 years) nondiabetic overweight/obese men (n = 48, BMI = 32.3 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) and women (n = 40, BMI = 33.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2)) during weight loss. All participants underwent a 16-week hypocaloric weight-loss program and were randomized to receive pioglitazone (30 mg/day) or no pioglitazone with or without resistance training, following a 2 × 2 factorial design. Regional body composition was measured at baseline and follow-up using computed tomography (CT). Lean mass was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Men lost 6.6% and women lost 6.5% of initial body mass. The percent of fat loss varied across individual compartments. Men who were given pioglitazone lost more visceral abdominal fat than men who were not given pioglitazone (-1,160 vs. -647 cm(3), P = 0.007). Women who were given pioglitazone lost less thigh subcutaneous fat (-104 vs. -298 cm(3), P = 0.002). Pioglitazone did not affect any other outcomes. Resistance training diminished thigh muscle loss in men and women (resistance training vs. no resistance training men: -43 vs. -88 cm(3), P = 0.005; women: -34 vs. -59 cm(3), P = 0.04). In overweight/obese older men undergoing weight loss, pioglitazone increased visceral fat loss and resistance training reduced skeletal muscle loss. Additional studies are needed to clarify the observed gender differences and evaluate how these changes in body composition influence functional status.
Changes in the structure and function of aging non-locomotor muscles remains understudied, despite their importance for daily living. Extraocular muscles (EOMs) have a high incidence of age-related mitochondrial defects possibly because of the metabolic stress resulting from their fast and constant activity. Apoptosis and autophagy (type I and II cell death, respectively) are linked to defects in mitochondrial function and contribute to sarcopenia in hind limb muscles. Therefore, we hypothesized that apoptosis and autophagy are altered with age in the EOMs. Muscles from 6-, 18-, and 30-month-old male Fisher 344-Brown Norway rats were used to investigate type I cell death, caspase-3, -8, -9, and -12 activity, and type II cell death. Apoptosis, as measured by TUNEL positive nuclei, and mono- and oligo-nucleosomal content, did not change with age. Similarly, caspase-3, -8, -9, and -12 activity was not affected by aging. By contrast, autophagy, as estimated by gene expression of Atg5 and Atg7, and protein abundance of LC3 was lower in EOMs of aged rats. Based on these data, we suggest that the decrease in autophagy with age leads to the accumulation of damaged organelles, particularly mitochondria, which results in the decrease in function observed in EOM with age.