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PPARγ, a ligand-activated nuclear receptor, regulates fundamental aspects of bone homeostasis and skeletal remodeling. PPARγ-activating anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones in clinical use promote marrow adiposity, bone loss, and skeletal fractures. As such, delineating novel regulatory pathways that modulate the action of PPARγ, and its obligate heterodimeric partner RXR, may have important implications for our understanding and treatment of disorders of low bone mineral density. We present data here establishing retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1) and its substrate retinaldehyde (Rald) as novel determinants of PPARγ-RXR actions in the skeleton. When compared to wild type (WT) controls, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/-)) mice were protected against bone loss and marrow adiposity induced by either the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone or a high fat diet, both of which potently activate the PPARγ-RXR complex. Consistent with these results, Rald, which accumulates in vivo in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, protects against rosiglitazone-mediated inhibition of osteoblastogenesis in vitro. In addition, Rald potently inhibits in vitro adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in WT mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) respectively. Primary Aldh1a1(-/-) HSCs also demonstrate impaired osteoclastogenesis in vitro compared to WT controls. Collectively, these findings identify Rald and retinoid metabolism through Aldh1a1 as important novel modulators of PPARγ-RXR transactivation in the marrow niche.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Diabetes is a major cause of chronic kidney disease, and oral antidiabetic drugs are the mainstay of therapy for most patients with Type 2 diabetes. Here we evaluated their role on renal outcomes by using a national Veterans Administration database to assemble a retrospective cohort of 93,577 diabetic patients who filled an incident oral antidiabetic drug prescription for metformin, sulfonylurea, or rosiglitazone, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 ml/min or better. The primary composite outcome was a persistent decline in eGFR from baseline of 25% or more (eGFR event) or a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The secondary outcome was an eGFR event, ESRD, or death. Sensitivity analyses included using a more stringent definition of the eGFR event requiring an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in addition to the 25% or more decline; controlling for baseline proteinuria thereby restricting data to 15,065 patients; and not requiring persistent treatment with the initial oral antidiabetic drug. Compared to patients using metformin, sulfonylurea users had an increased risk for both the primary and the secondary outcome, each with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.20. Results of sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main findings. The risk associated with rosiglitazone was similar to metformin for both outcomes. Thus, compared to metformin, oral antidiabetic drug treatment with sulfonylureas increased the risk of a decline in eGFR, ESRD, or death.
The androgen receptor (AR) regulates growth and progression of androgen-dependent as well as androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists have been reported to reduce AR activation in androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To determine whether PPARγ ligands are equally effective at inhibiting AR activity in androgen-independent prostate cancer, we examined the effect of the PPARγ ligands ciglitazone and rosiglitazone on C4-2 cells, an androgen- independent derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Luciferase-based reporter assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that PPARγ ligand reduced dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in AR activity in LNCaP cells. However, in C4-2 cells, these compounds increased DHT-induced AR driven luciferase activity. In addition, ciglitazone did not significantly alter DHT-mediated increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein or mRNA levels within C4-2 cells. siRNA-based experiments demonstrated that the ciglitazone-induced regulation of AR activity observed in C4-2 cells was dependent on the presence of PPARγ. Furthermore, overexpression of the AR corepressor cyclin D1 inhibited the ability of ciglitazone to induce AR luciferase activity in C4-2 cells. Thus, our data suggest that both PPARγ and cyclin D1 levels influence the ability of ciglitazone to differentially regulate AR signaling in androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability but has limited therapeutic options. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), agonists for the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, reduce infarct volume and improve neurologic function following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Translation of these findings into clinical therapy will require careful assessment of dosing paradigms and effective time windows for treatment. Understanding the mechanisms by which TZDs protect the brain provides insight into how time windows for neuroprotection might be extended. We find that two TZDs, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, significantly reduce infarct volume at doses similar to those used clinically (1 mg/kg for pioglitazone and 0.1 mg/kg for rosiglitazone). We also find that pioglitazone reduces infarction volume in a transient, but not a permanent MCAO model suggesting that reperfusion plays an important role in TZD mediated neuroprotection. Since PPARγ agonists reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, both of which are exacerbated by reperfusion, we hypothesized that TZDs would be most effective if administered prior to reperfusion. We administered TZDs 3 h after MCAO and found that infarction volume and neurologic function are significantly improved in animals reperfused at 3 h and 15 min (after TZD treatment), but not in animals reperfused at 2 h (before TZD treatment) when assessed either 24 h or 3 weeks after MCAO. While TZDs reduce intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) expression to a similar extent regardless of the time of reperfusion, leukocyte entry into brain parenchyma is more dramatically reduced when reperfusion is delayed until after drug treatment. The finding that delaying reperfusion until after TZD treatment is beneficial despite a longer period of ischemia, is dramatic given the widely held view that duration of ischemia is the most important determinate of injury.
Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) regulates the interface between cellular lipid metabolism, redox status and organelle differentiation. Conditional prostatic epithelial knockout of PPARgamma in mice resulted in focal hyperplasia which developed into mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN). The grade of PIN became more severe with time. Electron microscopy (EM) showed accumulated secondary lysosomes containing cellular organelles and debris suggestive of autophagy. Consistent with this analysis the autophagy marker LC-3 was found to be upregulated in areas of PIN in PPARgamma KO tissues. We selectively knocked down PPARgamma2 isoform in wild-type mouse prostatic epithelial cells and examined the consequences of this in a tissue recombination model. Histopathologically grafted tissues resembled the conditional PPARgamma KO mouse prostates. EM studies of PPARgamma- and PPARgamma2-deficient epithelial cells in vitro were suggestive of autophagy, consistent with the prostatic tissue analysis. This was confirmed by examining expression of beclin-1 and LC-3. Gene expression profiling in PPARgamma-/gamma2-deficient cells indicated a major dysregulation of cell cycle control and metabolic signaling networks related to peroxisomal and lysosomal maturation, lipid oxidation and degradation. The putative autophagic phenotypes of PPARgamma-deficient cells could be rescued by re-expression of either gamma1 or gamma2 isoform. We conclude that disruption of PPARgamma signaling results in autophagy and oxidative stress during mPIN pathogenesis.
Chronic lung disease (CLD) affects premature newborns requiring supplemental oxygen and results in impaired lung development and subsequent airway hyperreactivity. We hypothesized that the maintenance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) signaling is important for normal lung morphogenesis and treatment with PPARgamma agonists could protect against CLD and airway hyperreactivity (AHR) following chronic hyperoxic exposure. This was tested in an established hyperoxic murine model of experimental CLD. Newborn mice and mothers were exposed to room air (RA) or moderate hyperoxia (70% oxygen) for 10 days and fed a standard diet or chow impregnated with the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone (ROSI) for the duration of study. Following hyperoxic exposure (HE) animals were returned to RA until postnatal day (P) 13 or P41. The accumulation of ROSI in neonatal and adult tissue was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Analyses of body weight and lung histology were performed on P13 and P41 to localize and quantitate PPARgamma expression, determine alveolar and microvessel density, proliferation and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) levels as a measure of myofibroblast differentiation. Microarray analyses were conducted on P13 to examine transcriptional changes in whole lung. Pulmonary function and airway responsiveness were analyzed at P55. ROSI treatment during HE preserved septation and vascular density. Key array results revealed ontogeny groups differentially affected by hyperoxia including cell cycle, angiogenesis, matrix, and muscle differentiation/contraction. These results were further confirmed by histological evaluation of myofibroblast and collagen accumulation. Late AHR to methacholine was present in mice following HE and attenuated with ROSI treatment. These findings suggest that rosiglitazone maintains downstream PPARgamma effects and may be beneficial in the prevention of severe CLD with AHR.
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands that have been reported to reduce proliferation of human prostate cancer cells. However, the mechanisms by which TZDs inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation are not fully understood. In addition, it is not known if the anti-proliferative effects of TZDs require activation of PPARgamma or are mediated by PPARgamma-independent pathways. The goals of this study were to assess whether TZDs regulate expression of proteins that control the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle and define the role of PPARgamma in these TZD-induced responses in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines. Western blot analysis revealed that growth inhibitory concentrations of the TZDs rosiglitazone and ciglitazone induced expression of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and decreased cyclin D1 levels in the androgen independent PC-3 cell line. Phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein at Serine 780 was also reduced in PC-3 cells exposed to ciglitazone. Furthermore, growth inhibitory concentrations of ciglitazone increased p21 and lowered cyclin D1 expression within C4-2 cells. PPARgamma-directed siRNAs inhibited the ability of rosiglitazone to regulate expression of cyclin D1 and p21. However, knockdown of PPARgamma did not significantly reduce ciglitazone-induced alterations in cyclin D1 and p21. Furthermore PPARgamma siRNA did not prevent inhibition of PC-3 cell proliferation by either TZD. Thus, activation of PPARgamma is involved in rosiglitazone-induced alterations in cell cycle protein expression. However, the alterations in protein expression and proliferation induced by ciglitazone occur primarily via PPARgamma-independent signaling pathways.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) who are resistant to standard therapy are at high risk for progressive chronic kidney disease. Prevention of renal fibrosis represents a promising strategy to slow or halt kidney function decline. This paper presents the results of a Phase I clinical trial of rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, that exerts antifibrotic effects in animal models of FSGS. The primary goal was assessment of safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of rosiglitazone.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS - Eleven patients, including eight boys/men and three girls/women, with mean age 15 +/- 6 yr and estimated GFR 131 +/- 62 ml/min/1.73 m(2), received rosiglitazone, 3 mg/m(2)/d for 16 wk. PK was assessed twice, after the initial dose and after attaining steady state, in a General Clinical Research Center.
RESULTS - There were no serious adverse events or cardiovascular complications. Rosiglitazone was well tolerated by all patients, as judged by the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication. The PK studies indicated that the area under the curve was decreased by 40 to 50% and oral clearance of rosiglitazone was increased by 250 to 300% in patients with resistant FSGS compared with healthy controls and patients with nonproteinuric stage 2 chronic kidney disease.
CONCLUSIONS - Rosiglitazone therapy was safe and well tolerated. PK assessment of potential novel therapies for resistant FSGS is necessary to define appropriate dosing regimens. There is rationale to evaluate the efficacy of rosiglitazone as an antifibrotic agent for resistant FSGS in Phase II/III clinical trials.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is characterized by excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis, increased insulin resistance and a progressive inability of pancreatic beta cells to produce sufficient insulin. DM2 evolves as a progression from normal glucose tolerance, to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to frank diabetes mellitus, reflecting the establishment of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Insulin resistance not only contributes to impaired glycemic control in DM2, but to the development of hypertension, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction. Cardiovascular disease is the primary morbidity for patients with DM2. The onset of insulin resistance and cardiovascular insult likely occurs well before the onset of IGT is detected clinically. Biguanides and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are two classes of oral agents for the management of DM2 that improve insulin resistance, and thus have potential cardiovascular benefits beyond glycemic control alone. Metformin additionally inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis. The combined use of two of these agents targets key pathophysiologic defects in DM2. Single pill combinations of rosiglitazone/metformin and pioglitazone/metformin have recently been approved for use in the US and Europe. This article reviews the clinical data behind the use of metformin in combination with TZDs for the management of diabetes, its impact on vascular health, side effects and potential mechanisms of action for combined use.