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BACKGROUND - Surveillance of integrity of the basic elements of the cell including DNA, RNA, and proteins is a critical element of cellular physiology. Mechanisms of surveillance of DNA and protein integrity are well understood. Surveillance of structural RNAs making up the vast majority of RNA in a cell is less well understood. Here, we sought to explore integrity of processing of structural RNAs in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and other inflammatory diseases.
RESULTS - We employed mononuclear cells obtained from subjects with RRMS and cell lines. We used quantitative-PCR and whole genome RNA sequencing to define defects in structural RNA surveillance and siRNAs to deplete target proteins. We report profound defects in surveillance of structural RNAs in RRMS exemplified by elevated levels of poly(A) + Y1-RNA, poly(A) + 18S rRNA and 28S rRNAs, elevated levels of misprocessed 18S and 28S rRNAs and levels of the U-class of small nuclear RNAs. Multiple sclerosis is also associated with genome-wide defects in mRNA splicing. Ro60 and La proteins, which exist in ribonucleoprotein particles and play different roles in quality control of structural RNAs, are also deficient in RRMS. In cell lines, silencing of the genes encoding Ro60 and La proteins gives rise to these same defects in surveillance of structural RNAs.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results establish that profound defects in structural RNA surveillance exist in RRMS and establish a causal link between Ro60 and La proteins and integrity of structural RNAs.
Germ cells give rise to all cell lineages in the next-generation and are responsible for the continuity of life. In a variety of organisms, germ cells and stem cells contain large ribonucleoprotein granules. Although these particles were discovered more than 100 years ago, their assembly and functions are not well understood. Here we report that glycolytic enzymes are components of these granules in Drosophila germ cells and both their mRNAs and the enzymes themselves are enriched in germ cells. We show that these enzymes are specifically required for germ cell development and that they protect their genomes from transposable elements, providing the first link between metabolism and transposon silencing. We further demonstrate that in the granules, glycolytic enzymes associate with the evolutionarily conserved Tudor protein. Our biochemical and single-particle EM structural analyses of purified Tudor show a flexible molecule and suggest a mechanism for the recruitment of glycolytic enzymes to the granules. Our data indicate that germ cells, similarly to stem cells and tumor cells, might prefer to produce energy through the glycolytic pathway, thus linking a particular metabolism to pluripotency.
© 2015 The Authors.
Condensin is enriched in the pericentromere of budding yeast chromosomes where it is constrained to the spindle axis in metaphase. Pericentric condensin contributes to chromatin compaction, resistance to microtubule-based spindle forces, and spindle length and variance regulation. Condensin is clustered along the spindle axis in a heterogeneous fashion. We demonstrate that pericentric enrichment of condensin is mediated by interactions with transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) genes and their regulatory factors. This recruitment is important for generating axial tension on the pericentromere and coordinating movement between pericentromeres from different chromosomes. The interaction between condensin and tRNA genes in the pericentromere reveals a feature of yeast centromeres that has profound implications for the function and evolution of mitotic segregation mechanisms.
© 2014 Snider et al.
Directional export of messenger RNA (mRNA) protein particles (mRNPs) through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) requires multiple factors. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the NPC proteins Nup159 and Nup42 are asymmetrically localized to the cytoplasmic face and have distinct functional domains: a phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeat domain that docks mRNP transport receptors and domains that bind the DEAD-box ATPase Dbp5 and its activating cofactor Gle1, respectively. We speculated that the Nup42 and Nup159 FG domains play a role in positioning mRNPs for the terminal mRNP-remodeling steps carried out by Dbp5. Here we find that deletion (Δ) of both the Nup42 and Nup159 FG domains results in a cold-sensitive poly(A)+ mRNA export defect. The nup42ΔFG nup159ΔFG mutant also has synthetic lethal genetic interactions with dbp5 and gle1 mutants. RNA cross-linking experiments further indicate that the nup42ΔFG nup159ΔFG mutant has a reduced capacity for mRNP remodeling during export. To further analyze the role of these FG domains, we replaced the Nup159 or Nup42 FG domains with FG domains from other Nups. These FG "swaps" demonstrate that only certain FG domains are functional at the NPC cytoplasmic face. Strikingly, fusing the Nup42 FG domain to the carboxy-terminus of Gle1 bypasses the need for the endogenous Nup42 FG domain, highlighting the importance of proximal positioning for these factors. We conclude that the Nup42 and Nup159 FG domains target the mRNP to Gle1 and Dbp5 for mRNP remodeling at the NPC. Moreover, these results provide key evidence that character and context play a direct role in FG domain function and mRNA export.
Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.
RNA localization pathways direct numerous mRNAs to distinct subcellular regions and affect many physiological processes. In one such pathway the tumor-suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) targets RNAs to cell protrusions, forming APC-containing ribonucleoprotein complexes (APC-RNPs). Here, we show that APC-RNPs associate with the RNA-binding protein Fus/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma). Fus is not required for APC-RNP localization but is required for efficient translation of associated transcripts. Labeling of newly synthesized proteins revealed that Fus promotes translation preferentially within protrusions. Mutations in Fus cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the mutant protein forms inclusions that appear to correspond to stress granules. We show that overexpression or mutation of Fus results in formation of granules, which preferentially recruit APC-RNPs. Remarkably, these granules are not translationally silent. Instead, APC-RNP transcripts are translated within cytoplasmic Fus granules. These results unexpectedly show that translation can occur within stress-like granules. Importantly, they identify a new local function for cytoplasmic Fus with implications for ALS pathology.
Respiratory syncytial virus is a single-stranded RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae family that preferentially assembles and buds from the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, forming filamentous structures that contain both viral proteins and the genomic RNA. Recent studies have described both viral and host factors that are involved in ribonucleoprotein assembly and trafficking of viral proteins to the cell surface. At the cell surface, viral proteins assemble into filaments that probably require interactions between viral proteins, host proteins and the cell membrane. Finally, a membrane scission event must occur to release the free virion. This article will review the recent literature describing the mechanisms that drive respiratory syncytial virus assembly and budding.
BACKGROUND - During embryogenesis the liver is derived from endodermal cells lining the digestive tract. These endodermal progenitor cells contribute to forming the parenchyma of a number of organs including the liver and pancreas. Early in organogenesis the fetal liver is populated by hematopoietic stem cells, the source for a number of blood cells including nucleated erythrocytes. A comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional changes that occur during the early stages of development to adulthood in the liver was carried out.
RESULTS - We characterized gene expression changes in the developing mouse liver at gestational days (GD) 11.5, 12.5, 13.5, 14.5, 16.5, and 19 and in the neonate (postnatal day (PND) 7 and 32) compared to that in the adult liver (PND67) using full-genome microarrays. The fetal liver, and to a lesser extent the neonatal liver, exhibited dramatic differences in gene expression compared to adults. Canonical pathway analysis of the fetal liver signature demonstrated increases in functions important in cell replication and DNA fidelity whereas most metabolic pathways of intermediary metabolism were under expressed. Comparison of the dataset to a number of previously published microarray datasets revealed 1) a striking similarity between the fetal liver and that of the pancreas in both mice and humans, 2) a nucleated erythrocyte signature in the fetus and 3) under expression of most xenobiotic metabolism genes throughout development, with the exception of a number of transporters associated with either hematopoietic cells or cell proliferation in hepatocytes.
CONCLUSIONS - Overall, these findings reveal the complexity of gene expression changes during liver development and maturation, and provide a foundation to predict responses to chemical and drug exposure as a function of early life-stages.
Gene expression is a stepwise process involving distinct cellular processes including transcription, mRNA (mRNA) processing, mRNA export, and translation. As mRNAs are being synthesized, proteins associate with the RNA to form messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs). Previous studies have demonstrated that the RNA-binding protein composition of these mRNPs is dynamic, changing as the mRNP moves through the different steps of gene expression, and playing a critical role in these events. An important step during this maturation process occurs at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) where the export protein Gle1 bound to inositol hexakisphosphate (IP 6) spatially activates the ATP-hydrolysis and mRNP-remodeling activity of the DEAD-box protein Dbp5. Recent work from our laboratory and others has provided important insights into the function and regulation of Dbp5. These include a more detailed explanation of the mechanism of Dbp5 RNP remodeling, the role of Gle1-IP6 in stimulating Dbp5 ATPase activity, and the identification of a novel paradigm for regulation of Dbp5 by Nup159. Based on in vitro biochemical assays, X-ray crystallography, and corresponding in vivo phenotypes, we propose here an updated model of the Dbp5 cycle during mRNP export through the NPC. This takes into account all available data and provides a platform for future studies.
Essential messenger RNA (mRNA) export factors execute critical steps to mediate directional transport through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). At cytoplasmic NPC filaments, the ATPase activity of DEAD-box protein Dbp5 is activated by inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6))-bound Gle1 to mediate remodeling of mRNA-protein (mRNP) complexes. Whether a single Dbp5 executes multiple remodeling events and how Dbp5 is recycled are unknown. Evidence suggests that Dbp5 binding to Nup159 is required for controlling interactions with Gle1 and the mRNP. Using in vitro reconstitution assays, we found here that Nup159 is specifically required for ADP release from Dbp5. Moreover, Gle1-IP(6) stimulates ATP binding, thus priming Dbp5 for RNA loading. In vivo, a dbp5-R256D/R259D mutant with reduced ADP binding bypasses the need for Nup159 interaction. However, NPC spatial control is important, as a dbp5-R256D/R259D nup42Δ double mutant is temperature-sensitive for mRNA export. Further analysis reveals that remodeling requires a conformational shift to the Dbp5-ADP form. ADP release factors for DEAD-box proteins have not been reported previously and reflect a new paradigm for regulation. We propose a model wherein Nup159 and Gle1-IP(6) regulate Dbp5 cycles by controlling its nucleotide-bound state, allowing multiple cycles of mRNP remodeling by a single Dbp5 at the NPC.
Extensive networks of tertiary interactions give rise to unique, highly organized domain architectures that characterize the three-dimensional structure of large RNA molecules. Formed by stacked layers of a near-planar arrangement of contiguous coaxial helices, large RNA molecules are relatively flat in overall shape. The functional core of these molecules is stabilized by a diverse set of tertiary interaction motifs that often bring together distant regions of conserved nucleotides. Although homologous RNAs from different organisms can be structurally diverse, they adopt a structurally conserved functional core that includes preassembled active and/or substrate binding sites. These findings broaden our understanding of RNA folding and tertiary structure stabilization, illustrating how large, complex RNAs assemble into unique structures to perform recognition and catalysis.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.