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BACKGROUND - Interstitial lung disease is common in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Fibrocytes are circulating cells implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and airway remodeling in asthma. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that fibrocyte levels are: (1) increased in children with SCA compared to healthy controls, and (2) associated with pulmonary disease.
PROCEDURE - Cross-sectional cohort study of children with SCA who participated in the Sleep Asthma Cohort Study.
RESULTS - Fibrocyte levels were obtained from 45 children with SCA and 24 controls. Mean age of SCA cases was 14 years and 53% were female. In children with SCA, levels of circulating fibrocytes were greater than controls (P < 0.01). The fibrocytes expressed a hierarchy of chemokine receptors, with CXCR4 expressed on the majority of cells and CCR2 and CCR7 expressed on a smaller subset. Almost half of fibrocytes demonstrated α-smooth muscle actin activation. Increased fibrocyte levels were associated with a higher reticulocyte count (P = 0.03) and older age (P = 0.048) in children with SCA. However, children with increased levels of fibrocytes were not more likely to have asthma or lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity (FEV1 /FVC) or FEV1 than those with lower fibrocyte levels.
CONCLUSIONS - Higher levels of fibrocytes in children with SCA compared to controls may be due to hemolysis. Longitudinal studies may be able to better assess the relationship between fibrocyte level and pulmonary dysfunction.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. A recent report suggested that murine neonatal host defense against infection could be compromised by immunosuppressive CD71(+) erythroid splenocytes. We examined the impact of CD71(+) erythroid splenocytes on murine neonatal mortality to endotoxin challenge or polymicrobial sepsis and characterized circulating CD71(+) erythroid (CD235a(+)) cells in human neonates. Adoptive transfer or an Ab-mediated reduction in neonatal CD71(+) erythroid splenocytes did not alter murine neonatal survival to endotoxin challenge or polymicrobial sepsis challenge. Ex vivo immunosuppression of stimulated adult CD11b(+) cells was not limited to neonatal splenocytes; it also occurred with adult and neonatal bone marrow. Animals treated with anti-CD71 Ab showed reduced splenic bacterial load following bacterial challenge compared with isotype-treated mice. However, adoptive transfer of enriched CD71(+) erythroid splenocytes to CD71(+)-reduced animals did not reduce bacterial clearance. Human CD71(+)CD235a(+) cells were common among cord blood mononuclear cells and were shown to be reticulocytes. In summary, a lack of effect on murine survival to polymicrobial sepsis following adoptive transfer or diminution of CD71(+) erythroid splenocytes under these experimental conditions suggests that the impact of these cells on neonatal infection risk and progression may be limited. An unanticipated immune priming effect of anti-CD71 Ab treatment, rather than a reduction in immunosuppressive CD71(+) erythroid splenocytes, was likely responsible for the reported enhanced bacterial clearance. In humans, the well-described rapid decrease in circulating reticulocytes after birth suggests that they may have a limited role in reducing inflammation secondary to microbial colonization.
Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
UCP2, an inner membrane mitochondrial protein, has been implicated in bioenergetics and reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulation. High levels of UCP2 mRNA were recently found in erythroid cells where UCP2 is hypothesized to function as a facilitator of heme synthesis and iron metabolism by reducing ROS production. We examined UCP2 protein expression and role in mice erythropoiesis in vivo. UCP2 was mainly expressed at early stages of erythroid maturation when cells are not fully committed in heme synthesis. Iron incorporation into heme was unaltered in reticulocytes from UCP2-deficient mice. Although heme synthesis was not influenced by UCP2 deficiency, mice lacking UCP2 had a delayed recovery from chemically induced hemolytic anemia. Analysis of progenitor cells from bone marrow and fetal liver both in vitro and in vivo revealed that UCP2 deficiency results in a significant decrease in cell proliferation at the erythropoietin-dependent phase of erythropoiesis. This was accompanied by reduction in the phosphorylated form of ERK, a ROS-dependent cytosolic regulator of cell proliferation. Analysis of ROS in UCP2 null erythroid cells revealed altered distribution of ROS, resulting in decreased cytosolic and increased mitochondrial ROS. Restoration of the cytosol oxidative state of erythroid progenitor cells by the pro-oxidant Paraquat reversed the effect of UCP2 deficiency on cell proliferation in in vitro differentiation assays. Together, these results indicate that UCP2 is a regulator of erythropoiesis and suggests that inhibition of UCP2 function may contribute to the development of anemia.
We have examined the interaction of transforming growth factor (TGF)beta receptors with phosphatidylinositol 3-(PI3) kinase in epithelial cells. In COS7 cells, treatment with TGFbeta increased PI3 kinase activity as measured by the ability of p85-associated immune complexes to phosphorylate inositides in vitro. Both type I and type II TGFbeta receptors (TbetaR) associated with p85, but the association of TbetaRII appeared to be constitutive. The interaction of TbetaRI with p85 was induced by treatment with TGFbeta. The receptor association with PI3 kinase was not direct as (35)S-labeled rabbit reticulocyte p85 did not couple with fusion proteins containing type I and type II receptors. A kinase-dead, dominant-negative mutant of TbetaRII blocked ligand-induced p85-TbetaRI association and PI3 kinase activity. In TbetaRI-null R1B cells, TGFbeta did not stimulate PI3 kinase activity. This stimulation was restored upon reconstitution of TbetaRI by transfection. In R1B and NMuMG epithelial cells, overexpression of a dominant active mutant form of TbetaRI markedly enhanced ligand-independent PI3 kinase activity, which was blocked by the addition of the TbetaRI kinase inhibitor LY580276, suggesting a causal link between TbetaRI function and PI3 kinase. Overexpressed Smad7 also prevented ligand-induced PI3 kinase activity. Taken together, these data suggest that 1) TGFbeta receptors can indirectly associate with p85, 2) both receptors are required for ligand-induced PI3 kinase activation, and 3) the activated TbetaRI serine-threonine kinase can potently induce PI3 kinase activity.
BACKGROUND - Studies of space-flight anemia have uncovered a physiologic process, neocytolysis, by which young red blood cells are selectively hemolyzed, allowing rapid adaptation when red cell mass is excessive for a new environment.
OBJECTIVES - 1) To confirm that neocytolysis occurs in another situation of acute plethora-when high-altitude dwellers with polycythemia descend to sea level; and 2) to clarify the role of erythropoietin suppression.
DESIGN - Prospective observational and interventional study.
SETTING - Cerro de Pasco (4380 m) and Lima (sea level), Peru.
PARTICIPANTS - Nine volunteers with polycythemia.
INTERVENTIONS - Volunteers were transported to sea level; three received low-dose erythropoietin.
MEASUREMENTS - Changes in red cell mass, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, reticulocyte count, ferritin level, serum erythropoietin, and enrichment of administered(13)C in heme.
RESULTS - In six participants, red cell mass decreased by 7% to 10% within a few days of descent; this decrease was mirrored by a rapid increase in serum ferritin level. Reticulocyte production did not decrease, a finding that establishes a hemolytic mechanism.(13)C changes in circulating heme were consistent with hemolysis of young cells. Erythropoietin was suppressed, and administration of exogenous erythropoietin prevented the changes in red cell mass, serum ferritin level, and(13)C-heme.
CONCLUSIONS - Neocytolysis and the role of erythropoietin are confirmed in persons with polycythemia who descend from high altitude. This may have implications that extend beyond space and altitude medicine to renal disease and other situations of erythropoietin suppression, hemolysis, and polycythemia.
Bovine CYP17 is regulated at the transcriptional level by ACTH acting through the second messenger cAMP in adrenal fasciculata and reticularis cells. Promoter analysis has previously identified two regions, proximal and distal, within the CYP17 promoter important in the cAMP dependent transcriptional regulation of this gene. The proximal (-80 to -40) cAMP responsive sequence (CRS2) has been identified as a binding site for Steroidogenic Factor-1 (SF-1)/Ad4BP. The distal region (-243 to -100) is also important for the cAMP transcriptional response as revealed by deletion analysis. Within this distal region from -243 to -225, an independent cAMP responsive sequence referred to as CRS1 has been described. The transcription factors binding CRS1 have been identified as homeodomain transcription factors belonging to an atypical class of homeodomain proteins referred to as TALE. Two families of homeodomain proteins which bind CRS1 are the Pbx and Meis1 families. Proteins from neither of these families can bind CRS1 individually; however, members of the Pbx family interact with members of the Meis1 family to cooperatively bind this element. CRS1 was the first identified cis-acting target element for members of both the Pbx and Meis1 family. Unlike SF-1, these proteins are not expressed in a steroidogenic tissue-specific manner but rather, appear ubiquitous. A current model for the function of these proteins in CYP17 regulation is that they may enhance the cAMP response through the downstream SF-1 binding site.
A new rapid, facile and reliable method based on microcolumn cation-exchange chromatography has been developed for separating free antagonist [3H]dihydroalprenolol from that bound to solubilized beta-adrenergic receptors.