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Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a pathogen that causes outbreaks of respiratory illness across the world, mostly in children, and can be especially severe in those with asthma. Clusters of acute flaccid myelitis, a poliomyelitis-like neuromuscular weakness syndrome, often occur concurrent with EV-D68 respiratory outbreaks. Seroepidemiologic studies have found that the serum of nearly everyone older than 2 to 5 years contains anti-EV-D68 neutralizing antibodies, which suggests that EV-D68 is a ubiquitous pathogen of childhood. However, knowledge of the viral epitopes against which the humoral immune response is directed is only inferred from previous studies of related viruses. Although neutralizing antibodies protect newborn mice from lethal EV-D68 inoculation via nonphysiologic routes, cotton rats have a mixed phenotype of both benefit and possible exacerbation when inoculated intranasally. The human antibody response to EV-D68 needs to be studied further to clarify the role of antibodies in protection versus pathogenesis, which might differ among respiratory and neurologic disease phenotypes.
Respiratory viruses alter the nasopharyngeal microbiome and may be associated with a distinct microbial signature. To test this hypothesis, we compared the nasopharyngeal microbiome of 135 previously healthy infants with acute respiratory infection due to human rhinovirus (HRV; n = 52) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; n = 83). The nasopharyngeal microbiome was assessed by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA. Respiratory viruses were identified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We found significant differences in the overall taxonomic composition and abundance of certain bacterial genera between infants infected with HRV and those infected with RSV. Our results suggest that respiratory tract viral infections are associated with different nasopharyngeal microbial profiles.
© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
We examined nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization density patterns surrounding acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) in young children in Peru. Pneumococcal densities were dynamic, gradually increasing leading up to an ARI, peaking during the ARI, and decreasing after the ARI. Rhinovirus co-infection was associated with higher pneumococcal densities.
We performed a Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS) to identify interrelationships between the immune system genetic architecture and a wide array of phenotypes from two de-identified electronic health record (EHR) biorepositories. We selected variants within genes encoding critical factors in the immune system and variants with known associations with autoimmunity. To define case/control status for EHR diagnoses, we used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes from 3,024 Geisinger Clinic MyCode® subjects (470 diagnoses) and 2,899 Vanderbilt University Medical Center BioVU biorepository subjects (380 diagnoses). A pooled-analysis was also carried out for the replicating results of the two data sets. We identified new associations with potential biological relevance including SNPs in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and ankyrin-related genes associated with acute and chronic sinusitis and acute respiratory tract infection. The two most significant associations identified were for the C6orf10 SNP rs6910071 and "rheumatoid arthritis" (ICD-9 code category 714) (pMETAL = 2.58 x 10-9) and the ATN1 SNP rs2239167 and "diabetes mellitus, type 2" (ICD-9 code category 250) (pMETAL = 6.39 x 10-9). This study highlights the utility of using PheWAS in conjunction with EHRs to discover new genotypic-phenotypic associations for immune-system related genetic loci.
BACKGROUND - Few studies have described patterns of transmission of viral acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children in developing countries. We examined the spatial and temporal spread of viral ARI among young children in rural Peruvian highland communities. Previous studies have described intense social interactions in those communities, which could influence the transmission of viral infections.
METHODS - We enrolled and followed children <3 years of age for detection of ARI during the 2009 to 2011 respiratory seasons in a rural setting with relatively wide geographic dispersion of households and communities. Viruses detected included influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus and parainfluenza 2 and 3 viruses (PIV2, PIV3). We used geospatial analyses to identify specific viral infection hot spots with high ARI incidence. We also explored the local spread of ARI from index cases using standard deviational ellipses.
RESULTS - Geospatial analyses revealed hot spots of high ARI incidence around the index cases of influenza outbreaks and RSV outbreak in 2010. Although PIV3 in 2009 and PIV2 in 2010 showed distinct spatial hot spots, clustering was not in proximity to their respective index cases. No significant aggregation around index cases was noted for other viruses. Standard deviational ellipse analyses suggested that influenza B and RSV in 2010, and human metapneumovirus in 2011 spread temporally in alignment with the major road network.
CONCLUSIONS - Despite the geographic dispersion of communities in this rural setting, we observed a rapid spread of viral ARI among young children. Influenza strains and RSV in 2010 had distinctive outbreaks arising from their index cases.
Acute viral infections typically generate functional effector CD8(+) T cells (TCD8) that aid in pathogen clearance. However, during acute viral lower respiratory infection, lung TCD8 are functionally impaired and do not optimally control viral replication. T cells also become unresponsive to Ag during chronic infections and cancer via signaling by inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). PD-1 also contributes to TCD8 impairment during viral lower respiratory infection, but how it regulates TCD8 impairment and the connection between this state and T cell exhaustion during chronic infections are unknown. In this study, we show that PD-1 operates in a cell-intrinsic manner to impair lung TCD8. In light of this, we compared global gene expression profiles of impaired epitope-specific lung TCD8 to functional spleen TCD8 in the same human metapneumovirus-infected mice. These two populations differentially regulate hundreds of genes, including the upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors by lung TCD8. We then compared the gene expression of TCD8 during human metapneumovirus infection to those in acute or chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We find that the immunophenotype of lung TCD8 more closely resembles T cell exhaustion late into chronic infection than do functional effector T cells arising early in acute infection. Finally, we demonstrate that trafficking to the infected lung alone is insufficient for TCD8 impairment or inhibitory receptor upregulation, but that viral Ag-induced TCR signaling is also required. Our results indicate that viral Ag in infected lungs rapidly induces an exhaustion-like state in lung TCD8 characterized by progressive functional impairment and upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors.
Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
BACKGROUND - Viruses are commonly detected in children with acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) and in asymptomatic children. Longitudinal studies of viral detections during asymptomatic periods surrounding ARI could facilitate interpretation of viral detections but are currently scant.
METHODS - We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to analyze respiratory samples from young Andean children for viruses during asymptomatic periods within 8-120 days of index ARI (cough or fever). We compared viral detections over time within children and explored reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction cycle thresholds (CTs) as surrogates for viral loads.
RESULTS - At least 1 respiratory virus was detected in 367 (43%) of 859 samples collected during asymptomatic periods, with more frequent detections in periods with rhinorrhea (49%) than those without (34%, P < 0.001). Relative to index ARI with human rhinovirus (HRV), adenovirus (AdV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus detected, the same viruses were also detected during 32, 22, 10 and 3% of asymptomatic periods, respectively. RSV was only detected 8-30 days after index RSV ARI, whereas HRV and AdV were detected throughout asymptomatic periods. Human metapneumovirus and influenza were rarely detected during asymptomatic periods (<3%). No significant differences were observed in the CT for HRV or AdV during asymptomatic periods relative to ARI. For RSV, CTs were significantly lower during ARI relative to the asymptomatic period (P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS - These findings indicate that influenza, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus and RSV detections in children with an ARI usually indicate a causal relationship. When HRV or AdV is detected during ARI, the causal relationship is less certain.
UNLABELLED - Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals worldwide. There is currently no licensed HMPV vaccine. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are an attractive vaccine candidate because they are noninfectious and elicit a neutralizing antibody response. However, studies show that serum neutralizing antibodies are insufficient for complete protection against reinfection and that adaptive T cell immunity is important for viral clearance. HMPV and other respiratory viruses induce lung CD8(+) T cell (TCD8) impairment, mediated by programmed death 1 (PD-1). In this study, we generated HMPV VLPs by expressing the fusion and matrix proteins in mammalian cells and tested whether VLP immunization induces functional HMPV-specific TCD8 responses in mice. C57BL/6 mice vaccinated twice with VLPs and subsequently challenged with HMPV were protected from lung viral replication for at least 20 weeks postimmunization. A single VLP dose elicited F- and M-specific lung TCD8s with higher function and lower expression of PD-1 and other inhibitory receptors than TCD8s from HMPV-infected mice. However, after HMPV challenge, lung TCD8s from VLP-vaccinated mice exhibited inhibitory receptor expression and functional impairment similar to those of mice experiencing secondary infection. HMPV challenge of VLP-immunized μMT mice also elicited a large percentage of impaired lung TCD8s, similar to mice experiencing secondary infection. Together, these results indicate that VLPs are a promising vaccine candidate but do not prevent lung TCD8 impairment upon HMPV challenge.
IMPORTANCE - Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory disease for which there is no licensed vaccine. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are an attractive vaccine candidate and induce antibodies, but T cell responses are less defined. Moreover, HMPV and other respiratory viruses induce lung CD8(+) T cell (TCD8) impairment mediated by programmed death 1 (PD-1). In this study, HMPV VLPs containing viral fusion and matrix proteins elicited epitope-specific TCD8s that were functional with low PD-1 expression. Two VLP doses conferred sterilizing immunity in C57BL/6 mice and facilitated HMPV clearance in antibody-deficient μMT mice without enhancing lung pathology. However, regardless of whether responding lung TCD8s had previously encountered HMPV antigens in the context of VLPs or virus, similar proportions were impaired and expressed comparable levels of PD-1 upon viral challenge. These results suggest that VLPs are a promising vaccine candidate but do not prevent lung TCD8 impairment upon HMPV challenge.
Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
A first step in primary disease prevention is identifying common, modifiable risk factors that contribute to a significant proportion of disease development. Infant respiratory viral infection and childhood asthma are the most common acute and chronic diseases of childhood, respectively. Common clinical features and links between these diseases have long been recognized, with early-life respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) being strongly associated with increased asthma risk. However, there has long been debate over the role of these respiratory viruses in asthma inception. In this article, we systematically review the evidence linking early-life RSV and RV LRTIs with asthma inception and whether they could therefore be targets for primary prevention efforts.
BACKGROUND - Epidemiologic studies of respiratory infections frequently rely on separate sample collections for the detection of bacteria and viruses. The requirement for two specimens presents cost, logistical, and acceptability challenges.
OBJECTIVES - To determine the agreement in detection of respiratory viruses using RT-PCR between two different types of samples collected on the same day: nasal swabs preserved in viral transport medium (NS) and nasopharyngeal swabs preserved in skim milk-tryptone-glucose-glycerol [STGG] medium (NP), the current standard for pneumococcal colonization studies.
STUDY DESIGN - Paired NS and NP samples were collected between May 2009 and September 2011 as part of the RESPIRA-PERU study, a large prospective cohort of Andean children <3 years of age. NS samples used polyester swabs and viral transport medium whereas NP samples used rayon wire-handled swabs and STGG medium. Samples were tested for influenza, human metapneumovirus (MPV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) and adenovirus (ADV) using real-time RT-PCR. We calculated the agreement, and compared cycle thresholds (CT) between NP and NS samples.
RESULTS - Among 226 paired NP-NS samples, we observed very high agreement with a Kappa statistic ranging from 0.71 for ADV to 0.97 for MPV. CT values were similar for both strategies.
CONCLUSIONS - NP samples preserved in STGG provide a simple and reliable strategy for identification of both pneumococcus and respiratory viruses. This single specimen collection strategy could be used for epidemiologic studies, especially in resource-limited settings. Furthermore, archived NP-STGG specimens from previous studies could be reliably tested by RT-PCR for viruses.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.