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The lung epithelial glycocalyx is a carbohydrate-enriched layer lining the pulmonary epithelial surface. Although epithelial glycocalyx visualization has been reported, its composition and function remain unknown. Using immunofluorescence and mass spectrometry, we identified heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate within the lung epithelial glycocalyx. In vivo selective enzymatic degradation of epithelial HS, but not chondroitin sulfate, increased lung permeability. Using mass spectrometry and gel electrophoresis approaches to determine the fate of epithelial HS during lung injury, we detected shedding of 20 saccharide-long or greater HS into BAL fluid in intratracheal LPS-treated mice. Furthermore, airspace HS in clinical samples from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome correlated with indices of alveolar permeability, reflecting the clinical relevance of these findings. The length of HS shed during intratracheal LPS-induced injury (≥20 saccharides) suggests cleavage of the proteoglycan anchoring HS to the epithelial surface, rather than cleavage of HS itself. We used pharmacologic and transgenic animal approaches to determine that matrix metalloproteinases partially mediate HS shedding during intratracheal LPS-induced lung injury. Although there was a trend toward decreased alveolar permeability after treatment with the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, doxycycline, this did not reach statistical significance. These studies suggest that epithelial HS contributes to the lung epithelial barrier and its degradation is sufficient to increase lung permeability. The partial reduction of HS shedding achieved with doxycycline is not sufficient to rescue epithelial barrier function during intratracheal LPS-induced lung injury; however, whether complete attenuation of HS shedding is sufficient to rescue epithelial barrier function remains unknown.
RATIONALE - A major barrier to a more complete understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) pathophysiology is the inability to sample the distal airspace of patients with ARDS. The heat moisture exchanger (HME) filter is an inline bacteriostatic sponge that collects exhaled moisture from the lungs of mechanically ventilated patients.
OBJECTIVES - To test the hypothesis that HME filter fluid (HMEF) represents the distal airspace fluid in patients with ARDS.
METHODS - Samples of HMEF were collected from 37 patients with acute pulmonary edema (either from ARDS or hydrostatic causes [HYDRO; control subjects]). Concurrent undiluted pulmonary edema fluid (EF) and HMEF were collected from six patients. HMEF from 11 patients (8 ARDS and 3 HYDRO) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectometry. Total protein (bicinchoninic acid assay), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9), and MPO (myeloperoxidase) (ELISA) were measured in 29 subjects with ARDS and 5 subjects with HYDRO. SP-D (surfactant protein-D), RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products) (ELISA), and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α) (electrochemiluminescent assays) were measured in six concurrent HMEF and EF samples.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - Liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry on concurrent EF and HMEF samples from four patients revealed similar base peak intensities and m/z values indicating similar protein composition. There were 21 significantly elevated proteins in HMEF from patients with ARDS versus HYDRO. Eight proteins measured in concurrent EF and HMEF from six patients were highly correlated. In HMEF, total protein and MMP-9 were significantly higher in ARDS than in HYDRO.
CONCLUSIONS - These data suggest that HMEF is a novel, noninvasive method to accurately sample the distal airspace in patients with ARDS.
BACKGROUND - Traditional measures of ARDS severity such as Pao/Fio may not reliably predict clinical outcomes. The oxygenation index (OI [Fio × mean airway pressure × 100)/Pao]) may more accurately reflect ARDS severity but requires arterial blood gas measurement. We hypothesized that the oxygenation saturation index (OSI [Fio × mean airway pressure × 100)/oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo)]) is a reliable noninvasive surrogate for the OI that is associated with hospital mortality and ventilator-free days (VFDs) in patients with ARDS.
METHODS - Critically ill patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study were eligible if they developed ARDS (Berlin criteria) during the first 4 ICU days and had mean airway pressure, Spo/Fio, and Pao/Fio values recorded on the first day of ARDS (N = 329). The highest mean airway pressure and lowest Spo/Fio and Pao/Fio values were used to calculate OI and OSI. The association between OI or OSI and hospital mortality or VFD was analyzed by using logistic regression and linear regression, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for mortality was compared among OI, OSI, Spo/Fio, Pao/Fio, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores.
RESULTS - OI and OSI were strongly correlated (rho = 0.862; P < .001). OSI was independently associated with hospital mortality (OR per 5-point increase in OSI, 1.228 [95% CI, 1.056-1.429]; P = .008). OI and OSI were each associated with a reduction in VFD (OI, P = .023; OSI, P = .005). The AUC for mortality prediction was greatest for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (AUC, 0.695; P < .005) and OSI (AUC, 0.602; P = .007). The AUC for OSI was substantially better in patients aged < 40 years (AUC, 0.779; P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS - In patients with ARDS, the OSI was correlated with the OI. The OSI on the day of ARDS diagnosis was significantly associated with increased mortality and fewer VFDs. The findings suggest that OSI is a reliable surrogate for OI that can noninvasively provide prognostic information and assessment of ARDS severity.
Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Conservative fluid management increases ventilator-free days without influencing overall mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (a marker of ventricular filling) or aldosterone (a marker of effective circulating volume) may identify patients for whom fluid management impacts survival.
METHODS - This was a retrospective analysis of the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT), a randomized trial comparing conservative with liberal fluid management in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Using plasma collected at study enrollment, we measured B-type natriuretic peptide and aldosterone by immunoassay. Multivariable analyses examined the interaction between B-type natriuretic peptide or aldosterone concentration and fluid strategy with regard to 60-day in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS - Among 625 patients with adequate plasma, median B-type natriuretic peptide concentration was 825 pg/mL (interquartile range, 144-1,574 pg/mL), and median aldosterone was 2.49 ng/dL (interquartile range, 1.1-4.3 ng/dL). B-type natriuretic peptide did not predict overall mortality, correlate with fluid balance, or modify the effect of conservative vs liberal fluid management on outcomes. In contrast, among patients with lower aldosterone concentrations, conservative fluid management increased ventilator-free days (17.1 ± 9.8 vs 12.5 ± 10.3, P < .001) and decreased mortality (19% vs 30%, P = .03) (P value for interaction = .01).
CONCLUSIONS - In acute respiratory distress syndrome, B-type natriuretic peptide does not modify the effect of fluid management on outcomes. Lower initial aldosterone appears to identify patients for whom conservative fluid management may improve mortality.
Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Although numerous studies have demonstrated a critical role for canonical NF-κB signaling in inflammation and disease, the function of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway remains ill-defined. In lung tissue from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, we identified increased expression of the noncanonical pathway component p100/p52. To investigate the effects of p52 expression in vivo, we generated a novel transgenic mouse model with inducible expression of p52 in Clara cell secretory protein-expressing airway epithelial cells. Although p52 overexpression alone did not cause significant inflammation, p52 overexpression caused increased lung inflammation, injury, and mortality following intratracheal delivery of Escherichia coli LPS. No differences in cytokine/chemokine expression were measured between p52-overexpressing mice and controls, but increased apoptosis of Clara cell secretory protein-positive airway epithelial cells was observed in transgenic mice after LPS stimulation. In vitro studies in lung epithelial cells showed that p52 overexpression reduced cell survival and increased the expression of several proapoptotic genes during cellular stress. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a novel role for p52 in cell survival/apoptosis of airway epithelial cells and implicate noncanonical NF-κB signaling in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have elevated levels of cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) in the air space, but the contribution of CFH to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that levels of CFH in the air space correlate with measures of alveolar-capillary barrier dysfunction in humans with ARDS (r = 0.89, P < 0.001) and in mice with ventilator-induced acute lung injury (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). To investigate the specific contribution of CFH to ARDS, we studied the impact of purified CFH in the mouse lung and on cultured mouse lung epithelial (MLE-12) cells. Intratracheal delivery of CFH in mice causes acute lung injury with air space inflammation and alveolar-capillary barrier disruption. Similarly, in MLE-12 cells, CFH increases proinflammatory cytokine expression and increases paracellular permeability as measured by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Next, to determine whether these effects are mediated by the iron-containing heme moiety of CFH, we treated mice with intratracheal hemin, the chloride salt of heme, and found that hemin was sufficient to increase alveolar permeability but failed to induce proinflammatory cytokine expression or epithelial cell injury. Together, these data identify CFH in the air space as a previously unrecognized driver of lung epithelial injury in human and experimental ARDS and suggest that CFH and hemin may contribute to ARDS through different mechanisms. Interventions targeting CFH and heme in the air space could provide a new therapeutic approach for ARDS.
Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
OBJECTIVE - The association between cigarette smoke exposure and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with the most common acute respiratory distress syndrome risk factors of sepsis, pneumonia, and aspiration has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to test the association between biomarker-confirmed cigarette smoking and acute respiratory distress syndrome in a diverse cohort.
DESIGN - Prospective cohort.
SETTING - Tertiary care center.
PATIENTS - Four hundred twenty-six critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome risk factors (excluding trauma and transfusion)
INTERVENTIONS - : None.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - We obtained smoking histories and measured urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (a biomarker of cigarette smoke exposure) on urine samples obtained at the time of study enrollment. The association between cigarette smoke exposure and acute respiratory distress syndrome differed based on acute respiratory distress syndrome risk factor (p < 0.02 for interaction). In patients with nonpulmonary sepsis as the primary acute respiratory distress syndrome risk factor (n = 212), 39% of those with acute respiratory distress syndrome were current smokers by history compared with 22% of those without acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.24-4.19; p = 0.008). Likewise, cigarette smoke exposure as measured by urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol was significantly associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in this group. The increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome in nonpulmonary sepsis was restricted to patients with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol levels consistent with active smoking and was robust to adjustment for other acute respiratory distress syndrome predictors. Cigarette smoke exposure as measured by history or 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol was not associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with other risk factors (e.g., pneumonia and aspiration).
CONCLUSIONS - Cigarette smoking measured both by history and biomarker is associated with an increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with nonpulmonary sepsis. This finding has important implications for tobacco product regulation and for understanding the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Tissue factor (TF) initiates the extrinsic coagulation cascade in response to tissue injury, leading to local fibrin deposition. Low levels of TF in mice are associated with increased severity of acute lung injury (ALI) after intratracheal LPS administration. However, the cellular sources of the TF required for protection from LPS-induced ALI remain unknown. In the current study, transgenic mice with cell-specific deletions of TF in the lung epithelium or myeloid cells were treated with intratracheal LPS to determine the cellular sources of TF important in direct ALI. Cell-specific deletion of TF in the lung epithelium reduced total lung TF expression to 39% of wild-type (WT) levels at baseline and to 29% of WT levels after intratracheal LPS. In contrast, there was no reduction of TF with myeloid cell TF deletion. Mice lacking myeloid cell TF did not differ from WT mice in coagulation, inflammation, permeability, or hemorrhage. However, mice lacking lung epithelial TF had increased tissue injury, impaired activation of coagulation in the airspace, disrupted alveolar permeability, and increased alveolar hemorrhage after intratracheal LPS. Deletion of epithelial TF did not affect alveolar permeability in an indirect model of ALI caused by systemic LPS infusion. These studies demonstrate that the lung epithelium is the primary source of TF in the lung, contributing 60-70% of total lung TF, and that lung epithelial, but not myeloid, TF may be protective in direct ALI.
OBJECTIVES - Platelet activation plays an active role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. In our prior study of 575 patients at high risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome, concurrent statin and aspirin use was associated with reduced acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the largest study (n = 3,855) to date found no significant benefit of prehospital aspirin in a lower-risk population when adjusted for the propensity for aspirin use. We aimed to determine whether prehospital aspirin use is associated with decreased acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients at high risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome after adjusting for the propensity to receive aspirin.
DESIGN - Secondary analysis of patients enrolled prospectively in the Validating Acute Lung Injury Markers for Diagnosis study.
PATIENTS - A total of 1,149 critically ill patients (≥40 years old) admitted to the medical or surgical ICUs of an academic tertiary care hospital including 575 previously reported patients as well as additional patients who were enrolled after completion of the prior statin and aspirin study.
INTERVENTION - None.
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS - Of 1,149 patients, 368 (32%) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome during the first 4 ICU days and 287 (25%) patients had prehospital aspirin use. Patients with prehospital aspirin had significantly lower prevalence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (27% vs 34%; p=0.034). In a multivariable, propensity-adjusted analysis including age, gender, race, sepsis, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score II, prehospital aspirin use was associated with a decreased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.94) in the entire cohort and in a subgroup of 725 patients with sepsis (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.41-0.90).
CONCLUSIONS - In this selected cohort of critically ill patients, prehospital aspirin use was independently associated with a decreased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome even after adjusting for the propensity of prehospital aspirin use. These findings support the need for prospective clinical trials to determine whether aspirin may be beneficial for the prevention of clinical acute respiratory distress syndrome.