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Rates and predictors of success and failure in repeat epilepsy surgery: A meta-analysis and systematic review.
Krucoff MO, Chan AY, Harward SC, Rahimpour S, Rolston JD, Muh C, Englot DJ
(2017) Epilepsia 58: 2133-2142
MeSH Terms: Drug Resistant Epilepsy, Electroencephalography, Humans, Reoperation, Treatment Outcome
Show Abstract · Added September 25, 2018
OBJECTIVE - Medically refractory epilepsy is a debilitating disorder that is particularly challenging to treat in patients who have already failed a surgical resection. Evidence regarding outcomes of further epilepsy surgery is limited to small case series and reviews. Therefore, our group performed the first quantitative meta-analysis of the literature from the past 30 years to assess for rates and predictors of successful reoperations.
METHODS - A PubMed search was conducted for studies reporting outcomes of repeat epilepsy surgery. Studies were excluded if they reported fewer than five eligible patients or had average follow-ups < 1 year, and patients were excluded from analysis if they received a nonresective intervention. Outcomes were stratified by each variable of interest, and quantitative meta-analysis was performed to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS - Seven hundred eighty-two patients who received repeat resective epilepsy surgery from 36 studies were included. Engel I outcome was observed in 47% (n = 369) of patients. Significant predictors of seizure freedom included congruent over noncongruent electrophysiology data (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.6-8.2), lesional over nonlesional epilepsy (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.9-5.3), and surgical limitations over disease-related factors associated with failure of the first surgery (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.3). Among patients with at least one of these predictors, seizure freedom was achieved in 58%. Conversely, the use of invasive monitoring was associated with worse outcome (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Temporal lobe over extratemporal/multilobe resection (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.8-3.0) and abnormal over normal preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.6-5.4) showed nonsignificant trends toward seizure freedom.
SIGNIFICANCE - This analysis supports considering further resection in patients with intractable epilepsy who continue to have debilitating seizures after an initial surgery, especially in the context of factors predictive of a favorable outcome.
Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.
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Evaluating the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement project risk calculator: results from the U.S. Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium.
Beal EW, Lyon E, Kearney J, Wei L, Ethun CG, Black SM, Dillhoff M, Salem A, Weber SM, Tran TB, Poultsides G, Shenoy R, Hatzaras I, Krasnick B, Fields RC, Buttner S, Scoggins CR, Martin RCG, Isom CA, Idrees K, Mogal HD, Shen P, Maithel SK, Pawlik TM, Schmidt CR
(2017) HPB (Oxford) 19: 1104-1111
MeSH Terms: Academic Medical Centers, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Area Under Curve, Bile Duct Neoplasms, Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures, Cholangiocarcinoma, Databases, Factual, Decision Support Techniques, Female, Gallbladder Neoplasms, Hepatectomy, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Pancreaticoduodenectomy, Patient Readmission, Postoperative Complications, Predictive Value of Tests, ROC Curve, Reoperation, Retrospective Studies, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, United States, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2018
BACKGROUND - The objective of this study is to evaluate use of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) online risk calculator for estimating common outcomes after operations for gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
METHODS - Subjects from the United States Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium (USE-BMC) who underwent operation between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 at 10 academic medical centers were included in this study. Calculator estimates of risk were compared to actual outcomes.
RESULTS - The majority of patients underwent partial or major hepatectomy, Whipple procedures or extrahepatic bile duct resection. For the entire cohort, c-statistics for surgical site infection (0.635), reoperation (0.680) and readmission (0.565) were less than 0.7. The c-statistic for death was 0.740. For all outcomes the actual proportion of patients experiencing an event was much higher than the median predicted risk of that event. Similarly, the group of patients who experienced an outcome did have higher median predicted risk than those who did not.
CONCLUSIONS - The ACS NSQIP risk calculator is easy to use but requires further modifications to more accurately estimate outcomes for some patient populations and operations for which validation studies show suboptimal performance.
Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Gallbladder Cancer Presenting with Jaundice: Uniformly Fatal or Still Potentially Curable?
Tran TB, Norton JA, Ethun CG, Pawlik TM, Buettner S, Schmidt C, Beal EW, Hawkins WG, Fields RC, Krasnick BA, Weber SM, Salem A, Martin RCG, Scoggins CR, Shen P, Mogal HD, Idrees K, Isom CA, Hatzaras I, Shenoy R, Maithel SK, Poultsides GA
(2017) J Gastrointest Surg 21: 1245-1253
MeSH Terms: Aged, Bilirubin, Blood Vessels, CA-19-9 Antigen, Drainage, Female, Gallbladder Neoplasms, Humans, Jaundice, Obstructive, Lymphatic Vessels, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Invasiveness, Postoperative Complications, Reoperation, Survival Rate, United States
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2018
BACKGROUND - Jaundice as a presenting symptom of gallbladder cancer has traditionally been considered to be a sign of advanced disease, inoperability, and poor outcome. However, recent studies have demonstrated that a small subset of these patients can undergo resection with curative intent.
METHODS - Patients with gallbladder cancer managed surgically from 2000 to 2014 in 10 US academic institutions were stratified based on the presence of jaundice at presentation (defined as bilirubin ≥4 mg/ml or requiring preoperative biliary drainage). Perioperative morbidity, mortality, and overall survival were compared between jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients.
RESULTS - Of 400 gallbladder cancer patients with available preoperative data, 108 (27%) presented with jaundice while 292 (73%) did not. The fraction of patients who eventually underwent curative-intent resection was much lower in the presence of jaundice (n = 33, 30%) than not (n = 218, 75%; P < 0.001). Jaundiced patients experienced higher perioperative morbidity (69 vs. 38%; P = 0.002), including a much higher need for reoperation (12 vs. 1%; P = 0.003). However, 90-day mortality (6.5 vs. 3.6%; P = 0.35) was not significantly higher. Overall survival after resection was worse in jaundiced patients (median 14 vs. 32 months; P < 0.001). Further subgroup analysis within the jaundiced patients revealed a more favorable survival after resection in the presence of low CA19-9 < 50 (median 40 vs. 12 months; P = 0.003) and in the absence of lymphovascular invasion (40 vs. 14 months; P = 0.014).
CONCLUSION - Jaundice is a powerful preoperative clinical sign of inoperability and poor outcome among gallbladder cancer patients. However, some of these patients may still achieve long-term survival after resection, especially when preoperative CA19-9 levels are low and no lymphovascular invasion is noted pathologically.
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Tip Fold-over in Cochlear Implantation: Case Series.
Zuniga MG, Rivas A, Hedley-Williams A, Gifford RH, Dwyer R, Dawant BM, Sunderhaus LW, Hovis KL, Wanna GB, Noble JH, Labadie RF
(2017) Otol Neurotol 38: 199-206
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Child, Cochlea, Cochlear Implantation, Cochlear Implants, Female, Hearing, Hearing Loss, Hearing Tests, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Postoperative Period, Reoperation, Retrospective Studies, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2018
OBJECTIVE - To describe the incidence, clinical presentation, and performance of cochlear implant (CI) recipients with tip fold-over.
STUDY DESIGN - Retrospective case series.
SETTING - Tertiary referral center.
PATIENTS - CI recipients who underwent postoperative computed tomography (CT) scanning.
INTERVENTION(S) - Tip fold-over was identified tomographically using previously validated software that identifies the electrode array. Electrophysiologic testing including spread of excitation or electric field imaging (EFI) was measured on those with fold-over.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) - Location of the fold-over; audiological performance pre and postselective deactivation of fold-over electrodes.
RESULTS - Three hundred three ears of 235 CI recipients had postoperative CTs available for review. Six (1.98%) had tip fold-over with 5/6 right-sided ears. Tip fold-over occurred predominantly at 270 degrees and was associated with precurved electrodes (5/6). Patients did not report audiological complaints during initial activation. In one patient, the electrode array remained within the scala tympani with preserved residual hearing despite the fold-over. Spread of excitation supported tip fold-over, but the predictive value was not clear. EFI predicted location of the fold-over with clear predictive value in one patient. At an average follow-up of 11 months, three subjects underwent deactivation of the overlapping electrodes with two of them showing marked audiological improvement.
CONCLUSION - In a large academic center with experienced surgeons, tip fold-over occurred at a rate of 1.98% but was not immediately identifiable clinically. CT imaging definitively showed tip fold-over. Deactivating involved electrodes may improve performance possibly avoiding revision surgery. EFI may be highly predictive of tip fold-over and can be run intraoperatively, potentially obviating the need for intraop fluoroscopy.
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An unexpectedly high rate of revisions and removals in deep brain stimulation surgery: Analysis of multiple databases.
Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Starr PA, Larson PS
(2016) Parkinsonism Relat Disord 33: 72-77
MeSH Terms: Aged, Databases, Factual, Deep Brain Stimulation, Electrodes, Implanted, Female, Humans, Male, Mental Disorders, Middle Aged, Movement Disorders, North America, Postoperative Complications, Regression Analysis, Reoperation, Retrospective Studies
Show Abstract · Added June 23, 2017
INTRODUCTION - Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for movement disorders, and is under active investigation for other neurologic and psychiatric indications. While many studies describe outcomes and complications related to stimulation therapies, the majority of these are from large academic centers, and results may differ from those in general neurosurgical practice.
METHODS - Using data from both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), we identified all DBS procedures related to primary placement, revision, or removal of intracranial electrodes. Cases of cortical stimulation and stimulation for epilepsy were excluded.
RESULTS - Over 28,000 cases of DBS electrode placement, revision, and removal were identified during the years 2004-2013. In the Medicare dataset, 15.2% and of these procedures were for intracranial electrode revision or removal, compared to 34.0% in the NSQIP dataset. In NSQIP, significant predictors of revision and removal were decreased age (odds ratio (OR) of 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94, 0.98) and higher ASA classification (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 1.22, 4.75). Up to 48.5% of revisions may have been due to improper targeting or lack of therapeutic effect.
CONCLUSION - Data from multiple North American databases suggest that intracranial neurostimulation therapies have a rate of revision and removal higher than previously reported, between 15.2 and 34.0%. While there are many limitations to registry-based studies, there is a clear need to better track and understand the true prevalence and nature of such failures as they occur in the wider surgical community.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Does Diverting Loop Ileostomy Improve Outcomes Following Open Ileo-Colic Anastomoses? A Nationwide Analysis.
Hawkins AT, Dharmarajan S, Wells KK, Krishnamurty DM, Mutch MG, Glasgow SC
(2016) J Gastrointest Surg 20: 1738-43
MeSH Terms: Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Anastomosis, Surgical, Anastomotic Leak, Colon, Digestive System Surgical Procedures, Female, Humans, Ileostomy, Ileum, Male, Middle Aged, Reoperation, Risk Factors, Treatment Outcome
Show Abstract · Added September 27, 2016
BACKGROUND - Anastomotic leak is one of the most feared complications of gastrointestinal surgery. Surgeons routinely perform a diverting loop ileostomy (DLI) to protect high-risk colo-rectal anastomoses.
STUDY DESIGN - The NSQIP database was queried from 2012 to 2013 for patients undergoing open ileo-colic resection with and without a DLI. The primary outcome was the development of any anastomotic leak-including those managed operatively and non-operatively. Secondary outcomes included overall complication rate, return to the OR, readmission, and 30-day mortality.
RESULTS - Four thousand one hundred fifty-nine patients underwent open ileo-colic resection during the study period. One hundred eighty-six (4.5 %) underwent a DLI. Factors associated with the addition of a DLI included emergency surgery, pre-operative sepsis, and IBD. There were 197 anastomotic leaks (4.7 %) with 100 patients requiring reoperation (2.4 %). DLI was associated with a decrease in anastomotic leaks requiring reoperation (DLI vs no DLI: 0 (0 %) vs 100 (2.5 %); p = 0.02) and with increased readmission (OR 1.93; 95 % CI 1.30-2.85; p = 0.001).
CONCLUSION - DLI is rarely used for open ileo-colic resection. There were no serious leaks requiring reoperation in the DLI group. A DLI was associated with an almost two-fold increase in the odds of readmission. Surgeons must weigh the reduction in serious leak rate with postoperative morbidity when considering a DLI for open ileo-colic resection.
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National Trends in Secondary Procedures Following Pediatric Pyeloplasty.
Dy GW, Hsi RS, Holt SK, Lendvay TS, Gore JL, Harper JD
(2016) J Urol 195: 1209-14
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Infant, Kidney Pelvis, Male, Reoperation, Treatment Failure, United States, Ureteral Obstruction, Urologic Surgical Procedures
Show Abstract · Added January 16, 2018
PURPOSE - Although reported success rates after pediatric pyeloplasty to correct ureteropelvic junction are high, failure may require intervention. We sought to characterize the incidence and timing of secondary procedures after pediatric pyeloplasty using a national employer based insurance database.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Using the MarketScan® database we identified patients 0 to 18 years old who underwent pyeloplasty from 2007 to 2013 with greater than 3 months of postoperative enrollment. Secondary procedures following the index pyeloplasty were identified by CPT codes and classified as stent/drain, endoscopic, pyeloplasty, nephrectomy or transplant. The risk of undergoing a secondary procedure was ascertained using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics.
RESULTS - We identified 1,976 patients with a mean ± SD followup of 23.9 ± 19.8 months. Overall 226 children (11.4%) had undergone at least 1 post-pyeloplasty procedure. The first procedure was done within 1 year in 87.2% of patients with a mean postoperative interval of 5.9 ± 11.1 months. Stents/drains, endoscopic procedures and pyeloplasties were noted in 116 (5.9%), 34 (1.7%) and 71 patients (3.1%), respectively. Length of stay was associated with undergoing a secondary procedure. Compared with 2 days or less the HR of 3 to 5 and 6 days or greater was 1.65 and 3.94 (p = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS - Following pediatric pyeloplasty 1 of 9 patients undergoes at least 1 secondary procedure with the majority performed within the first year. One of 11 patients undergoes intervention more extensive than placement of a single stent or drain, requiring management strategies that generally signify recurrent or persistent obstruction. Estimates of pyeloplasty success in this national data set are lower than in other published series.
Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Predictors of major amputation despite patent bypass grafts.
Smith AD, Hawkins AT, Schaumeier MJ, de Vos MS, Conte MS, Nguyen LL
(2016) J Vasc Surg 63: 1279-88
MeSH Terms: Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Amputation, Chi-Square Distribution, Comorbidity, Critical Illness, Disease Progression, Double-Blind Method, Female, Humans, Ischemia, Limb Salvage, Lower Extremity, Male, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Nutritional Status, Peripheral Arterial Disease, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, Quality of Life, Reoperation, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, Vascular Grafting, Vascular Patency, Veins
Show Abstract · Added September 27, 2016
OBJECTIVE - Despite patent vein bypass grafts, some patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) receive major amputations. We analyzed the predictive factors leading to major amputation in the presence of patent lower extremity bypass (LEB) grafts.
METHODS - Data from the Project of Ex-Vivo vein graft Engineering via Transfection III (PREVENT III), a large prospective randomized trial of 1404 patients who underwent LEB with vein graft for CLI, were queried for outcomes. The primary outcome was major amputation with patent (PMA) LEB compared with patients with patent LEB who achieved limb salvage (PLS). The population excluded those who received amputation for occluded grafts. A Cox proportional hazard model identified independent predictors.
RESULTS - Of 1404 LEB patients, 162 (11.5%) had major amputation: 89 (6.3%) with patent and 73 (5.2%) with occluded LEB. For PMA, 21 of 89 (23.6%) developed critical stenosis and 11 of 21 (52.4%) were revised. For PLS, 460 of 1242 (37.0%) developed critical stenosis and 351 of 460 (76.3%) were revised. Predictive patient factors included having preoperative gangrene (vs rest pain; hazard ratio [HR], 3.504; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.533-8.007; P = .0029), diabetes (HR, 1.800; 95% CI, 1.006-3.219; P = .0477), black (vs white) race (HR, 1.779; 95% CI, 1.051-3.011; P = .0321), baseline creatinine clearance <25 mL/min (vs >65 mL/min; HR, 1.759; 95% CI, 1.016-3.048; P = .0439), prior history of coronary artery bypass grafting (HR, 1.702; 95% CI, 1.080-2.683; P = .0221), and lower baseline activity quality of life score (HR, 1.401; 95% CI, 1.105-1.778; P = .0054). Postoperative wound factors included gangrenous changes (HR, 5.830; 95% CI, 1.647-20.635; P = .0063), surgical wound necrosis (HR, 5.319; 95% CI, 1.478-19.146; P = .0105), deep (vs superficial) wound infection (HR, 3.815; 95% CI, 1.220-11.927; P = .0213), and wound healing abnormally (HR, 3.754; 95% CI, 1.061-13.278; P = .0402). Associated postoperative consequences leading to PMA included having recurrent CLI symptoms (HR, 2.915; 95% CI, 1.816-4.681; P < .0001), a severe (vs mild) adverse event (HR, 2.751; 95% CI, 1.391-5.443; P = .0036), fewer percutaneous revisions (HR, 2.425; 95% CI, 1.573-3.740; P < .0001), discharge on low-molecular-weight heparin (HR, 2.087; 95% CI, 1.309-3.326; P = .0020), and decreasing days to critical stenosis/occlusion/revision/amputation (HR, 1.010; 95% CI, 1.007-1.012; P < .0001).
CONCLUSIONS - Whereas a patent vein graft is important to all vascular surgeons, additional factors should be considered in trying to attain limb salvage for patients with CLI. These factors include intervening surgically before CLI has progressed to a state of gangrene or limited activity and optimizing nutrition, diabetes control, cardiac conditions, and activity level. Revision offers hope for clinical improvement but may be delayed when there is no graft lesion identified. The absence of a graft lesion to revise may also portend amputation despite a patent graft because of nongraft-related factors such as infection. Finally, the experience of a severe (vs mild) adverse event may also result in limb loss despite a patent graft. Systematic efforts to reduce severe adverse events among patients may also lead to increased limb salvage.
Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Thalamotomy-Like Effects From Partial Removal of a Ventral Intermediate Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulator Lead in a Patient With Essential Tremor: Case Report.
Rolston JD, Ramos AD, Heath S, Englot DJ, Lim DA
(2015) Neurosurgery 77: E831-6; discussion E836-7
MeSH Terms: Deep Brain Stimulation, Device Removal, Electrodes, Essential Tremor, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prostheses and Implants, Psychosurgery, Reoperation, Ventral Thalamic Nuclei
Show Abstract · Added August 12, 2016
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE - The ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus is a primary target of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with essential tremor. Despite reliable control of contralateral tremor, there is sometimes a need for lead revision in cases of infection, hardware malfunction, or failure to relieve symptoms. Here, we present the case of a patient undergoing revision after ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) DBS failed to control his tremor. During the electrode removal, the distal portion of the lead was found to be tightly adherent to tissue within the deep brain. Partial removal of the electrode in turn caused weakness, paresthesias, and tremor control similar to the effects produced by thalamotomy or thalamic injury.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION - A 48-year-old man with essential tremor had bilateral Vim DBS leads implanted 10 years earlier but had poor control of his tremor and ultimately opted for surgical revision with lead placement in the zona incerta. During attempted removal of his right lead, the patient became somnolent with contralateral weakness and paresthesias. The procedure was aborted, and postoperative neuroimaging was immediately obtained, showing no signs of stroke or hemorrhage. The patient had almost complete control of his left arm tremor postoperatively, and his weakness soon resolved.
CONCLUSION - To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cerebral injury after DBS revision and offers insights into the mechanism of high-frequency electric stimulation compared with lesions. That is, although high-frequency stimulation failed to control this patient's tremor, thalamotomy-like injury was completely effective.
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Realization of a biomechanical model-assisted image guidance system for breast cancer surgery using supine MRI.
Conley RH, Meszoely IM, Weis JA, Pheiffer TS, Arlinghaus LR, Yankeelov TE, Miga MI
(2015) Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 10: 1985-96
MeSH Terms: Biomechanical Phenomena, Breast Neoplasms, Female, Fiducial Markers, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional, Mastectomy, Segmental, Models, Biological, Models, Theoretical, Reoperation, Supine Position, Surgery, Computer-Assisted, Ultrasonography, Interventional
Show Abstract · Added July 23, 2018
PURPOSE - Unfortunately, the current re-excision rates for breast conserving surgeries due to positive margins average 20-40 %. The high re-excision rates arise from difficulty in localizing tumor boundaries intraoperatively and lack of real-time information on the presence of residual disease. The work presented here introduces the use of supine magnetic resonance (MR) images, digitization technology, and biomechanical models to investigate the capability of using an image guidance system to localize tumors intraoperatively.
METHODS - Preoperative supine MR images were used to create patient-specific biomechanical models of the breast tissue, chest wall, and tumor. In a mock intraoperative setup, a laser range scanner was used to digitize the breast surface and tracked ultrasound was used to digitize the chest wall and tumor. Rigid registration combined with a novel nonrigid registration routine was used to align the preoperative and intraoperative patient breast and tumor. The registration framework is driven by breast surface data (laser range scan of visible surface), ultrasound chest wall surface, and MR-visible fiducials. Tumor localizations by tracked ultrasound were only used to evaluate the fidelity of aligning preoperative MR tumor contours to physical patient space. The use of tracked ultrasound to digitize subsurface features to constrain our nonrigid registration approach and to assess the fidelity of our framework makes this work unique. Two patient subjects were analyzed as a preliminary investigation toward the realization of this supine image-guided approach.
RESULTS - An initial rigid registration was performed using adhesive MR-visible fiducial markers for two patients scheduled for a lumpectomy. For patient 1, the rigid registration resulted in a root-mean-square fiducial registration error (FRE) of 7.5 mm and the difference between the intraoperative tumor centroid as visualized with tracked ultrasound imaging and the registered preoperative MR counterpart was 6.5 mm. Nonrigid correction resulted in a decrease in FRE to 2.9 mm and tumor centroid difference to 5.5 mm. For patient 2, rigid registration resulted in a FRE of 8.8 mm and a 3D tumor centroid difference of 12.5 mm. Following nonrigid correction for patient 2, the FRE was reduced to 7.4 mm and the 3D tumor centroid difference was reduced to 5.3 mm.
CONCLUSION - Using our prototype image-guided surgery platform, we were able to align intraoperative data with preoperative patient-specific models with clinically relevant accuracy; i.e., tumor centroid localizations of approximately 5.3-5.5 mm.
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