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Angiotensin receptor blocker vs ACE inhibitor effects on HDL functionality in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.
Kaseda R, Tsuchida Y, Gamboa JL, Zhong J, Zhang L, Yang H, Dikalova A, Bian A, Davies S, Fogo AF, Linton MF, Brown NJ, Ikizler TA, Kon V
(2018) Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 28: 582-591
MeSH Terms: Adult, Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Biomarkers, Cholesterol, HDL, Double-Blind Method, Female, Humans, Inflammation Mediators, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Male, Middle Aged, Oxidative Stress, Ramipril, Renal Dialysis, Tennessee, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, Valsartan
Show Abstract · Added August 3, 2018
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) reduce cardiovascular events in the general population. Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients are at high cardiovascular risk but few studies have directly addressed the comparative efficacy of these drugs. MHD disrupts the normally atheroprotective actions of high density lipoprotein (HDL), therefore, we compared ACEI or ARB treatment on HDL functions in MHD.
METHODS AND RESULTS - HDL was isolated at the starting point (pre) and 3-6 months later (post) in 30 MHD randomly assigned to placebo, ramipril or valsartan. Outcomes included cholesterol efflux, inflammatory cytokine response, effects on Toll-like receptors (TLR), superoxide production, methylarginine and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels. HDL from ARB- or ACEI-treated subjects was more effective in maintaining efflux than HDL of placebo. HDL from ARB- or ACEI-treated subjects but not placebo lessened cellular superoxide production. In contrast, neither ARB nor ACEI improved HDL anti-inflammatory effect. Indeed, HDL of ACEI-treated subjects potentiated the cytokine responses in association with activation of TLR but did not alter the HDL content of methylarginines or SAA.
CONCLUSION - Both ACEI and ARB stabilized HDL cholesterol acceptor function and sustained cellular anti-oxidative effects but not anti-inflammatory effects, and ACEI-treatment instead amplified the HDL inflammatory response. The findings reveal possible utility of antagonizing angiotensin actions in MDH and suggest a possible mechanism for superiority of ARB vs ACEI in the setting of advanced kidney disease.
Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
1 Communities
3 Members
0 Resources
19 MeSH Terms
Nephrology Provider Prognostic Perceptions and Care Delivered to Older Adults with Advanced Kidney Disease.
Salat H, Javier A, Siew ED, Figueroa R, Lipworth L, Kabagambe E, Bian A, Stewart TG, El-Sourady MH, Karlekar M, Cardona CY, Ikizler TA, Abdel-Kader K
(2017) Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 12: 1762-1770
MeSH Terms: Advance Care Planning, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Conservative Treatment, Decision Making, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Hospice Care, Hospitalization, Humans, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Male, Nephrology, Patient Participation, Patient Preference, Perception, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Renal Dialysis, Terminal Care
Show Abstract · Added September 20, 2017
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Prognostic uncertainty is one barrier that impedes providers in engaging patients with CKD in shared decision making and advance care planning. The surprise question has been shown to identify patients at increased risk of dying.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS - In our prospective observational study, 488 patients ≥60 years of age with CKD stage 4 or 5 were enrolled. Binary surprise question (, "Would you be surprised if this patient died in the next 12 months?") responses were recorded, and dialysis planning preferences, presence of advance care planning documentation, and care preceding death were abstracted.
RESULTS - The median patient age was 71 (65-77) years old. Providers responded no and yes to the surprise question for 171 (35%) and 317 (65%) patients, respectively. Median follow-up was 1.9 (1.5-2.1) years, during which 18% of patients died (33% of surprise question no, 10% of surprise question yes; <0.001). In patients with a known RRT preference (58%), 13% of surprise question no participants had a preference for conservative management (versus 2% of yes counterparts; <0.001). A medical order (, physician order for life-sustaining treatment) was documented in 13% of surprise question no patients versus 5% of yes patients (=0.004). Among surprise question no decedents, 41% died at home or hospice, 38% used hospice services, and 54% were hospitalized in the month before death. In surprise question yes decedents, 39% died at home or hospice (=0.90 versus no), 26% used hospice services (=0.50 versus no), and 67% were hospitalized in the month before death (=0.40 versus surprise question no).
CONCLUSIONS - Nephrologists' prognostic perceptions were associated with modest changes in care, highlighting a critical gap in conservative management discussions, advance care planning, and end of life care among older adults with CKD stages 4 and 5 and high-risk clinical characteristics.
PODCAST - This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2017_09_18_CJASNPodcast_17_11.mp3.
Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
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2 Members
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20 MeSH Terms
Blood Pressure and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: The CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort).
Bansal N, McCulloch CE, Lin F, Alper A, Anderson AH, Cuevas M, Go AS, Kallem R, Kusek JW, Lora CM, Lustigova E, Ojo A, Rahman M, Robinson-Cohen C, Townsend RR, Wright J, Xie D, Hsu CY, CRIC Study Investigators*
(2017) Hypertension 70: 435-443
MeSH Terms: Aged, Blood Pressure Determination, Cohort Studies, Female, Humans, Hypertension, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Male, Middle Aged, Myocardial Infarction, Prognosis, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, Renal Dialysis, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Stroke, United States
Show Abstract · Added September 19, 2017
We recently reported a linear association between higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients when SBP is measured outside of the dialysis unit (out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP), despite there being a U-shaped association between SBP measured at the dialysis unit (dialysis-unit-SBP) with risk of mortality. Here, we explored the relationship between SBP with cardiovascular events, which has important treatment implications but has not been well elucidated. Among 383 hemodialysis participants enrolled in the prospective CRIC study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort), multivariable splines and Cox models were used to study the association between SBP and adjudicated cardiovascular events (heart failure, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and peripheral artery disease), controlling for differences in demographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and dialysis parameters. Dialysis-unit-SBP and out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP were modestly correlated (=0.34; <0.001). We noted a U-shaped association of dialysis-unit-SBP and risk of cardiovascular events, with the nadir risk between 140 and 170 mm Hg. In contrast, there was a linear stepwise association between out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP with risk of cardiovascular events. Participants with out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP ≥128 mm Hg (top 2 quartiles) had >2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular events compared with those with out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP ≤112 mm Hg (3rd SBP quartile: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.08 [95% confidence interval, 1.12-3.87] and fourth SBP quartile: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.76 [95% confidence interval, 1.42-5.33]). In conclusion, among hemodialysis patients, although there is a U-shaped (paradoxical) association of dialysis-unit-SBP and risk of cardiovascular disease, there is a linear association of out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP with risk of cardiovascular disease. Out-of-dialysis-unit blood pressure provides key information and may be an important therapeutic target.
© 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
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1 Members
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18 MeSH Terms
HIF-prolyl hydroxylases as therapeutic targets in erythropoiesis and iron metabolism.
Haase VH
(2017) Hemodial Int 21 Suppl 1: S110-S124
MeSH Terms: Anemia, Barbiturates, Clinical Trials as Topic, Erythropoiesis, Erythropoietin, Glycine, Humans, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases, Iron, Isoquinolines, Picolinic Acids, Prolyl-Hydroxylase Inhibitors, Renal Dialysis
Show Abstract · Added April 28, 2017
A classic response to systemic hypoxia is the increase in red blood cell production. This response is controlled by the prolyl hydroxylase domain/hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway, which regulates a broad spectrum of cellular functions. The discovery of this pathway as a key regulator of erythropoiesis has led to the development of small molecules that stimulate the production of endogenous erythropoietin and enhance iron metabolism. This review provides a concise overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern HIF-induced erythropoietic responses and provides an update on clinical experience with compounds that target HIF-prolyl hydroxylases for anemia therapy.
© 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.
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13 MeSH Terms
Association of Vitamin D Metabolites With Arterial Function in the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study.
van Ballegooijen AJ, Zelnick L, Hoofnagle AN, Hamburg NM, Robinson-Cohen C, Roy-Chaudhury P, Cheung AK, Shiu YT, de Boer IH, Himmelfarb J, Beck G, Imrey PB, Kusek JW, Kestenbaum B, Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation (HFM) Study Group
(2017) Am J Kidney Dis 69: 805-814
MeSH Terms: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2, Adult, Aged, Anastomosis, Surgical, Arteries, Brachial Artery, Calcifediol, Carotid Arteries, Chromatography, Liquid, Cohort Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Ergocalciferols, Female, Femoral Artery, Humans, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Male, Middle Aged, Nitroglycerin, Prospective Studies, Pulse Wave Analysis, Radial Artery, Renal Dialysis, Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Vascular Stiffness, Vasodilation, Vasodilator Agents, Veins, Vitamin D
Show Abstract · Added September 19, 2017
BACKGROUND - Disturbances in vitamin D metabolism are common in patients with end-stage renal disease and may contribute to vascular dysfunction.
STUDY DESIGN - Cross-sectional.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS - We evaluated 558 of 602 participants at baseline of the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation (HFM) Study, a 7-center prospective cohort study of a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease awaiting arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation surgery.
FACTOR - 4 vitamin D metabolites measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy from samples obtained within 4 weeks prior to AVF surgery.
OUTCOMES - Vasodilator functions and measurements of arterial stiffness.
MEASUREMENTS - Trained HFM Study personnel measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, nitroglycerin-mediated dilation, and carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocities (PWVs) prior to AVF creation. We evaluated associations after basic adjustment for sex, age, and clinical site and more fully adjusted additionally for baseline education, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, dialysis status, and medication use.
RESULTS - Mean participant age was 55±13 (SD) years and 65% were receiving maintenance dialysis. None of the vitamin D metabolites were significantly associated with flow-mediated dilation, carotid-femoral PWV, or carotid-radial PWV in basic or fully adjusted analyses. Higher serum concentrations of bioavailable vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were associated with 0.62% and 0.58% greater nitroglycerin-mediated dilation values, respectively, in basic models; however, these associations were no longer statistically significant with full adjustment. There were no significant associations of vitamin D metabolites with carotid-femoral or carotid-radial PWV in fully adjusted analyses.
LIMITATIONS - Cross-sectional ascertainment of vitamin D metabolites and vascular functions late during the course of kidney disease.
CONCLUSIONS - Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites are not associated with vasodilator functions or vascular stiffness at baseline in a cohort study of patients with chronic kidney disease awaiting AVF creation surgery. Laboratory measurements of vitamin D metabolites are unlikely to provide useful information regarding vascular functions in this setting.
Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.
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1 Members
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29 MeSH Terms
Tissue sodium accumulation and peripheral insulin sensitivity in maintenance hemodialysis patients.
Deger SM, Wang P, Fissell R, Ellis CD, Booker C, Sha F, Morse JL, Stewart TG, Gore JC, Siew ED, Titze J, Ikizler TA
(2017) J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 8: 500-507
MeSH Terms: Adult, Biomarkers, Blood Glucose, Body Composition, Female, Glucose, Humans, Insulin, Insulin Resistance, Leucine, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Middle Aged, Muscle, Skeletal, Organ Specificity, Renal Dialysis, Skin, Sodium
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
BACKGROUND - Recent data suggest that sodium (Na ) is stored in the muscle and skin without commensurate water retention in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. In this study, we hypothesized that excessive Na accumulation would be associated with abnormalities in peripheral insulin action.
METHODS - Eleven MHD patients and eight controls underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamp studies to measure glucose (GDR) and leucine disposal rates (LDR), as well as lower left leg Na magnetic resonance imaging to measure Na concentration in the muscle and skin tissue.
RESULTS - The median GDR and LDR levels were lower, and the median muscle Na concentration was higher in MHD patients compared with controls. No significant difference was found regarding skin Na concentration between group comparisons. Linear regression revealed inverse relationships between muscle Na concentration and GDR and LDR in MHD patients, whereas no relationship was observed in controls. There was no association between skin Na content and GDR or LDR in either MHD patients or controls.
CONCLUSIONS - These data suggest that excessive muscle Na content might be a determinant of IR in MHD patients, although the causality and mechanisms remain to be proven.
© 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.
0 Communities
2 Members
0 Resources
18 MeSH Terms
Effect of Coenzyme Q on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Cardiac Function in Hemodialysis Patients: The CoQ Biomarker Trial.
Rivara MB, Yeung CK, Robinson-Cohen C, Phillips BR, Ruzinski J, Rock D, Linke L, Shen DD, Ikizler TA, Himmelfarb J
(2017) Am J Kidney Dis 69: 389-399
MeSH Terms: Biomarkers, Double-Blind Method, Female, Heart, Humans, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Male, Middle Aged, Oxidative Stress, Pilot Projects, Renal Dialysis, Ubiquinone
Show Abstract · Added September 19, 2017
BACKGROUND - Oxidative stress is highly prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease and is linked to excess cardiovascular risk. Identifying therapies that reduce oxidative stress has the potential to improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis.
STUDY DESIGN - Placebo-controlled, 3-arm, double-blind, randomized, clinical trial.
SETTING & PARTICIPANTS - 65 patients undergoing thrice-weekly maintenance hemodialysis.
INTERVENTION - Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive once-daily coenzyme Q (CoQ; 600 or 1,200mg) or matching placebo for 4 months.
OUTCOMES - The primary outcome was plasma oxidative stress, defined as plasma concentration of F-isoprotanes. Secondary outcomes included levels of plasma isofurans, levels of cardiac biomarkers, predialysis blood pressure, and safety/tolerability.
MEASUREMENTS - F-isoprostanes and isofurans were measured as plasma markers of oxidative stress, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and troponin T were measured as cardiac biomarkers at baseline and 1, 2, and 4 months.
RESULTS - Of 80 randomly assigned patients, 15 were excluded due to not completing at least 1 postbaseline study visit and 65 were included in the primary intention-to-treat analysis. No treatment-related major adverse events occurred. Daily treatment with 1,200mg, but not 600mg, of CoQ significantly reduced plasma F-isoprostanes concentrations at 4 months compared to placebo (adjusted mean changes of -10.7 [95% CI, -7.1 to -14.3] pg/mL [P<0.001] and -8.3 [95% CI, -5.5 to -11.0] pg/mL [P=0.1], respectively). There were no significant effects of CoQ treatment on levels of plasma isofurans, cardiac biomarkers, or predialysis blood pressures.
LIMITATIONS - Study not powered to detect small treatment effects; difference in baseline characteristics among randomized groups.
CONCLUSIONS - In patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, daily supplementation with 1,200mg of CoQ is safe and results in a reduction in plasma concentrations of F-isoprostanes, a marker of oxidative stress. Future studies are needed to determine whether CoQ supplementation improves clinical outcomes for patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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1 Members
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12 MeSH Terms
Sarcopenic Obesity Definitions by Body Composition and Mortality in the Hemodialysis Patients.
Malhotra R, Deger SM, Salat H, Bian A, Stewart TG, Booker C, Vincz A, Pouliot B, Ikizler TA
(2017) J Ren Nutr 27: 84-90
MeSH Terms: Absorptiometry, Photon, Adiposity, Adult, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity, Prevalence, Renal Dialysis, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, Sarcopenia
Show Abstract · Added December 27, 2016
OBJECTIVE - Sarcopenic obesity (SO), a combination of low muscle mass and high fat mass, is considered as risk factor for mortality in general population. It is unclear if SO affects mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. In this study, we aimed to determine whether body composition as assessed by currently available SO definitions is related to all-cause mortality in MHD subjects. We also examined the impact of applying different definitions on the prevalence of SO in our MHD database.
DESIGN - Retrospective analysis.
SUBJECTS - Adult patients on MHD for at least 3 months with no acute illness studied in the clinical research center between 2003 and 2011.
INTERVENTION - Assessment of body composition was performed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SO (appendicular skeletal mass: arm lean mass + leg lean mass and fat mass) was defined according to Baumgartner definition, Janssen criteria 1, and Janssen criteria 2.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE - All-cause mortality and prevalence of SO. Patient deaths were ascertained from medical records and United States social security death index.
RESULTS - Of 122 participants, 62% were male; mean age was 46 years (interquartile range: 40, 54) in men and 50 years (44, 61) in women. Prevalence of SO ranged from 12% to 62% in men and 2% to 74% in female according to different definitions. SO prevalence was lowest using the Baumgartner criteria (all: 8%, men 12%, women: 2%) and highest according to the Janssen criteria 2 (all: 57%, men 46%, women 74%). There were 45 deaths during a median follow-up period of 44 (20, 76) months. SO by any definition was not statistically significantly associated with mortality during follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS - The current SO definitions are not applicable to predict increased risk of death in MHD patients. We found high degree of variation in the rates of SO when using different definitions. Future studies should focus on establishing MHD population-specific thresholds of muscle mass and adiposity for accurate prognostication.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
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1 Members
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16 MeSH Terms
High Dose Omega-3 Fatty Acid Administration and Skeletal Muscle Protein Turnover in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.
Deger SM, Hung AM, Ellis CD, Booker C, Bian A, Chen G, Abumrad NN, Ikizler TA
(2016) Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 11: 1227-35
MeSH Terms: Adult, Aged, Amino Acids, Blood Glucose, C-Reactive Protein, Dietary Supplements, Double-Blind Method, Fatty Acids, Omega-3, Female, Forearm, Humans, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, Male, Middle Aged, Muscle Proteins, Muscle, Skeletal, Protein Biosynthesis, Renal Dialysis, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Show Abstract · Added July 1, 2016
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Protein energy wasting and systemic inflammation are prevalent in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to improve protein homeostasis. We hypothesized that administration of high-dose (2.9 g/d) ω-3 would be associated with decreased muscle protein breakdown in MHD patients with systemic inflammation.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS - This is a substudy from a randomized, placebo-controlled study (NCT00655525). Patients were recruited between September 2008 and June 2011. Primary inclusion criteria included signs of chronic inflammation (average C-reactive protein of ≥5 mg/L over three consecutive measurements), lack of active infectious or inflammatory disease, no hospitalization within 1 month prior to the study, and not receiving steroids (>5 mg/d) and/or immunosuppressive agents. The primary outcomes were forearm muscle and whole body protein breakdown and synthesis before and after the intervention. The patients received ω-3 (n=11) versus placebo (n=9) for 12 weeks. Analysis of covariance was used to compare outcome variables at 12 weeks. Models were adjusted for a propensity score that was derived from age, sex, race, baseline high sensitivity C-reactive protein, diabetes mellitus, and fat mass because the groups were not balanced for several characteristics.
RESULTS - Compared with placebo, ω-3 supplementation was significantly associated with decreased muscle protein breakdown at 12 weeks (-31, [interquartile range, -98--13] versus 26 [interquartile range, 13-87] µg/100 ml per min; P=0.01), which remained significant after multivariate adjustment (-46, [95% confidence interval, -102 to -1] µg/100 ml per min). ω-3 Supplementation resulted in decreased forearm muscle protein synthesis while the rate in the placebo group increased; however, there is no longer a statistically significant difference in skeletal muscle protein synthesis or in net protein balance after multivariate adjustment. There was no statistically significant effect of ω-3 supplementation on whole body protein synthesis or breakdown.
CONCLUSIONS - High-dose ω-3 supplementation over 12 weeks in MHD patients with systemic inflammation was associated with attenuation of forearm muscle protein breakdown but did not influence skeletal muscle protein synthesis, skeletal muscle net protein balance or any component of the whole-body protein balance. These results should be interpreted cautiously given the imbalance in the two groups and the short duration of the intervention.
Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.
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2 Members
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20 MeSH Terms
Preliminary Diffusive Clearance of Silicon Nanopore Membranes in a Parallel Plate Configuration for Renal Replacement Therapy.
Kim S, Heller J, Iqbal Z, Kant R, Kim EJ, Durack J, Saeed M, Do L, Hetts S, Wilson M, Brakeman P, Fissell WH, Roy S
(2016) ASAIO J 62: 169-75
MeSH Terms: Animals, Equipment Design, Membranes, Artificial, Nanopores, Renal Dialysis, Silicon, Swine
Show Abstract · Added February 22, 2016
Silicon nanopore membranes (SNMs) with compact geometry and uniform pore size distribution have demonstrated a remarkable capacity for hemofiltration. These advantages could potentially be used for hemodialysis. Here, we present an initial evaluation of the SNM's mechanical robustness, diffusive clearance, and hemocompatibility in a parallel plate configuration. Mechanical robustness of the SNM was demonstrated by exposing membranes to high flows (200 ml/min) and pressures (1,448 mm Hg). Diffusive clearance was performed in an albumin solution and whole blood with blood and dialysate flow rates of 25 ml/min. Hemocompatibility was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry after 4 hours in an extracorporeal porcine model. The pressure drop across the flow cell was 4.6 mm Hg at 200 ml/min. Mechanical testing showed that SNM could withstand up to 775.7 mm Hg without fracture. Urea clearance did not show an appreciable decline in blood versus albumin solution. Extracorporeal studies showed blood was successfully driven via the arterial-venous pressure differential without thrombus formation. Bare silicon showed increased cell adhesion with a 4.1-fold increase and 1.8-fold increase over polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated surfaces for tissue plasminogen factor (t-PA) and platelet adhesion (CD41), respectively. These initial results warrant further design and development of a fully scaled SNM-based parallel plate dialyzer for renal replacement therapy.
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7 MeSH Terms