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BACKGROUND - Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with a fragile antidepressant response and high recurrence risk. This study examined what measures predict recurrence in remitted LLD.
METHODS - Individuals of age 60 years or older with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - IV (DSM-IV) diagnosis of major depressive disorder were enrolled in the neurocognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly study. Participants received manualized antidepressant treatment and were followed longitudinally for an average of 5 years. Study analyses included participants who remitted. Measures included demographic and clinical measures, medical comorbidity, disability, life stress, social support, and neuropsychological testing. A subset underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
RESULTS - Of 241 remitted elders, approximately over 4 years, 137 (56.8%) experienced recurrence and 104 (43.2%) maintained remission. In the final model, greater recurrence risk was associated with female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.536; confidence interval [CI] = 1.027-2.297), younger age of onset (HR = 0.990; CI = 0.981-0.999), higher perceived stress (HR = 1.121; CI = 1.022-1.229), disability (HR = 1.060; CI = 1.005-1.119), and less support with activities (HR = 0.885; CI = 0.812-0.963). Recurrence risk was also associated with higher Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores prior to censoring (HR = 1.081; CI = 1.033-1.131) and baseline symptoms of suicidal thoughts by MADRS (HR = 1.175; CI = 1.002-1.377) and sadness by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (HR = 1.302; CI, 1.080-1.569). Sex, age of onset, and suicidal thoughts were no longer associated with recurrence in a model incorporating report of multiple prior episodes (HR = 2.107; CI = 1.252-3.548). Neither neuropsychological test performance nor MRI measures of aging pathology were associated with recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS - Over half of the depressed elders who remitted experienced recurrence, mostly within 2 years. Multiple clinical and environmental measures predict recurrence risk. Work is needed to develop instruments that stratify risk.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
OBJECTIVE - Late-life depression is associated with cognitive deficits and increased risk for cognitive decline. The purpose of the study was to determine whether clinical characteristics could serve as phenotypes informative of subsequent cognitive decline. Age at depression onset and antidepressant remission at 3 months (acute response) and 12 months (chronic response) were examined.
METHODS - In a longitudinal study of late-life depression in an academic center, 273 depressed and 164 never-depressed community-dwelling elders aged 60 years or older were followed on average for over 5 years. Participants completed annual neuropsychological testing. Neuropsychological measures were converted to z-scores derived from the baseline performance of all participants. Cognitive domain scores at each time were then created by averaging z-scores across tests, grouped into domains of episodic memory, attention-working memory, verbal fluency, and executive function.
RESULTS - Depressed participants exhibited poorer performance at baseline and greater subsequent decline in all domains. Early-onset depressed individuals exhibited a greater decline in all domains than late-onset or nondepressed groups. For remission, remitters and nonremitters at both 3 and 12 month exhibited greater decline in episodic memory and attention-working memory than nondepressed subjects. Three-month remitters also exhibited a greater decline in verbal fluency and executive function, whereas 12-month nonremitters exhibited greater decline in executive function than other groups.
CONCLUSION - Consistent with past studies, depressed elders exhibit greater cognitive decline than nondepressed subjects, particularly individuals with early depression onset, supporting the theory that repeated depressive episodes may contribute to decline. Clinical remission is not associated with less cognitive decline.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is among the most common and costly disorders worldwide. The goal of current medical management for T2D is to transiently ameliorate hyperglycemia through daily dosing of one or more antidiabetic drugs. Hypoglycemia and weight gain are common side effects of therapy, and sustained disease remission is not obtainable with nonsurgical approaches. On the basis of the potent glucose-lowering response elicited by activation of brain fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, we explored the antidiabetic efficacy of centrally administered FGF1, which, unlike other FGF peptides, activates all FGF receptor subtypes. We report that a single intracerebroventricular injection of FGF1 at a dose one-tenth of that needed for antidiabetic efficacy following peripheral injection induces sustained diabetes remission in both mouse and rat models of T2D. This antidiabetic effect is not secondary to weight loss, does not increase the risk of hypoglycemia, and involves a novel and incompletely understood mechanism for increasing glucose clearance from the bloodstream. We conclude that the brain has an inherent potential to induce diabetes remission and that brain FGF receptors are potential pharmacological targets for achieving this goal.
For finding better method of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) induction, we designed a prospective clinical trial to find a more effective regimen with least toxicity for induction therapy of AML. Hence, we examined different accepted doses of daunorubicin and their outcomes. Total of 114 patients were included in the study. Fifty-five patients received 60 mg/m of daunorubicin (arm 1) 1 h IV infusion for 3 days, and the remaining 59 received 80 mg/m (arm 2) 1 h IV infusion for 3 days. Continuous infusion of 100 mg/m /day of cytosine arabinozide IV for 24 h for 7 days was given in both groups. Complete remission rate was 77.78% in group 1 and 76.92% in group 2 (p = 0.92). One-year overall survival was 55.85% [standard error (SE) = 8.05%] in arm 1 and 57.94% (SE = 7.32%) in arm 2. Median follow-up time was 11.1 (SE = 1.43) and 10.28 (SE = 1.29) months, respectively. One-year disease-free survival was 64.41% (SE = 7.39%) in arm 1 and 54.86% (SE = 7.53%) in arm 2. Complete remission, overall survival and disease-free survival were statistically the same in both groups (p = 0.92, 0.697, 0.31). Toxicity and safety profile were similar in two groups but need to transfusion was higher in arm 2. Febrile neutropenia, days of antibiotics consumption and invasive fungal infection prevalence did not show any difference. Mean transfused packed cells and platelets rate were higher in the group that received higher dose of daunorubicin. Considering these results, we found that 60 mg/m of daunorubicin would be more rational and as effective with lower toxicity to 80 mg/m in induction therapy of AML patients at least as scheduled in our trial. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
BACKGROUND - Homocysteine metabolism is altered in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor of early atherosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis and may occur at time of first occurrence of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.
METHODS - Thirty children with first episode of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (FENS) aged 1-16 years along with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Homocysteine and cysteine were measured with HPLC; vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured with electro-chemilumiscence immunoassay. Primary outcome measure was plasma homocysteine level in children with FENS and in controls. Secondary outcome measures were (1) plasma and urine homocysteine and cysteine levels in children with FENS at 12 weeks and 1 year (remission) and (2) plasma and urine levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid in children with FENS, at 12 weeks and 1 year (remission).
RESULTS - Plasma homocysteine and cysteine levels were comparable to controls in children with FENS, at 12 weeks and 1-year remission. Plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were significantly decreased compared to controls in FENS due to increased urinary excretion, which normalize during remission at 12 weeks and 1 year. Urinary homocysteine and cysteine levels were significantly raised in FENS compared to controls and continued to be raised even at 12-week and 1-year remission.
CONCLUSION - Homocysteine metabolism is deranged in children with FENS. Renal effects of long-term raised urinary homocysteine levels need to be studied.
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
OBJECTIVES - Smaller hippocampal volumes are observed in depression but it remains unclear how antidepressant response and persistent depression relate to changes in hippocampal volume. We examined the longitudinal relationship between hippocampal atrophy and course of late-life depression.
SETTING - Academic medical center.
PARTICIPANTS - Depressed and never-depressed cognitively intact subjects age 60 years or older.
MEASUREMENTS - Depression severity was measured every three months with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Participants also completed cranial 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging every 2 years. We compared 2-year change in hippocampal volume based on remission status, then in expanded analyses examined how hippocampal volumes predicted MADRS score.
RESULTS - In analyses of 92 depressed and 70 never-depressed subjects, over 2 years the cohort whose depression never remitted exhibited greater hippocampal atrophy than the never-depressed cohort. In expanded analyses of a broader sample of 152 depressed elders, depression severity was significantly predicted by a hippocampus × time interaction where smaller hippocampus volumes over time were associated with greater depression severity.
CONCLUSIONS - Hippocampal atrophy is associated with greater and persistent depression severity. Neuropathological studies are needed to determine if this atrophy is related to the toxic effects of persistent depression or related to underlying Alzheimer disease.
Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
With the use of risk-directed therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), outcome has improved dramatically in the past 40 years. However, a substantial portion of patients, many of whom have no known risk factors, experience relapse. Taking a genome-wide approach, in the present study, we evaluated the relationships between genotypes at 444 044 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the risk of relapse in 2535 children with newly diagnosed ALL after adjusting for genetic ancestry and treatment regimen. We identified 134 SNPs that were reproducibly associated with ALL relapse. Of 134 relapse SNPs, 133 remained prognostic after adjusting for all known relapse risk factors, including minimal residual disease, and 111 were significant even among patients who were negative for minimal residual disease after remission induction therapy. The C allele at rs7142143 in the PYGL gene was associated with 3.6-fold higher risk of relapse than the T allele (P = 6.7 × 10(-9)). Fourteen of the 134 relapse SNPs, including variants in PDE4B and ABCB1, were also associated with antileukemic drug pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics. In the present study, we systematically identified host genetic variations related to treatment outcome of childhood ALL, most of which were prognostic independent of known risk factors for relapse, and some of which also influenced outcome by affecting host dis-position of antileukemic drugs. All trials are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov or www.cancer.gov (COG P9904: NCT00005585; COG P9905: NCT00005596; COG P9906: NCT00005603; St Jude Total XIIIB: NCI-T93-0101D; and St Jude Total XV: NCT00137111).
Overall survival (OS) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poor. Determining prognostic factors will help in selecting patients for appropriate treatments. Our aim was to determine whether the level of drug-induced apoptosis (chemosensitivity) demonstrated by the microculture-kinetic drug-induced apoptosis (MiCK) assay significantly predicted outcomes after standard AML induction therapy. A total of 109 patients with untreated AML had blood and/or bone marrow aspirate samples analyzed for anthracycline-induced apoptosis using the MiCK assay. The amount of apoptosis observed over 48 h was determined and expressed as kinetic units of apoptosis (KU). Complete remission (CR) was significantly higher (72%) in patients with high idarubicin-induced apoptosis >3 KU compared to patients with apoptosis ≤ 3 KU (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed the only significant variables to be idarubicin-induced apoptosis and karyotype. Median overall survival of patients with idarubicin-induced apoptosis >3 KU was 16.1 months compared to 4.5 months in patients with apoptosis ≤ 3 KU (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed the only significant variable to be idarubicin-induced apoptosis. Chemotherapy-induced apoptosis measured by the MiCK assay demonstrated significant correlation with outcomes and appears predictive of complete remission and overall survival for patients receiving standard induction chemotherapy.
Intensive induction regimen followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is frequently used to improve outcomes in patients with mantle-cell lymphoma. The comparative impact of conventional vs intensive induction regimen before transplantation is unknown. Forty-eight patients with mantle-cell lymphoma receiving SCT at our institution between January 2000 and December 2010 were included in this study. At the time of initial presentation, 43 (89.5%) had stage IV disease and 18 (37.5%) received more than one chemotherapy regimen before transplantation. Forty patients underwent auto-SCT and 7 had allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT); 1 patient had an allo-SCT for relapsed disease after auto-SCT. At the time of this analysis (median follow-up of 6 years from diagnosis and 4 years from transplantation), 40 patients (88%) were alive with a 5-year disease-free survival of 74.8%. Age, disease stage, number of regimens pre-SCT, pre-SCT disease status, and type of SCT had no impact on long-term outcomes. Importantly, there were no differences among the types of induction regimen on outcomes in this cohort receiving SCT. Based on our data, we believe that future studies should focus on strategies to prevent disease relapse rather than comparing induction regimens before stem cell transplantation.
Copyright © 2012 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - Early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), there is improvement in type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by insulin resistance. We determined the acute effects of RYGB, with and without omentectomy, on hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. We also investigated whether preoperative diabetes or postoperative diabetes remission influenced tissue-specific insulin sensitivity after RYGB.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We studied 40 obese (BMI 48 ± 8 kg/m(2)) participants, 17 with diabetes. Participants were randomized to RYGB alone or in conjunction with omentectomy. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with isotopic-tracer infusion were completed at baseline and at 1 month postoperatively to assess insulin sensitivity.
RESULTS - Participants lost 11 ± 4% of body weight at 1 month after RYGB, without an improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity; these outcomes were not affected by omentectomy, preoperative diabetes, or remission of diabetes. Hepatic glucose production (HGP) and the hepatic insulin sensitivity index improved in all subjects, irrespective of omentectomy (P ≤ 0.001). Participants with diabetes had higher baseline HGP values (P = 0.003) that improved to a greater extent after RYGB (P = 0.006). Of the 17 participants with diabetes, 10 (59%) had remission at 1 month. Diabetes remission had a group × time effect (P = 0.041) on HGP; those with diabetes remission had lower preoperative and postoperative HGP.
CONCLUSIONS - Peripheral insulin sensitivity did not improve 1 month after RYGB, irrespective of omentectomy, diabetes, or diabetes remission. Hepatic insulin sensitivity improved at 1 month after RYGB and was more pronounced in patients with diabetes. Improvement in HGP may influence diabetes remission early after RYGB.