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BACKGROUND & AIMS - There is controversy regarding the role of the type 2 immune response in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC)-few data are available from treatment-naive patients. We investigated whether genes associated with a type 2 immune response in the intestinal mucosa are up-regulated in treatment-naive pediatric patients with UC compared with patients with Crohn's disease (CD)-associated colitis or without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and whether expression levels are associated with clinical outcomes.
METHODS - We used a real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction array to analyze messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns in rectal mucosal samples from 138 treatment-naive pediatric patients with IBD and macroscopic rectal disease, as well as those from 49 children without IBD (controls), enrolled in a multicenter prospective observational study from 2008 to 2012. Results were validated in real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of rectal RNA from an independent cohort of 34 pediatric patients with IBD and macroscopic rectal disease and 17 controls from Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.
RESULTS - We measured significant increases in mRNAs associated with a type 2 immune response (interleukin [IL]5 gene, IL13, and IL13RA2) and a type 17 immune response (IL17A and IL23) in mucosal samples from patients with UC compared with patients with colon-only CD. In a regression model, increased expression of IL5 and IL17A mRNAs distinguished patients with UC from patients with colon-only CD (P = .001; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.72). We identified a gene expression pattern in rectal tissues of patients with UC, characterized by detection of IL13 mRNA, that predicted clinical response to therapy after 6 months (odds ratio [OR], 6.469; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.553-26.94), clinical response after 12 months (OR, 6.125; 95% CI, 1.330-28.22), and remission after 12 months (OR, 5.333; 95% CI, 1.132-25.12).
CONCLUSIONS - In an analysis of rectal tissues from treatment-naive pediatric patients with IBD, we observed activation of a type 2 immune response during the early course of UC. We were able to distinguish patients with UC from those with colon-only CD based on increased mucosal expression of genes that mediate type 2 and type 17 immune responses. Increased expression at diagnosis of genes that mediate a type 2 immune response is associated with response to therapy and remission in pediatric patients with UC.
Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
It is unclear if proximal and distal traditional adenomas present with differences in molecular events which contribute to cancer heterogeneity by tumor anatomical subsite. Participants from a colonoscopy-based study (n = 380) were divided into subgroups based on the location of their most advanced adenoma: proximal, distal, or "equivalent both sides." Eight biomarkers in the most advanced adenomas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Ki-67, COX-2, TGFβRII, EGFR, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-Myc) or TUNEL (apoptosis). After an adjustment for pathological features, there were no significant differences between proximal and distal adenomas for any biomarker. Conversely, expression levels did vary by other features, such as their size, villous component, and synchronousness. Large adenomas had higher expression levels of Ki-67(P < 0.001), TGFβRII (P < 0.0001), c-Myc (P < 0.001), and cyclin D1 (P < 0.001) in comparison to small adenomas, and tubulovillous/villous adenomas also were more likely to have similar higher expression levels in comparison to tubular adenomas. Adenoma location is not a major determinant of the expression of these biomarkers outside of other pathological features. This study suggests similarly important roles of Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β pathways in carcinogenesis in both the proximal and distal colorectum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
UNLABELLED - We are investigating an imaging agent that detects early-stage primary colorectal cancer on the mucosal surface in real time under colonoscopic observation. The imaging agent, which is named the nanobeacon, is fluorescent nanospheres conjugated with peanut agglutinin and poly(N-vinylacetamide). Its potential use as an imaging tool for colorectal cancer has been thoroughly validated in numerous studies. Here, toxicities of the nanobeacon were assessed in rats. The nanobeacon was prepared according to the synthetic manner which is being established as the Good Manufacturing Practice-guided production. The rat study was performed in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice regulations. No nanobeacon treatment-related toxicity was observed. The no observable adverse effect levels (NOAEL) of the nanobeacon in 7-day consecutive oral administration and single intrarectal administration were estimated to be more than 1000mg/kg/day and 50mg/kg/day, respectively. We concluded that the nanobeacon could be developed as a safe diagnostic agent for colonoscopy applications.
FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR - Colon cancer remains a major cause of death. Early detection can result in early treatment and thus survival. In this article, the authors tested potential systemic toxicity of coumarin 6-encapsulated polystyrene nanospheres conjugated with peanut agglutinin (PNA) and poly(N-vinylacetamide) (PNVA), which had been shown to bind specifically to colonic cancer cells and thus very promising in colonoscopic detection of cancer cells.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Over the past few decades substantial improvement has occurred in the diagnosis and treatment of rectal cancers. This disease requires the close cooperation of a multidisciplinary team, including radiologists, gastroenterologists, surgeons, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists, to provide optimum treatment with minimal morbidity. The widespread use of total mesorectal excision (TME) and improvements in chemotherapy and radiation delivery have resulted in decreases in locoregional recurrence. Large randomized studies have shown a benefit with the use of preoperative chemoradiation for most patients with transmural and/or node-positive disease. Controversy remains, however, regarding whether this treatment paradigm should be applied uniformly to all patients regardless of tumor location. As the risk of local recurrence decreases with high rectal tumors and the benefit in terms of sphincter preservation is not applicable to this subgroup of patients, up-front surgery to allow for more accurate pathologic staging prior to making final treatment decisions is recommended. In patients with pathologically staged T3,N0,M0 tumors of the upper rectum who have undergone TME with 12 or more nodes removed, the addition of chemoradiation has very little benefit.
Understanding patterns of shared and type-specific etiologies for colorectal polyps may provide insights into colorectal carcinogenesis. The authors present the first systematic comparison of risk factors by colorectal polyp type in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study of 3,764 polyp-free controls and 2,543 polyp patients, including 1,444 cases with adenomas only, 662 cases with hyperplastic polyps (HPPs) only, and 437 cases with synchronous HPPs and adenomas. Surveys were completed to obtain information on usual dietary intake and other lifestyle factors. Six lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking, obesity, no regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, high intake of red meat, low intake of fiber, and low intake of calcium, were found to be independently associated with the risk of polyps. The risk of polyps increased progressively with an increasing number of adverse lifestyle factors. Compared with participants with no or only 1 risk factor, odds ratios for those with 5 to 6 risk factors were 2.72 (95% confidence interval: 1.94, 3.79) for adenoma only, 4.12 (95% confidence interval: 2.78, 6.09) for HPPs only, and 9.03 (95% confidence interval: 5.69, 14.34) for synchronous HPPs and adenomas. This study provides strong evidence that lifestyle modification is important for the prevention of colorectal polyps, especially advanced and multiple adenomas, which are established precursors of colorectal cancer.
This research aimed to validate the specificity of the newly developed nanobeacon for imaging the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen, a potential biomarker of colorectal cancer. The imaging agent is comprised of a submicron-sized polystyrene nanosphere encapsulated with a Coumarin 6 dye. The surface of the nanosphere was modified with peanut agglutinin (PNA) and poly(N-vinylacetamide (PNVA) moieties. The former binds to Gal-β(1-3)GalNAc with high affinity while the latter enhances the specificity of PNA for the carbohydrates. The specificity of the nanobeacon was evaluated in human colorectal cancer cells and specimens, and the data were compared with immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometric analysis. Additionally, distribution of the nanobeacon in vivo was assessed using an "intestinal loop" mouse model. Quantitative analysis of the data indicated that approximately 2 μg of PNA were detected for each milligram of the nanobeacon. The nanobeacon specifically reported colorectal tumors by recognizing the tumor-specific antigen through the surface-immobilized PNA. Removal of TF from human colorectal cancer cells and tissues resulted in a loss of fluorescence signal, which suggests the specificity of the probe. Most importantly, the probe was not absorbed systematically in the large intestine upon topical application. As a result, no registered toxicity was associated with the probe. These data demonstrate the potential use of this novel nanobeacon for imaging the TF antigen as a biomarker for the early detection and prediction of the progression of colorectal cancer at the molecular level.
Copyright © 2012 UICC.
Aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is causally involved in the formation of most colorectal cancers (CRCs). Although detailed knowledge exists regarding Wnt-regulated protein-coding genes, much less is known about the possible involvement of non-coding RNAs. Here we used TaqMan Array MicroRNA Cards, capable of detecting 664 unique human microRNAs (miRNAs), to describe changes of the miRNA transcriptome following disruption of beta-catenin/TCF4 activity in DLD1 CRC cells. Most miRNAs appeared to respond independent of host gene regulation and proximal TCF4 chromatin occupancy as inferred from expression microarray and ChIP-chip data. A module of miRNAs induced by abrogated Wnt signaling in vitro was downregulated in two independent series of human primary CRCs (n=76) relative to normal adjacent mucosa (n=34). Several of these miRNAs (miR-145, miR-126, miR-30e-3p and miR-139-5p) markedly inhibited CRC cell growth in vitro when ectopically expressed. By using an integrative approach of proteomics and expression microarrays, we found numerous mRNAs and proteins to be affected by ectopic miR-30e-3p levels. This included HELZ and PIK3C2A that were directly repressed by several miRNA binding sites as confirmed by luciferase reporter assays in combination with mutational analyses. Finally, small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of PIK3C2A, but not HELZ, was sufficient on its own to restrict CRC cell growth. Collectively, our study demonstrates that multiple miRNAs are upregulated as a consequence of forced attenuation of Wnt signaling in CRC cells, and some of these miRNAs inhibit cell growth with concomitant suppression of several growth-stimulatory cancer-related genes.
Clinical samples from 250 pregnant women undergoing screening for rectovaginal group B streptococcus colonization were evaluated concurrently for the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Overall, S aureus was detected in 21.6% of the women; 53.7% of the isolates were MRSA. Despite a lack of risk factors for MRSA colonization, rectovaginal MRSA was detected in 10.4% of pregnant women in this study.
Copyright 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - African-Americans (AA) are more likely than Caucasians (CA) to be diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer, perhaps due to delayed detection. We investigated racial differences in prostate cancer screening according to age and socioeconomic and demographic indices in a large and predominantly low-income population.
METHODS - In-person interviews were conducted with 12,552 men, 84% AA, recruited during 2002 through 2004 from 25 community health centers in the southern United States. Prostate specific antigen test (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) histories, and socioeconomic and demographic indices (i.e., education, household income, health insurance, and marital status) were determined. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression summarized the screening and race association as a function of age, while controlling for socioeconomic status (SES).
RESULTS - Racial differences in screening prevalence varied with age. Of men older than 65 years, CA were significantly more likely to report a PSA test (OR = 1.4) or DRE (OR = 1.5) within the past 12 months. However, these disparities were reduced with control for SES (PSA: OR =1.2; DRE: OR = 1.3, P > 0.05). In contrast, at ages younger than 65, CA were equally or less likely to have received a recent PSA test or DRE, particularly at ages 45-49 years (PSA: OR = 0.7; DRE: OR = 0.9), with little change after SES adjustment.
CONCLUSIONS - Consistent with several screening recommendations, younger AA men, especially those younger than age 50, are more likely than CA to have had a recent PSA test or DRE, independent of SES. Of men older than age 65, less frequent use of screening among AA than CA seems partly attributable to SES and factors other than race.