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Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 8A (LRRC8A) is a required component of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs). In vascular smooth muscle cells, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) activates VRAC via type 1 TNFα receptors (TNFR1), and this requires superoxide (O) production by NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1). VRAC inhibitors suppress the inflammatory response to TNFα by an unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that LRRC8A directly supports Nox1 activity, providing a link between VRAC current and inflammatory signaling. VRAC inhibition by 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxobutyric acid (DCPIB) impaired NF-κB activation by TNFα. LRRC8A siRNA reduced the magnitude of VRAC and inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, iNOS and VCAM expression, and proliferation of VSMCs. Signaling steps disrupted by both siLRRC8A and DCPIB included; extracellular O production by Nox1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and endocytosis of TNFR1. Extracellular superoxide dismutase, but not catalase, selectively inhibited TNFR1 endocytosis and JNK phosphorylation. Thus, O is the critical extracellular oxidant for TNFR signal transduction. Reducing JNK expression (siJNK) increased extracellular O suggesting that JNK provides important negative feedback regulation to Nox1 at the plasma membrane. LRRC8A co-localized by immunostaining, and co-immunoprecipitated with, both Nox1 and its p22phox subunit. LRRC8A is a component of the Nox1 signaling complex. It is required for extracellular O production, which is in turn essential for TNFR1 endocytosis. These data are the first to provide a molecular mechanism for the potent anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of VRAC inhibition.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - Preclinical studies show that inhibition of aurora kinases in melanoma tumors induces senescence and reduces tumor growth, but does not cause tumor regression. Additional preclinical models are needed to identify agents that will synergize with aurora kinase inhibitors to induce tumor regression.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - We combined treatment with an aurora kinase A inhibitor, MLN8237, with agents that activate death receptors (Apo2L/TRAIL or death receptor 5 agonists) and monitored the ability of this treatment to induce tumor apoptosis and melanoma tumor regression using human cell lines and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models.
RESULTS - We found that this combined treatment led to apoptosis and markedly reduced cell viability. Mechanistic analysis showed that the induction of tumor cell senescence in response to the AURKA inhibitor resulted in a decreased display of Apo2L/TRAIL decoy receptors and increased display of one Apo2L/TRAIL receptor (death receptor 5), resulting in enhanced response to death receptor ligand/agonists. When death receptors were activated in senescent tumor cells, both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were induced independent of BRAF, NRAS, or p53 mutation status. Senescent tumor cells exhibited BID-mediated mitochondrial depolarization in response to Apo2L/TRAIL treatment. In addition, senescent tumor cells had a lower apoptotic threshold due to decreased XIAP and survivin expression. Melanoma tumor xenografts of one human cell line and one PDX displayed total blockage of tumor growth when treated with MLN8237 combined with DR5 agonist antibody.
CONCLUSIONS - These findings provide a strong rationale for combining senescence-inducing therapeutics with death receptor agonists for improved cancer treatment.
©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2, Tnfrsf1b) regulates multiple aspects of immune function, but little is known about its role in the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated whether TNFR2 restricts the activity of specific immune cell subtypes to protect against the development of colitis in mice.
METHODS - Tnfr2(-/-) mice were crossed with interleukin (Il) 10(-/-) mice, which spontaneously develop colitis, to generate Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice. Colonic tissues were collected from Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice along with Il10(-/-) mice (controls) and analyzed by flow cytometry and histology. Bone marrow was transplanted into Il10(-/-) and Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice from Il10(-/-) or Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) donors by intravenous injection. CD8(+) T cells were neutralized in Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice by intraperitoneal injection of anti-CD8 or isotype control antibodies. Colitis was induced in Rag2(-/-) mice by intravenous injections of naïve CD8(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 or Tnfr2(-/-) mice.
RESULTS - Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice spontaneously developed more severe colitis compared with Il10(-/-) controls, characterized by selective expansion of colonic CD8(+) T cells. Transplantation of TNFR2-deficient bone marrow resulted in significantly increased incidence and severity of colitis. Transcriptome analyses showed that the expression of genes regulated by TNFR2 were specific to CD8(+) T cells and included genes associated with risk for IBD. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells from Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice prevented colonic inflammation. Adoptive transfer of TNFR2-null naïve CD8(+) T cells compared with CD8(+) T cells from control mice increased the severity of colitis that developed in Rag2(-/-) mice.
CONCLUSIONS - TNFR2 protects mice from colitis by inhibiting the expansion of colonic CD8(+) T cells. TNFR2 regulates expression of genes that regulate CD8(+) T cells and have been associated with susceptibility to IBD. Disruption in TNFR2 signaling might therefore be associated with pathogenesis. Strategies to increase levels or activity of TNFR2 and thereby reduce the activity of CD8(+) T cells might be developed to treat IBD patients with CD8(+) T cell dysfunction.
Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a proinflammatory cytokine, causes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration and promotes inflammatory vascular lesions. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation by TNFα requires endosomal superoxide production by Nox1. In endothelial cells, TNFα stimulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which inhibits NF-κB signaling. The mechanism by which JNK negatively regulates TNFα-induced NF-κB activation has not been defined. We hypothesized that JNK modulates NF-κB activation in VSMC, and does so via a Nox1-dependent mechanism. TNFα-induced NF-κB activation was TNFR1- and endocytosis-dependent. Inhibition of endocytosis with dominant-negative dynamin (DynK44A) potentiated TNFα-induced JNK activation, but decreased ERK activation, while p38 kinase phosphorylation was not altered. DynK44A attenuated intracellular, endosomal superoxide production in wild-type (WT) VSMC, but not in NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) knockout (KO) cells. siRNA targeting JNK1 or JNK2 potentiated, while a JNK activator (anisomycin) inhibited, TNFα-induced NF-κB activation in WT, but not in Nox1 KO cells. TNFα-stimulated superoxide generation was enhanced by JNK1 inhibition in WT, but not in Nox1 KO VSMC. These data suggest that JNK suppresses the inflammatory response to TNFα by reducing Nox1-dependent endosomal ROS production. JNK and endosomal superoxide may represent novel targets for pharmacologic modulation of TNFα signaling and vascular inflammation.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The TWEAK-fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) system is a critical regulator of denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Although the expression of Fn14 is a rate-limiting step in muscle atrophy on denervation, mechanisms regulating gene expression of Fn14 remain unknown. Methylation of CpG sites within promoter region is an important epigenetic mechanism for gene silencing. Our study demonstrates that Fn14 promoter contains a CpG island close to transcription start site. Fn14 promoter also contains multiple consensus DNA sequence for transcription factors activator protein 1 (AP1) and specificity protein 1 (SP1). Denervation diminishes overall genomic DNA methylation and causes hypomethylation at specific CpG sites in Fn14 promoter leading to the increased gene expression of Fn14 in skeletal muscle. Abundance of DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) and its interaction with Fn14 promoter are repressed in denervated skeletal muscle of mice. Overexpression of Dnmt3a inhibits the gene expression of Fn14 and attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy upon denervation. Denervation also causes the activation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and ERK5 MAPKs and AP1 and SP1, which stimulate the expression of Fn14 in skeletal muscle. Collectively, our study provides novel evidence that Dnmt3a and MAPK signaling regulate the levels of Fn14 in skeletal muscle on denervation.
© 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
This study examined whether stress at work and at home may be related to dysregulation of inflammation and endothelial function, two important contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease. In order to explore potential biological mechanisms linking stress with cardiovascular health, we investigated cross-sectional associations between stress at work and at home with an inflammation score (n's range from 406-433) and with two endothelial biomarkers (intercellular and vascular adhesion molecules, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1; n's range from 205-235) in a cohort of healthy US male health professionals. No associations were found between stress at work or at home and inflammation. Men with high or medium levels of stress at work had significantly higher levels of sVCAM-1 (13% increase) and marginally higher levels of sICAM-1 (9% increase), relative to those reporting low stress at work, independent of health behaviors. Men with high levels of stress at home had marginally higher levels of both sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 than those with low stress at home. While lack of findings related to inflammation are somewhat surprising, if replicated in future studies, these findings may suggest that endothelial dysfunction is an important biological mechanism linking stress at work with cardiovascular health outcomes in men.
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a classic example of inflammation-associated cancer, which develops through GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)-Barrett's esophagus (BE)-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. The incidence of EAC has been rising rapidly in the USA and Western countries during the last few decades. The functions of glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPX7), an antioxidant enzyme frequently silenced during Barrett's tumorigenesis, remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we investigated the potential role of GPX7 in regulating nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity in esophageal cells. Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence and luciferase reporter assay data indicated that reconstitution of GPX7 expression in CP-A (non-dysplastic BE cells) and FLO-1 (EAC cells) abrogated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity (P < 0.01) and nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 (P = 0.01). In addition, we detected a marked reduction in phosphorylation levels of components of NF-κB signaling pathway, p-p65 (S536), p-IκB-α (S32) and p-IKKα/β (S176/180), as well as significant suppression in induction of NF-κB target genes [TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, CXCL-1 and CXCL-2] following treatment with TNF-α in GPX7-expressing FLO-1 cells as compared with control cells. We validated these effects by knockdown of GPX7 expression in HET1A (normal esophageal squamous cells). We found that GPX7-mediated suppression of NF-κB is independent of reactive oxygen species level and GPX7 antioxidant function. Further mechanistic investigations demonstrated that GPX7 promotes protein degradation of TNF-receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), suggesting that GPX7 modulates critical upstream regulators of NF-κB. We concluded that the loss of GPX7 expression is a critical step in promoting the TNF-α-induced activation of proinflammatory NF-κB signaling, a major player in GERD-associated Barrett's carcinogenesis.
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK-Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK-Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that causes endothelial dysfunction. Endocytosis of TNF-α receptors (TNFR) precedes endosomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which is required for NF-κB activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is unknown how endocytosis of TNFRs impacts signaling in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that TNF-α-induced endothelial dysfunction is induced by both endosomal and cell surface events, including NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation, and endocytosis of the TNFR modifies signaling. Mesenteric artery segments from C57BL/6 mice were treated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 22 h in tissue culture, with or without signaling inhibitors (dynasore for endocytosis, SP600125 for JNK, SB203580 for p38, U0126 for ERK), and vascular function was assessed. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) was impaired by TNF-α, and dynasore exacerbated this, whereas JNK or p38 inhibition prevented these effects. In cultured endothelial cells from murine mesenteric arteries, dynasore potentiated JNK and p38 but not ERK phosphorylation and promoted cell death. NF-κB activation by TNF-α was decreased by dynasore. JNK inhibition dramatically increased both the magnitude and duration of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and potentiated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) activation. Dynasore still inhibited NF-κB activation in the presence of SP600125. Thus TNF-α-induced endothelial dysfunction is both JNK and p38 dependent. Endocytosis modulates the balance of NF-κB and MAPK signaling, and inhibition of NF-κB activation by JNK limits this pro-proliferative signal, which may contribute to endothelial cell death in response to TNF-α.