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BACKGROUND - Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood kidney cancer worldwide, yet its incidence and clinical behavior vary according to race and access to adequate healthcare resources. To guide and streamline therapy in the war-torn and resource-constrained city of Baghdad, Iraq, we conducted a first-ever molecular analysis of 20 WT specimens to characterize the biological features of this lethal disease within this challenged population.
METHODS - Next-generation sequencing of ten target genes associated with WT development and treatment resistance (WT1, CTNNB1, WTX, IGF2, CITED1, SIX2, p53, N-MYC, CRABP2, and TOP2A) was completed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for 6 marker proteins of WT (WT1, CTNNB1, NCAM, CITED1, SIX2, and p53). Patient outcomes were compiled.
RESULTS - Mutations were detected in previously described WT "hot spots" (e.g., WT1 and CTNNB1) as well as novel loci that may be unique to the Iraqi population. Immunohistochemistry showed expression domains most typical of blastemal-predominant WT. Remarkably, despite the challenges facing families and care providers, only one child, with combined WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, was confirmed dead from disease. Median clinical follow-up was 40.5 months (range 6-78 months).
CONCLUSIONS - These data suggest that WT biology within a population of Iraqi children manifests features both similar to and unique from disease variants in other regions of the world. These observations will help to risk stratify WT patients living in this difficult environment to more or less intensive therapies and to focus treatment on cell-specific targets.
Arylfluorosulfates have appeared only rarely in the literature and have not been explored as probes for covalent conjugation to proteins, possibly because they were assumed to possess high reactivity, as with other sulfur(VI) halides. However, we find that arylfluorosulfates become reactive only under certain circumstances, e.g., when fluoride displacement by a nucleophile is facilitated. Herein, we explore the reactivity of structurally simple arylfluorosulfates toward the proteome of human cells. We demonstrate that the protein reactivity of arylfluorosulfates is lower than that of the corresponding aryl sulfonyl fluorides, which are better characterized with regard to proteome reactivity. We discovered that simple hydrophobic arylfluorosulfates selectively react with a few members of the intracellular lipid binding protein (iLBP) family. A central function of iLBPs is to deliver small-molecule ligands to nuclear hormone receptors. Arylfluorosulfate probe 1 reacts with a conserved tyrosine residue in the ligand-binding site of a subset of iLBPs. Arylfluorosulfate probes 3 and 4, featuring a biphenyl core, very selectively and efficiently modify cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2), both in vitro and in living cells. The X-ray crystal structure of the CRABP2-4 conjugate, when considered together with binding site mutagenesis experiments, provides insight into how CRABP2 might activate arylfluorosulfates toward site-specific reaction. Treatment of breast cancer cells with probe 4 attenuates nuclear hormone receptor activity mediated by retinoic acid, an endogenous client lipid of CRABP2. Our findings demonstrate that arylfluorosulfates can selectively target single iLBPs, making them useful for understanding iLBP function.
CONTEXT - Retinoic acid (RA) may promote survival or apoptosis of cells, depending on the levels of binding proteins: apoptosis-inducing cellular RA binding protein 2 (CRABP2), and cell survival-promoting fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5). Increased cellular uptake of retinol and altered actions of RA related to reduced expression of CRABP2 may contribute to the development of endometriosis. Recently statins have been shown to inhibit growth of human endometrial stromal (HES) cells and to reduce the number and size of endometriotic implants in experimental models of this disorder.
OBJECTIVE - The objective of the study was to determine whether effects of simvastatin on HES cells and experimental endometriotic implants are related to the modulation of the RA system.
METHODS - Effects of simvastatin and RA on proliferation and apoptosis of HES cells were evaluated. Expression of stimulated by RA 6 (STRA6), CRABP2, and FABP5 was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Effects of simvastatin were also evaluated in a nude mouse model of human endometriosis.
RESULTS - Simvastatin potentiated an inhibitory effect of RA on growth of HES cells. In HES cells, simvastatin induced expression of STRA6 and CRABP2 but not FABP5. Similarly, simvastatin treatment of nude mice bearing human endometrial xenografts led to an increased expression of CRABP2 and STRA6 proteins in ectopic lesions.
CONCLUSIONS - Simvastatin interacts with the RA system, inducing the expression of the key protein regulating the uptake of retinol (STRA6) and the expression of apoptosis-promoting CRABP2. These effects may contribute to cooperative apoptosis-inducing effects of simvastatin and RA and support the examination of these compounds in the treatment of endometriosis.
Recurrent spontaneous abortion occurs in approximately 3% of women with diagnosed pregnancies. The etiology in approximately 40% of recurrent spontaneous abortion is unexplained. To elucidate unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion at the molecular level, we systemically identified differentially expressed genes during implantation window period in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion and characterized their functions in a human endometrial cell line. Expression levels of implantation-related genes selected from previously reported, various microarray data were determined to identify differentially expressed genes between normal fertile and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion subjects by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Of 29 implantation-related genes, the transcript levels of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 and olfactomedin 1 were higher, whereas that of complement component 4 binding protein alpha was lower in subjects with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, compared to normal fertile subjects. A correlation was evident between the transcript and protein levels of complement component 4 binding protein alpha and cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2. Expression of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 was positively correlated with retinoic acid-related genes in normal fertile subjects, but no significant association was observed in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion subjects. In relation to complement component 4 binding protein alpha, C5a receptor protein level was significantly higher in subjects with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Stable expression of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 and olfactomedin 1 in a human endometrial cell line inhibited cell growth and induced cell accumulation in the S and G(2)-M phase fractions, but did not trigger apoptosis. This study represents the first systematic identification of differentially expressed genes in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Defective cell growth by the differentially expressed genes suggests their implication in implantation failure in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion.
Our goal is to decipher which DNA sequences are required for tissue-specific expression of epididymal genes. At least 6 epididymis-specific lipocalin genes are known. These are differently regulated and regionalized in the epididymis. Lipocalin 5 (Lcn5 or mE-RABP) and Lipocalin 8 (Lcn8 or mEP17) are homologous genes belonging to the epididymis-specific lipocalin gene cluster. Both the 5 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene and the 5.3 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn8 gene can direct transgene expression in the epididymis (Lcn5 to the distal caput and Lcn8 to the initial segment), indicating that these promoter fragments contain important cis-regulatory element(s) for epididymis-specific gene expression. To define further the fragments regulating gene expression, the Lcn5 promoter was examined in transgenic mice and immortalized epididymal cell lines. After serial deletion, the 1.8 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene was sufficient for tissue-specific and region-specific gene expression in transgenic mice. Transient transfection analysis revealed that a transcription factor forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) interacts with androgen receptor and binds to the 100 bp fragment of the Lcn5 promoter between 1.2 kb and 1.3 kb and that Foxa2 expression inhibits androgen-dependent induction of the Lcn5 promoter activity. Immunohistochemistry indicated a restricted expression of Foxa2 in the epididymis where endogenous Lcn5 gene expression is suppressed and that the Foxa2 inhibition of the Lcn5 promoter is consistent with the lack of expression of Lcn5 in the corpus and cauda. Our approach provides a basic strategy for further analysis of the epididymal lipocalin gene regulation and flexible control of epididymal function.
Murine epididymal retinoic acid-binding protein [or lipocalin 5 (Lcn5)] is synthesized and secreted by the principal cells of the mouse middle/distal caput epididymidis. A 5-kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene can dictate androgen-dependent and epididymis region-specific gene expression in transgenic mice. Here, we reported that the 1.8-kb Lcn5 promoter confers epididymis region-specific gene expression in transgenic mice. To decipher the mechanism that directs transcription, 14 chimeric constructs that sequentially removed 100 bp of 1.8-kb Lcn5 promoter were generated and transfected into epididymal cells and nonepididymal cells. Transient transfection analysis revealed that 1.3 kb promoter fragment gave the strongest response to androgens. Between the 1.2-kb to 1.3-kb region, two androgen receptor (AR) binding sites were identified. Adjacent to AR binding sites, a Foxa2 [Fox (Forkhead box) subclass A] binding site was confirmed by gel shift assay. Similar Foxa binding sites were also found on the promoters of human and rat Lcn5, indicating the Foxa binding site is conserved among species. We previously reported that among the three members of Foxa family, Foxa1 and Foxa3 were absent in the epididymis whereas Foxa2 was detected in epididymal principal cells. Here, we report that Foxa2 displays a region-specific expression pattern along the epididymis: no staining observed in initial segment, light staining in proximal caput, gradiently heavier staining in middle and distal caput, and strongest staining in corpus and cauda, regions with little or no expression of Lcn5. In transient transfection experiments, Foxa2 expression inhibits AR induction of the Lcn5 promoter, which is consistent with the lack of expression of Lcn5 in the corpus and cauda. We conclude that Foxa2 functions as a repressor that restricts AR regulation of Lcn5 to a segment-specific pattern in the epididymis.
Previous studies from our group have shown that Foxa1 is expressed in the prostate and interacts with the androgen receptor (AR) to regulate prostate-specific genes such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and probasin (PB). We report here that Foxa2 but not Foxa1 is expressed in the epididymis. Further, Foxa2 interacts with the AR to regulate the mouse epididymal retinoic acid binding protein (mE-RABP) gene, an epididymis-specific gene. Binding of Foxa2 to the mE-RABP promoter was confirmed by gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Overexpression of Foxa2 suppresses androgen activation of the mE-RABP promoter while overexpression of Foxa2 with prostate-specific promoters activates gene expression in an androgen-independent manner. GST pull-down assays determined that both Foxa1 and Foxa2 physically interact with the DNA binding domain of the AR. The interaction between Foxa proteins and AR was further confirmed by gel-shift assays where Foxa protein was recruited to AR binding oligomers even when Foxa binding sites were not present, and AR was recruited to Foxa binding oligomers even in the absence of an AR binding site. Given that Foxa1 and Foxa2 proteins are expressed differentially in the prostate and epididymis, these data suggest that the Foxa proteins have distinct effects on AR-regulated genes in different male reproductive accessory organs.
Mammalian spermatozoa undergo several modification and finally acquire the ability to fertilize during epididymal transit. One of the distinct features of the epididymis is that it displays a highly regionalized pattern of gene expression. This tissue-, region-, and cell-specific pattern of gene expression is critical for the maintenance of a fully functional epididymis. One would hypothesize that disrupting this process provides an ideal approach to male contraception, since it would not interfere with testicular endocrine output or sperm production. To achieve this purpose, we studied a cluster of epididymis-specific lipocalin genes for understanding the specific mechanisms involved in the control of gene expression in the epididymis. We have identified six epididymis-specific lipocalin genes that are differently regulated and regionalized in the epididymis. Lipocalin 5 [Lcn5 or epididymal retinoic acid-binding protein (E-RABP)] is a member of this epididymis-specific lipocalin gene cluster, which binds hydrophobic molecules such as retinoic acid. We have previously shown that the 5kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene confers both androgen-dependent regulation and epididymis-specific gene expression in transgenic mice whereas 0.6 kb promoter fragment does not. To further narrow down the important cis-regulatory elements that regulate gene expression in the epididymis, we studied the Lcn5 promoter in both transgenic mice and immortalized epididymal cells. We have found that 1.8kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene was sufficient for tissue- and region-specific expression in transgenic mice, and that a transcription factor Forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) interacts with the androgen receptor and binds to the 100 bp fragment of the Lcn5 promoter between 1.2 and 1.3 kb. Our finding provides a framework for further analysis of the epididymal lipocalin gene regulation and modulated control of epididymis-specific expression.
T lineage commitment occurs in a discrete, stage-specific manner during thymic ontogeny. Intrathymic precursor transfer experiments and the identification of CD4(+)8+ double-positive (DP), V alpha 14J alpha 18 natural T (iNKT) cells suggest that commitment to this lineage might occur at the DP stage. Nevertheless, this matter remains contentious because others failed to detect V alpha 14J alpha 18-positive iNKT cells that are CD4(+)8+. In resolution to this issue, we demonstrate that retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR gamma)0/0 thymi, which accumulate immature single-positive (ISP) thymocytes that precede the DP stage, do not rearrange V alpha 14-to-J alpha 18 gene segments, suggesting that this event occurs at a post-ISP stage. Mixed radiation bone marrow chimeras revealed that RORgamma functions in an iNKT cell lineage-specific manner. Further, introgression of a Bcl-x(L) transgene into ROR gamma(0/0) mice, which promotes survival and permits secondary rearrangements of distal V alpha and J alpha gene segments at the DP stage, rescues V alpha 14-to-J alpha 18 recombination. Similarly, introgression of a rearranged V alpha 14J alpha 18 transgene into ROR gamma(0/0) mice results in functional iNKT cells. Thus, our data support the "T cell receptor-instructive (mainstream precursor) model" of iNKT cell lineage specification where V alpha 14-to-J alpha 18 rearrangement, positive selection, and iNKT cell lineage commitment occur at or after the DP stage of ontogeny.
Urothelial carcinomas (TCC) constitute the vast majority of bladder cancers in most of the world. On the other hand, squamous cell bladder carcinoma, a rare subtype in the Western world, is a common subtype in areas with endemic Schistosoma infection. Although schistosomal infection has been reported to influence DNA methylation, the pattern and extent of CpG island hypermethylation in squamous cell carcinomas remain unknown. In this study, we used methylation-specific PCR to characterize 12 cancer-related genes in 41 bladder cancer samples from Egypt (31 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 21 of them associated with Schistosoma and 10 TCC, five of which were Schistosoma-associated). The genes analyzed included E-cadherin, DAP-Kinase, O6MGMT, p14, p15, p16, FHIT, APC, RASSF1A, GSTP1, RARbeta and p73. Methylation of at least one gene was detected in all squamous cell tumors except two, and 45% of samples had at least three methylated genes. The average methylation index was 0.24, corresponding to three of the 12 analyzed genes. Schistosoma-associated tumors had more genes methylated than non-Schistosoma tumors (average MI: 0.29 vs 0.14) (P = 0.027). Although the extent of methylation in TCC (average MI: 0.16) was lower than in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), the overall profile of methylation was similar, with Schistosoma-associated cases having a higher methylation index. Our results suggest that schistosomal involvement associates with a greater degree of epigenetic changes in the bladder epithelium.