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The Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxin ED (LukED) is a pore-forming toxin required for the lethality associated with bacteremia in murine models. LukED targets the chemokine receptor CCR5 to kill T lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. LukED also kills CCR5-deficient cells, like neutrophils, suggesting the existence of additional cellular receptors. Here, we identify the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 as the targets of LukED on neutrophils. The LukE subunit binds neutrophils in a specific and saturable manner, and this interaction is inhibited by CXCL8, the high-affinity endogenous ligand of CXCR1 and CXCR2. LukED recognition of CXCR1 and CXCR2 promotes the killing of monocytes and neutrophils in vitro. LukED-mediated targeting of CXCR1 and CXCR2(+) cells contributes to S. aureus pathogenesis and facilitates lethality in systemically infected mice. Thus, LukED is a versatile toxin that endows S. aureus with the ability to simultaneously disarm both innate and adaptive compartments of the host immune response.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The chemokine receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, couple to Gαi to induce leukocyte recruitment and activation at sites of inflammation. Upon activation by CXCL8, these receptors become phosphorylated, desensitized, and internalized. In this study, we investigated the role of different G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in CXCR1- and CXCR2-mediated cellular functions. To that end, short hairpin RNA was used to inhibit GRK2, 3, 5, and 6 in RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing CXCR1 or CXCR2, and CXCL8-mediated receptor activation and regulation were assessed. Inhibition of GRK2 and GRK6 increased CXCR1 and CXCR2 resistance to phosphorylation, desensitization, and internalization, respectively, and enhanced CXCL8-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis and exocytosis in vitro. GRK2 depletion diminished CXCR1-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation but had no effect on CXCR2-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. GRK6 depletion had no significant effect on CXCR1 function. However, peritoneal neutrophils from mice deficient in GRK6 (GRK6(-/-)) displayed an increase in CXCR2-mediated G protein activation but in vitro exhibited a decrease in chemotaxis, receptor desensitization, and internalization relative to wild-type (GRK6(+/+)) cells. In contrast, neutrophil recruitment in vivo in GRK6(-/-) mice was increased in response to delivery of CXCL1 through the air pouch model. In a wound-closure assay, GRK6(-/-) mice showed enhanced myeloperoxidase activity, suggesting enhanced neutrophil recruitment, and faster wound closure compared with GRK6(+/+) animals. Taken together, the results indicate that CXCR1 and CXCR2 couple to distinct GRK isoforms to mediate and regulate inflammatory responses. CXCR1 predominantly couples to GRK2, whereas CXCR2 interacts with GRK6 to negatively regulate receptor sensitization and trafficking, thus affecting cell signaling and angiogenesis.
Interleukin 8 (CXCL8) is an autocrine chemokine specific for the chemoattraction and activation of granulocytes, NKT cells and T lymphocytes. Patients with tuberculosis and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection were assessed for the spontaneous expression of CXCR1 (CD128) and CXCR2 on lymphocytes and monocytes. Compared with ex vivo profiles, increased spontaneous CXCR2 expression and normal CXCR1 expression were found on lymphocytes in two out of 59 individuals. Monocytes showed normal ex vivo profiles for both receptors. After stimulation with purified protein derivative, the in vitro levels of CXCL8 were below the median levels of all patients with prior tuberculosis. Spontaneous CXCR2 modulation did not cause notable variation in the in vitro levels of CXCL8.
Members of the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) family maintain cellular homeostasis by enhancing the transcription of genes involved in inflammation, immune response, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Melanoma tumor cells often express inflammatory mediators through enhanced activation of NF-kappaB. The NF-kappaB activation appears to result from the enhancer formation including NF-kappaB and lysine acetyl transferases such as p300, CREB (cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein)-binding protein (CBP), and/or p300/CBP associating factor (PCAF). We observed that proteins expressed by Hs294T metastatic melanoma cells are highly acetylated compared with normal melanocytes, and dominant-negative PCAF reduced the basal and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB. The promoter activity of NF-kappaB-regulated chemokines was also reduced by the expression of dominant-negative PCAF. The promoters of these chemokines contain a CCAAT displacement protein (CDP)-binding site near the NF-kappaB element. compared with vector-transduced cells, in CDP-transduced Hs294T cells: (i) over-expressed CDP bound efficiently to PCAF, (ii) tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated chemokine expression and NF-kappaB-mediated transcription were reduced, and (iii) the binding of CBP to Rel A was reduced. These data suggest that CDP inhibits cytokine-induced NF-kappaB-regulated chemokine transcription. This study contributes to our understanding of the role of CDP in an enhanceosome of NF-kappaB-mediated chemokine transcription in human melanoma cells.
The CXC chemokine, melanoma growth stimulatory activity/growth-regulated protein, CXCL1 is an important modulator of inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. Transcription of CXCL1 is regulated through several cis-acting elements including Sp1, NF-kappa B, and an element that lies immediately upstream of the NF-kappa B element, the immediate upstream region (IUR). A transcription element data base search indicated that the IUR element contains a binding site for the transcriptional repressor, human CUT homeodomain protein/CCAAT displacement protein (CDP). It is shown here that in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, complexes obtained with the IUR oligonucleotide probe are supershifted by anti-CDP antibodies and that a CDP polypeptide containing a high affinity DNA binding domain binds to the sequence GGGATCGATC in the IUR element. In Southwestern blot analyses, oligonucleotides containing the wild-type IUR sequence, but not a mutant oligonucleotide with substitutions in the GGGATCGATC sequence, bind a 170--180-kDa protein. Furthermore, overexpression of the CDP protein blocks CXCL1 promoter activity in reporter gene assays, whereas overexpression of an antisense CDP construct leads to a significant increase in CXCL1 promoter activity. Mutations in the IUR element, which map in the putative CDP-binding site, inhibit the binding of CDP to the IUR element and favor increased transcription from the CXCL1 promoter. Based on these results, we propose that transcriptional regulation of the CXCL1 gene is mediated in part by CDP, which could play an important role in inflammatory processes and tumorigenesis.
The class II IL-8 receptor (IL-8R) binds both melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) and IL-8 with high affinity. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrates that the class II IL-8R mRNA, which has previously been detected only in cells of hematopoietic lineage, is also expressed in non-hematopoietic cell types shown to respond to MGSA or IL-8. To study the signaling mechanism by MGSA through the class II IL-8R in non-hematopoietic cells, this receptor was overexpressed in the 3ASubE human placental and the 293 human kidney cell lines. Membrane preparations of the class II IL-8R expressing 3ASubE transfectants exhibited a 2.3 +/- 0.2-fold increase in GTP gamma 35S binding, which was sensitive to pertussis toxin, in response to MGSA treatment (0.2 microM). This MGSA response was not observed in cells transfected with the parental expression vector. In vivo phosphorylation studies demonstrated that the class II IL-8R was basally phosphorylated in the untreated transfectants, and MGSA (5 nM) treatment markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of this receptor. The MGSA-induced receptor phosphorylation was both time and concentration dependent and could be mimicked by treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187. Phosphoamino acid analysis indicated that the MGSA-induced receptor phosphorylation was on serine residue(s), suggesting that a serine kinase is activated in response to MGSA binding to the class II IL-8R in non-hematopoietic cells.
We have previously characterized the stably transfected, clonally selected human placental cell line, 3ASubE P-3, which overexpresses the type B interleukin-8 receptor (IL-8RB) and responds to the chemokine melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) with enhanced phosphorylation of this receptor. In work described here, we demonstrate that the MGSA-enhanced phosphorylation of this receptor is mediated via a process involving pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. Furthermore, treatment of the 3ASubE P-3 cells with either 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) or 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (diC8), two different activators of protein kinase C (PKC), results in a concentration-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of the IL-8RB. Inhibition of PKC, by treatment with staurosporin (50 nM for 2 h), or down-regulation of PKC, by prolonged treatment with TPA (400 nM for 40 h) suppresses the TPA-enhanced receptor phosphorylation, but has no effect on the MGSA-enhanced receptor phosphorylation. These data suggest that the isoforms of PKC that are sensitive to these manipulations may not play a role in mediating the MGSA-enhanced phosphorylation of the IL-8RB. TPA treatment also results in a time-dependent decrease in 125I-MGSA binding to the 3ASubE P-3 cells. A 30-min treatment with 400 nM TPA results in approximately a 50% decrease in binding, whereas a 2-h treatment essentially eliminates specific binding of 125I-MGSA to these cells. The TPA-induced decrease in 125I-MGSA binding is accompanied by enhanced degradation of the IL-8RB, as indicated by Western blot analysis and pulse-chase experiments, suggesting a potential role for PKC as a negative regulator of the IL-8RB. MGSA treatment (50 nM for 2 h) also stimulates receptor degradation in the 3ASubE P-3 cells, indicating that this receptor is down-regulated in response to prolonged exposure to its ligand. In similar studies conducted on the promonocytic cell line, U937, MGSA treatment of the U937 cells resulted in receptor phosphorylation, whereas PKC activation failed to significantly modulate the phosphorylation state of the IL-8RB. Treatment of the U937 cells with MGSA, TPA, or diC8 resulted in a loss of receptor protein present in these cell types. These data imply that MGSA signaling through the IL-8RB is similar in both the non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic cell types, whereas activation of PKC by TPA or diC8 elicits different responses in these two distinct cell types.
Binding of the CXC chemokine, melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA), to the class II IL-8 receptor on cells which overexpress this G-protein coupled receptor results in enhanced phosphorylation on serine residues. In experiments described herein, it is demonstrated that MGSA also enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of two endogenously tyrosine phosphorylated proteins approximately 130 and 70 kDa in size. MGSA treatment (5 nM) of the clonally selected, stably transfected placental cell line, 3ASubE P-3, which overexpresses the class II IL-8 receptor, results in the maximal tyrosine phosphorylation of the 130 kDa protein before 2 min. This enhanced phosphorylation of the 130 kDa protein returns to basal level after a 5 min treatment. Based upon cell fractionation studies, the 130 kDa protein is concentrated in the membrane fraction of the cells. The 70 kDa protein which also shows tyrosine phosphorylation is predominantly cytosolic. The identity of the 130 kDa tyrosine phosphorylated protein was determined by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses. In these experiments, the 130 kDa tyrosine phosphorylated protein was shown to immunoprecipitate with antibody to the cas antigen (crk-associated substrate) and with antibody to the p130 tyrosine phosphorylated protein described as undergoing tyrosine phosphorylation in src transformed cells. The data suggest that MGSA binding to the class II IL-8 receptor is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of p130/cas. The data also suggest that p130 and the cas antigen are the same protein.
The human melanoma growth-stimulatory activities (MGSA alpha, beta, gamma/GRO) are products of immediate early genes coding for cytokines that exhibit sequence similarity to platelet factor-4 and beta-thromboglobulin. MGSA/GRO alpha has been demonstrated to partially complete for binding to the approximately 58-kDa neutrophil receptor for another beta-thromboglobulin-related chemotactic protein, IL-8. We demonstrate that when [125I]MGSA/GRO alpha was cross-linked to receptors/binding proteins from human placenta, there were two major [125I]MGSA cross-linked bands of approximately 64,000 and approximately 84,000 Mr. Because [125I]MGSA exists primarily in monomer and dimer forms at the concentrations used here, it is not clear whether the receptor/binding proteins represented by the cross-linked bands are approximately 50,000 and approximately 70,000 or approximately 58,000 and approximately 78,000 Mr. Ligand binding to the receptor proteins is associated with enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of substrates, including proteins in the same Mr range as the MGSA/GRO receptor/binding proteins.