The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Mutations in the complement regulatory proteins are associated with several different diseases. Although these mutations cause dysregulated alternative pathway activation throughout the body, the kidneys are the most common site of injury. The susceptibility of the kidney to alternative pathway-mediated injury may be due to limited expression of complement regulatory proteins on several tissue surfaces within the kidney. To examine the roles of the complement regulatory proteins factor H and Crry in protecting distinct renal surfaces from alternative pathway mediated injury, we generated mice with targeted deletions of the genes for both proteins. Surprisingly, mice with combined genetic deletions of factor H and Crry developed significantly milder renal injury than mice deficient in only factor H. Deficiency of both factor H and Crry was associated with C3 deposition at multiple locations within the kidney, but glomerular C3 deposition was lower than that in factor H alone deficient mice. Thus, factor H and Crry are critical for regulating complement activation at distinct anatomic sites within the kidney. However, widespread activation of the alternative pathway reduces injury by depleting the pool of C3 available at any 1 location.
Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a commonly performed test of the acute phase response, is the rate at which erythrocytes sediment in vitro in 1 hr. The molecular basis of erythrocyte sedimentation is unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with ESR, we carried out a genome-wide association study of 7607 patients in the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network. The discovery cohort consisted of 1979 individuals from the Mayo Clinic, and the replication cohort consisted of 5628 individuals from the remaining four eMERGE sites. A nonsynonymous SNP, rs6691117 (Val→IIe), in the complement receptor 1 gene (CR1) was associated with ESR (discovery cohort p = 7 × 10(-12), replication cohort p = 3 × 10(-14), combined cohort p = 9 × 10(-24)). We imputed 61 SNPs in CR1, and a "possibly damaging" SNP (rs2274567, His→Arg) in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.74) with rs6691117 was also associated with ESR (discovery p = 5 × 10(-11), replication p = 7 × 10(-17), and combined cohort p = 2 × 10(-25)). The two nonsynonymous SNPs in CR1 are near the C3b/C4b binding site, suggesting a possible mechanism by which the variants may influence ESR. In conclusion, genetic variation in CR1, which encodes a protein that clears complement-tagged inflammatory particles from the circulation, influences interindividual variation in ESR, highlighting an association between the innate immunity pathway and erythrocyte interactions.
Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Recurrent spontaneous abortion occurs in approximately 3% of women with diagnosed pregnancies. The etiology in approximately 40% of recurrent spontaneous abortion is unexplained. To elucidate unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion at the molecular level, we systemically identified differentially expressed genes during implantation window period in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion and characterized their functions in a human endometrial cell line. Expression levels of implantation-related genes selected from previously reported, various microarray data were determined to identify differentially expressed genes between normal fertile and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion subjects by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Of 29 implantation-related genes, the transcript levels of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 and olfactomedin 1 were higher, whereas that of complement component 4 binding protein alpha was lower in subjects with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, compared to normal fertile subjects. A correlation was evident between the transcript and protein levels of complement component 4 binding protein alpha and cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2. Expression of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 was positively correlated with retinoic acid-related genes in normal fertile subjects, but no significant association was observed in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion subjects. In relation to complement component 4 binding protein alpha, C5a receptor protein level was significantly higher in subjects with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Stable expression of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 and olfactomedin 1 in a human endometrial cell line inhibited cell growth and induced cell accumulation in the S and G(2)-M phase fractions, but did not trigger apoptosis. This study represents the first systematic identification of differentially expressed genes in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Defective cell growth by the differentially expressed genes suggests their implication in implantation failure in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion.
Our laboratory focuses on the alpha2beta1 integrin, a receptor for a number of matrix and non-matrix ligands, including collagens, laminins, decorin, E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), endorepellin, and several viruses. The alpha2beta1 integrin is expressed on numerous different cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and hematopoietic elements, including platelets and specific subsets of leukocytes. Although alpha2beta1 integrin expression is widespread, it is not ubiquitous. Rather, it is expressed in a differentiation-dependent and activation-dependent manner. Interactions between the alpha2beta1 integrin and extracellular matrix ligands have been implicated in important biological processes including inflammation and immunity. Studies from a number of laboratories have demonstrated a role for the alpha2beta1 integrin during the immune response. Our laboratory generated an alpha2beta1 integrin-deficient mouse to define the role of the alpha2beta1 integrin in vivo. Our studies demonstrated that the alpha2-null mice have a profound defect in the innate immune response. We have recently reported the identification of a novel family of ligands for the alpha2beta1 integrin, which include C1q and the collectins. The goal of this article is to review the important role that the interaction between the alpha2beta1 integrin and C1q plays in the innate immune response. The identification of C1q and the collectins as ligands for the alpha2beta1 integrin suggests that the integrin may play important roles in a number of immunological responses.
Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) and their scavenger receptor (SR) binding partners play a central role in atherosclerosis and by analogy may play a role in chronic kidney disease pathogenesis. The present study was designed to investigate in C57BL/6 mice the effects of hypercholesterolemia on renal injury severity and oxLDL generation after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). The expression profiles of CD36, SR class AI/II (SR-A), lectin-like receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein-1 (Lox-1), and SR that binds phosphatidylserine and oxLDL (SR-PSOX/CXCL16) were examined. Four experimental groups were studied: sham and UUO male mice on either a high-fat Western diet or a control diet. Significantly more oxLDL accumulated in the tubulointerstitium of hypercholesterolemic mice compared with normocholesterolemic mice after 14 days of UUO (P < 0.01). Total kidney collagen was significantly higher in the obstructed kidneys of hypercholesterolemic mice compared with normocholesterolemic mice on day 14 (P < 0.01). After 14 days of obstruction, the number of interstitial F4/80+ macrophages and NF-kappaB activation increased in hypercholesterolemic mice compared with normocholesterolemic mice (P < 0.01). In normal kidneys, CD36, SR-A, Lox-1, and CXCL16 were primarily localized to renal tubular epithelia. After ureteral obstruction, CD36 increased at day 7; SR-A and Lox-1 progressively decreased in a time-dependent manner; and CXCL16 increased significantly with the onset of obstruction (P < 0.01). Strong tubular expression suggests that in addition to inflammatory interstitial cells, renal tubular scavenger receptors may help to orchestrate the inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways that are activated by oxLDL.
Multiple investigators have undertaken genetic studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis populations in attempts to define genetic links to disease in hopes that this would improve understanding of disease pathogenesis and target pathways for therapy. Multiple genes have been evaluated using a candidate gene approach with limited success, with results suggesting a disease modifier effect rather than a disease causing effect. Using this approach, associations have been observed between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and specific polymorphisms in genes encoding interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and complement receptor 1. Recently investigators have used familial pulmonary fibrosis cohorts to evaluate for genetic mutations associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Using one pulmonary fibrosis kindred, a mutation in the gene encoding surfactant protein C was identified as the cause of pulmonary fibrosis in this family. Subsequently, another individual with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was identified with a different mutation in surfactant protein C. Though rarely found in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, these surfactant protein C mutations highlight the importance of the alveolar epithelium in disease pathogenesis. A recent collaboration between investigators at three major centers has resulted in the largest collection of families with pulmonary fibrosis to date, with hopes that this effort will identify genetic mutations associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. If genetic links to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are defined in this study, then the pathways involved with these genes and gene products can be targeted by investigators to help identify potential treatment options for this disease.
Mast cells play a critical role in innate immunity, allergy, and autoimmune diseases. The receptor/ligand interactions that mediate mast cell activation are poorly defined. The alpha2beta1 integrin, a receptor for collagens, laminins, decorin, E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), endorepellin, and several viruses, has been implicated in normal developmental, inflammatory, and oncogenic processes. We recently reported that alpha2 integrin subunit-deficient mice exhibited markedly diminished neutrophil and IL-6 responses during Listeria monocytogenes- and zymosan-induced peritonitis. Peritoneal mast cells require alpha2beta1 integrin expression for activation in response to pathogens, yet the ligand and molecular mechanisms by which the alpha2beta1 integrin induces activation and cytokine secretion remain unknown. We now report that the alpha2beta1 integrin is a novel receptor for multiple collectins and the C1q complement protein. We demonstrate that the alpha2beta1 integrin provides a costimulatory function required for mast cell activation and cytokine secretion. This finding suggests that the alpha2beta1 integrin is not only important for innate immunity but may serve as a critical target for the regulation of autoimmune/allergic disorders.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a lymphotropic herpesvirus. However, access to B lymphocytes during primary infection may be facilitated by replication in mucosal epithelial cells. Attachment and penetration of EBV into these two cell types are fundamentally different. Both the distribution of receptors and the cellular origin of the virus impact the efficiency of infection. Epithelial cells potentially offer a wide range of receptors with which virus can interact. We report here on analyses of epithelial cells expressing different combinations of receptors. We find that the stoichiometry of the virus glycoprotein complex that includes gHgL and gp42 affects the use of gHgL not just for entry into epithelial cells but also for attachment. Penetration can be mediated efficiently with either a coreceptor for gp42 or gHgL, but the use of gHgL for attachment as well as penetration greatly compromises its ability to mediate entry.
Entry of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) into B cells is initiated by attachment of glycoprotein gp350 to the complement receptor type 2 (CR2). A complex of three glycoproteins, gH, gL, and gp42, is subsequently required for penetration. Gp42 binds to HLA class II, which functions as an entry mediator or coreceptor and, by analogy with other herpesviruses, gH is then thought to be involved virus-cell fusion. However, entry of virus into epithelial cells is thought to be different. It can be initiated by attachment by an unknown glycoprotein in the absence of CR2. There is no interaction between gp42 and HLA class II and instead a distinct complex of only the two glycoproteins gH and gL interacts with a novel entry mediator. Again, by analogy with other viruses gH is thought to be critical to fusion. To investigate further the different roles of gH in infection of the two cell types and to examine its influence on the assembly of the gH-gL-gp42 complex, we constructed two viruses, one in which the gH open reading frame was interrupted by a cassette expressing a neomycin resistance gene and the gene for green fluorescent protein and one as a control in which the neighboring nonessential thymidine kinase gene was interrupted with the same cassette. Virus lacking gH exited from cells normally, although loss of gH resulted in rapid turnover of gL and gp42 as well. The virus bound normally to B lymphocytes but could not infect them unless cells and bound virus were treated with polyethylene glycol to induce fusion. In contrast, virus that lacked the gH complex was impaired in attachment to epithelial cells and the effects of monoclonal antibodies to gH implied that this resulted from loss of gH rather than other members of the complex. These results suggest a role for gH in both attachment and penetration into epithelial cells.
B lymphocytes are required for diabetogenesis in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The complement component of the innate immune system regulates B cell activation and tolerance through complement receptors CR1/CR2. Thus, it is important to assess the contribution of complement receptors to autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Examination of the lymphoid compartments of NOD mice revealed striking expansion of a splenic B cell subset with high cell surface expression of CR1/CR2. This subset of B cells exhibited an enhanced C3 binding ability. Importantly, long-term in vivo blockade of C3 binding to CR1/CR2 prevented the emergence of the CR1/CR2(hi) B cells and afforded resistance to autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. These findings implicate complement as an important regulatory element in controlling the T cell-mediated attack on islet beta cells of NOD mice.
Copyright 1999 Academic Press.