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A Randomized Phase II Neoadjuvant Study of Cisplatin, Paclitaxel With or Without Everolimus in Patients with Stage II/III Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC): Responses and Long-term Outcome Correlated with Increased Frequency of DNA Damage Response Gene Mutations, TNBC Subtype, AR Status, and Ki67.
Jovanović B, Mayer IA, Mayer EL, Abramson VG, Bardia A, Sanders ME, Kuba MG, Estrada MV, Beeler JS, Shaver TM, Johnson KC, Sanchez V, Rosenbluth JM, Dillon PM, Forero-Torres A, Chang JC, Meszoely IM, Grau AM, Lehmann BD, Shyr Y, Sheng Q, Chen SC, Arteaga CL, Pietenpol JA
(2017) Clin Cancer Res 23: 4035-4045
MeSH Terms: Adult, Cisplatin, DNA Damage, Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions, Everolimus, Female, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, Ki-67 Antigen, Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating, Middle Aged, Mutation, Neoplasm Staging, Paclitaxel, Receptors, Androgen, Treatment Outcome, Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
Show Abstract · Added April 9, 2017
Because of inherent disease heterogeneity, targeted therapies have eluded triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and biomarkers predictive of treatment response have not yet been identified. This study was designed to determine whether the mTOR inhibitor everolimus with cisplatin and paclitaxel would provide synergistic antitumor effects in TNBC. Patients with stage II/III TNBC were enrolled in a randomized phase II trial of preoperative weekly cisplatin, paclitaxel and daily everolimus or placebo for 12 weeks, until definitive surgery. Tumor specimens were obtained at baseline, cycle 1, and surgery. Primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR); secondary endpoints included clinical responses, breast conservation rate, safety, and discovery of molecular features associated with outcome. Between 2009 and 2013, 145 patients were accrued; 36% of patients in the everolimus arm and 49% of patients in the placebo arm achieved pCR; in each arm, 50% of patients achieved complete responses by imaging. Higher rates of neutropenia, mucositis, and transaminase elevation were seen with everolimus. Clinical response to therapy and long-term outcome correlated with increased frequency of DNA damage response (DDR) gene mutations, Basal-like1 and Mesenchymal TNBC-subtypes, AR-negative status, and high Ki67, but not with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The paclitaxel/cisplatin combination was well tolerated and active, but addition of everolimus was associated with more adverse events without improvement in pCR or clinical response. However, discoveries made from correlative studies could lead to predictive TNBC biomarkers that may impact clinical decision-making and provide new avenues for mechanistic exploration that could lead to clinical utility. .
©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
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17 MeSH Terms
Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height.
Marouli E, Graff M, Medina-Gomez C, Lo KS, Wood AR, Kjaer TR, Fine RS, Lu Y, Schurmann C, Highland HM, Rüeger S, Thorleifsson G, Justice AE, Lamparter D, Stirrups KE, Turcot V, Young KL, Winkler TW, Esko T, Karaderi T, Locke AE, Masca NG, Ng MC, Mudgal P, Rivas MA, Vedantam S, Mahajan A, Guo X, Abecasis G, Aben KK, Adair LS, Alam DS, Albrecht E, Allin KH, Allison M, Amouyel P, Appel EV, Arveiler D, Asselbergs FW, Auer PL, Balkau B, Banas B, Bang LE, Benn M, Bergmann S, Bielak LF, Blüher M, Boeing H, Boerwinkle E, Böger CA, Bonnycastle LL, Bork-Jensen J, Bots ML, Bottinger EP, Bowden DW, Brandslund I, Breen G, Brilliant MH, Broer L, Burt AA, Butterworth AS, Carey DJ, Caulfield MJ, Chambers JC, Chasman DI, Chen YI, Chowdhury R, Christensen C, Chu AY, Cocca M, Collins FS, Cook JP, Corley J, Galbany JC, Cox AJ, Cuellar-Partida G, Danesh J, Davies G, de Bakker PI, de Borst GJ, de Denus S, de Groot MC, de Mutsert R, Deary IJ, Dedoussis G, Demerath EW, den Hollander AI, Dennis JG, Di Angelantonio E, Drenos F, Du M, Dunning AM, Easton DF, Ebeling T, Edwards TL, Ellinor PT, Elliott P, Evangelou E, Farmaki AE, Faul JD, Feitosa MF, Feng S, Ferrannini E, Ferrario MM, Ferrieres J, Florez JC, Ford I, Fornage M, Franks PW, Frikke-Schmidt R, Galesloot TE, Gan W, Gandin I, Gasparini P, Giedraitis V, Giri A, Girotto G, Gordon SD, Gordon-Larsen P, Gorski M, Grarup N, Grove ML, Gudnason V, Gustafsson S, Hansen T, Harris KM, Harris TB, Hattersley AT, Hayward C, He L, Heid IM, Heikkilä K, Helgeland Ø, Hernesniemi J, Hewitt AW, Hocking LJ, Hollensted M, Holmen OL, Hovingh GK, Howson JM, Hoyng CB, Huang PL, Hveem K, Ikram MA, Ingelsson E, Jackson AU, Jansson JH, Jarvik GP, Jensen GB, Jhun MA, Jia Y, Jiang X, Johansson S, Jørgensen ME, Jørgensen T, Jousilahti P, Jukema JW, Kahali B, Kahn RS, Kähönen M, Kamstrup PR, Kanoni S, Kaprio J, Karaleftheri M, Kardia SL, Karpe F, Kee F, Keeman R, Kiemeney LA, Kitajima H, Kluivers KB, Kocher T, Komulainen P, Kontto J, Kooner JS, Kooperberg C, Kovacs P, Kriebel J, Kuivaniemi H, Küry S, Kuusisto J, La Bianca M, Laakso M, Lakka TA, Lange EM, Lange LA, Langefeld CD, Langenberg C, Larson EB, Lee IT, Lehtimäki T, Lewis CE, Li H, Li J, Li-Gao R, Lin H, Lin LA, Lin X, Lind L, Lindström J, Linneberg A, Liu Y, Liu Y, Lophatananon A, Luan J, Lubitz SA, Lyytikäinen LP, Mackey DA, Madden PA, Manning AK, Männistö S, Marenne G, Marten J, Martin NG, Mazul AL, Meidtner K, Metspalu A, Mitchell P, Mohlke KL, Mook-Kanamori DO, Morgan A, Morris AD, Morris AP, Müller-Nurasyid M, Munroe PB, Nalls MA, Nauck M, Nelson CP, Neville M, Nielsen SF, Nikus K, Njølstad PR, Nordestgaard BG, Ntalla I, O'Connel JR, Oksa H, Loohuis LM, Ophoff RA, Owen KR, Packard CJ, Padmanabhan S, Palmer CN, Pasterkamp G, Patel AP, Pattie A, Pedersen O, Peissig PL, Peloso GM, Pennell CE, Perola M, Perry JA, Perry JR, Person TN, Pirie A, Polasek O, Posthuma D, Raitakari OT, Rasheed A, Rauramaa R, Reilly DF, Reiner AP, Renström F, Ridker PM, Rioux JD, Robertson N, Robino A, Rolandsson O, Rudan I, Ruth KS, Saleheen D, Salomaa V, Samani NJ, Sandow K, Sapkota Y, Sattar N, Schmidt MK, Schreiner PJ, Schulze MB, Scott RA, Segura-Lepe MP, Shah S, Sim X, Sivapalaratnam S, Small KS, Smith AV, Smith JA, Southam L, Spector TD, Speliotes EK, Starr JM, Steinthorsdottir V, Stringham HM, Stumvoll M, Surendran P, 't Hart LM, Tansey KE, Tardif JC, Taylor KD, Teumer A, Thompson DJ, Thorsteinsdottir U, Thuesen BH, Tönjes A, Tromp G, Trompet S, Tsafantakis E, Tuomilehto J, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Tyrer JP, Uher R, Uitterlinden AG, Ulivi S, van der Laan SW, Van Der Leij AR, van Duijn CM, van Schoor NM, van Setten J, Varbo A, Varga TV, Varma R, Edwards DR, Vermeulen SH, Vestergaard H, Vitart V, Vogt TF, Vozzi D, Walker M, Wang F, Wang CA, Wang S, Wang Y, Wareham NJ, Warren HR, Wessel J, Willems SM, Wilson JG, Witte DR, Woods MO, Wu Y, Yaghootkar H, Yao J, Yao P, Yerges-Armstrong LM, Young R, Zeggini E, Zhan X, Zhang W, Zhao JH, Zhao W, Zhao W, Zheng H, Zhou W, EPIC-InterAct Consortium, CHD Exome+ Consortium, ExomeBP Consortium, T2D-Genes Consortium, GoT2D Genes Consortium, Global Lipids Genetics Consortium, ReproGen Consortium, MAGIC Investigators, Rotter JI, Boehnke M, Kathiresan S, McCarthy MI, Willer CJ, Stefansson K, Borecki IB, Liu DJ, North KE, Heard-Costa NL, Pers TH, Lindgren CM, Oxvig C, Kutalik Z, Rivadeneira F, Loos RJ, Frayling TM, Hirschhorn JN, Deloukas P, Lettre G
(2017) Nature 542: 186-190
MeSH Terms: ADAMTS Proteins, Adult, Alleles, Body Height, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Variation, Genome, Human, Glycoproteins, Glycosaminoglycans, Hedgehog Proteins, Humans, Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Interferon Regulatory Factors, Interleukin-11 Receptor alpha Subunit, Male, Multifactorial Inheritance, NADPH Oxidase 4, NADPH Oxidases, Phenotype, Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A, Procollagen N-Endopeptidase, Proteoglycans, Proteolysis, Receptors, Androgen, Somatomedins
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2017
Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height-increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes that are mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (such as ADAMTS3, IL11RA and NOX4) and pathways (such as proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate-to-large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.
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27 MeSH Terms
Androgen receptor differentially regulates the proliferation of prostatic epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo.
Yang S, Jiang M, Grabowska MM, Li J, Connelly ZM, Zhang J, Hayward SW, Cates JM, Han G, Yu X
(2016) Oncotarget 7: 70404-70419
MeSH Terms: Androgens, Animals, Cell Differentiation, Cell Line, Cell Proliferation, Coculture Techniques, Epithelial Cells, Humans, Male, Mice, Nude, Prostate, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc, Rats, Receptors, Androgen, Stromal Cells
Show Abstract · Added November 1, 2018
Androgens regulate the proliferation and differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells, including prostate cancer (PCa) cells in a context-dependent manner. Androgens and androgen receptor (AR) do not invariably promote cell proliferation; in the normal adult, endogenous stromal and epithelial AR activation maintains differentiation and inhibits organ growth. In the current study, we report that activation of AR differentially regulates the proliferation of human prostate epithelial progenitor cells, NHPrE1, in vitro and in vivo. Inducing AR signaling in NHPrE1 cells suppressed cell proliferation in vitro, concomitant with a reduction in MYC expression. However, ectopic expression of AR in vivo stimulated cell proliferation and induced development of invasive PCa in tissue recombinants consisting of NHPrE1/AR cells and rat urogenital mesenchymal (UGM) cells, engrafted under renal capsule of adult male athymic mice. Expression of MYC increased in the NHPrE1/AR recombinant tissues, in contrast to the reduction seen in vitro. The inhibitory effect of AR signaling on cell proliferation in vitro were reduced by co-culturing NHPrE1/AR epithelial cells with prostatic stromal cells. In conclusion, these studies revealed that AR signaling differentially regulates proliferation of human prostatic epithelia cells in vitro and in vivo through mechanisms involving stromal/epithelial interactions.
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MeSH Terms
Activation of GRP/GRP-R signaling contributes to castration-resistant prostate cancer progression.
Qiao J, Grabowska MM, Forestier-Roman IS, Mirosevich J, Case TC, Chung DH, Cates JM, Matusik RJ, Manning HC, Jin R
(2016) Oncotarget 7: 61955-61969
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Androgen Antagonists, Androgens, Antineoplastic Agents, Cell Line, Tumor, Disease Progression, Gastrin-Releasing Peptide, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Genetic Variation, Humans, Male, Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant, RNA Splicing, Receptors, Androgen, Receptors, Bombesin, Signal Transduction, Transcription, Genetic
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
Numerous studies indicate that androgen receptor splice variants (ARVs) play a critical role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), including the resistance to the new generation of inhibitors of androgen receptor (AR) action. Previously, we demonstrated that activation of NF-κB signaling increases ARVs expression in prostate cancer (PC) cells, thereby promoting progression to CRPC. However, it is unclear how NF-κB signaling is activated in CRPC. In this study, we report that long-term treatment with anti-androgens increases a neuroendocrine (NE) hormone - gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) expression in PC cells. In addition, activation of GRP/GRP-R signaling increases ARVs expression through activating NF-κB signaling. This results in an androgen-dependent tumor progressing to a castrate resistant tumor. The knock-down of AR-V7 restores sensitivity to antiandrogens of PC cells over-expressing the GRP/GRP-R signaling pathway. These findings strongly indicate that the axis of Androgen-Deprivation Therapy (ADT) induces GRP/GRP-R activity, activation NF-κB and increased levels of AR-V7 expression resulting in progression to CRPC. Both prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell NE prostate cancer express GRP-R. Since the GRP-R is clinically targetable by analogue-based approach, this provides a novel therapeutic approach to treat advanced CRPC.
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17 MeSH Terms
NF-κB and androgen receptor variant 7 induce expression of SRD5A isoforms and confer 5ARI resistance.
Austin DC, Strand DW, Love HL, Franco OE, Grabowska MM, Miller NL, Hameed O, Clark PE, Matusik RJ, Jin RJ, Hayward SW
(2016) Prostate 76: 1004-18
MeSH Terms: 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase, 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors, Animals, Apoptosis, Drug Resistance, Gene Expression, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Humans, Isoenzymes, Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, Male, Membrane Proteins, Mice, Mice, Nude, NF-kappa B, Orchiectomy, Prostate, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant, Receptors, Androgen, Testosterone, Treatment Failure, Up-Regulation
Show Abstract · Added April 18, 2017
BACKGROUND - Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is treated with 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARI). These drugs inhibit the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone resulting in apoptosis and prostate shrinkage. Most patients initially respond to 5ARIs; however, failure is common especially in inflamed prostates, and often results in surgery. This communication examines a link between activation of NF-κB and increased expression of SRD5A2 as a potential mechanism by which patients fail 5ARI therapy.
METHODS - Tissue was collected from "Surgical" patients, treated specifically for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to advanced BPH; and, cancer free transition zone from "Incidental" patients treated for low grade, localized peripheral zone prostate cancer. Clinical, molecular and histopathological profiles were analyzed. Human prostatic stromal and epithelial cell lines were genetically modified to regulate NF-κB activity, androgen receptor (AR) full length (AR-FL), and AR variant 7 (AR-V7) expression.
RESULTS - SRD5A2 is upregulated in advanced BPH. SRD5A2 was significantly associated with prostate volume determined by Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS), and with more severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) determined by American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS). Synthesis of androgens was seen in cells in which NF-κB was activated. AR-FL and AR-V7 expression increased SRD5A2 expression while forced activation of NF-κB increased all three SRD5A isoforms. Knockdown of SRD5A2 in the epithelial cells resulted in significant reduction in proliferation, AR target gene expression, and response to testosterone (T). In tissue recombinants, canonical NF-κB activation in prostatic epithelium elevated all three SRD5A isoforms and resulted in in vivo growth under castrated conditions.
CONCLUSION - Increased BPH severity in patients correlates with SRD5A2 expression. We demonstrate that NF-κB and AR-V7 upregulate SRD5A expression providing a mechanism to explain failure of 5ARI therapy in BPH patients. Prostate 76:1004-1018, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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23 MeSH Terms
Extranuclear Actions of the Androgen Receptor Enhance Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in the Male.
Navarro G, Xu W, Jacobson DA, Wicksteed B, Allard C, Zhang G, De Gendt K, Kim SH, Wu H, Zhang H, Verhoeven G, Katzenellenbogen JA, Mauvais-Jarvis F
(2016) Cell Metab 23: 837-51
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Nucleus, Cyclic AMP, Glucose, Glucose Intolerance, Humans, Insulin, Insulin-Secreting Cells, Male, Mice, Knockout, Models, Biological, Receptors, Androgen, Signal Transduction, Testosterone
Show Abstract · Added November 13, 2017
Although men with testosterone deficiency are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), previous studies have ignored the role of testosterone and the androgen receptor (AR) in pancreatic β cells. We show that male mice lacking AR in β cells (βARKO) exhibit decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), leading to glucose intolerance. The AR agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) enhances GSIS in cultured male islets, an effect that is abolished in βARKO(-/y) islets and human islets treated with an AR antagonist. In β cells, DHT-activated AR is predominantly extranuclear and enhances GSIS by increasing islet cAMP and activating the protein kinase A. In mouse and human islets, the insulinotropic effect of DHT depends on activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor, and accordingly, DHT amplifies the incretin effect of GLP-1. This study identifies AR as a novel receptor that enhances β cell function, a finding with implications for the prevention of T2D in aging men.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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15 MeSH Terms
NF-κB and androgen receptor variant expression correlate with human BPH progression.
Austin DC, Strand DW, Love HL, Franco OE, Jang A, Grabowska MM, Miller NL, Hameed O, Clark PE, Fowke JH, Matusik RJ, Jin RJ, Hayward SW
(2016) Prostate 76: 491-511
MeSH Terms: Aged, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Survival, Disease Progression, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, NF-kappa B, Prostate, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Receptors, Androgen, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added April 18, 2017
BACKGROUND - Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common, chronic progressive disease. Inflammation is associated with prostatic enlargement and resistance to 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) therapy. Activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway is linked to both inflammation and ligand-independent prostate cancer progression.
METHODS - NF-κB activation and androgen receptor variant (AR-V) expression were quantified in transition zone tissue samples from patients with a wide range of AUASS from incidental BPH in patients treated for low grade, localized peripheral zone prostate cancer to advanced disease requiring surgical intervention. To further investigate these pathways, human prostatic stromal and epithelial cell lines were transduced with constitutively active or kinase dead forms of IKK2 to regulate canonical NF-κB activity. The effects on AR full length (AR-FL) and androgen-independent AR-V expression as well as cellular growth and differentiation were assessed.
RESULTS - Canonical NF-κB signaling was found to be upregulated in late versus early stage BPH, and to be strongly associated with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Elevated expression of AR-variant 7 (AR-V7), but not other AR variants, was found in advanced BPH samples. Expression of AR-V7 significantly correlated with the patient AUASS and TRUS volume. Forced activation of canonical NF-κB in human prostatic epithelial and stromal cells resulted in elevated expression of both AR-FL and AR-V7, with concomitant ligand-independent activation of AR reporters. Activation of NF-κB and over expression of AR-V7 in human prostatic epithelial cells maintained cell viability in the face of 5ARI treatment.
CONCLUSION - Activation of NF-κB and AR-V7 in the prostate is associated with increased disease severity. AR-V7 expression is inducible in human prostate cells by forced activation of NF-κB resulting in resistance to 5ARI treatment, suggesting a potential mechanism by which patients may become resistant to 5ARI therapy.
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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12 MeSH Terms
Nfib Regulates Transcriptional Networks That Control the Development of Prostatic Hyperplasia.
Grabowska MM, Kelly SM, Reese AL, Cates JM, Case TC, Zhang J, DeGraff DJ, Strand DW, Miller NL, Clark PE, Hayward SW, Gronostajski RM, Anderson PD, Matusik RJ
(2016) Endocrinology 157: 1094-109
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Gene Expression Regulation, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Gene Regulatory Networks, Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Male, Mice, Mice, Knockout, NFI Transcription Factors, Prostate, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Neoplasms, Receptors, Androgen, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Sequence Analysis, RNA
Show Abstract · Added February 15, 2016
A functional complex consisting of androgen receptor (AR) and forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) proteins supports prostatic development, differentiation, and disease. In addition, the interaction of FOXA1 with cofactors such as nuclear factor I (NFI) family members modulates AR target gene expression. However, the global role of specific NFI family members has yet to be described in the prostate. In these studies, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing in androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells demonstrated that 64.3% of NFIB binding sites are associated with AR and FOXA1 binding sites. Interrogation of published data revealed that genes associated with NFIB binding sites are predominantly induced after dihydrotestosterone treatment of LNCaP cells, whereas NFIB knockdown studies demonstrated that loss of NFIB drives increased AR expression and superinduction of a subset of AR target genes. Notably, genes bound by NFIB only are associated with cell division and cell cycle. To define the role of NFIB in vivo, mouse Nfib knockout prostatic tissue was rescued via renal capsule engraftment. Loss of Nfib expression resulted in prostatic hyperplasia, which did not resolve in response to castration, and an expansion of an intermediate cell population in a small subset of grafts. In human benign prostatic hyperplasia, luminal NFIB loss correlated with more severe disease. Finally, some areas of intermediate cell expansion were also associated with NFIB loss. Taken together, these results show a fundamental role for NFIB as a coregulator of AR action in the prostate and in controlling prostatic hyperplasia.
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22 MeSH Terms
The Molecular Taxonomy of Primary Prostate Cancer.
Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network
(2015) Cell 163: 1011-25
MeSH Terms: DNA Repair, Epigenesis, Genetic, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Gene Fusion, Humans, Male, Mutation, Neoplasm Metastasis, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Prostatic Neoplasms, Receptors, Androgen, Signal Transduction, ras Proteins
Show Abstract · Added August 8, 2016
There is substantial heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, evident in the spectrum of molecular abnormalities and its variable clinical course. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we present a comprehensive molecular analysis of 333 primary prostate carcinomas. Our results revealed a molecular taxonomy in which 74% of these tumors fell into one of seven subtypes defined by specific gene fusions (ERG, ETV1/4, and FLI1) or mutations (SPOP, FOXA1, and IDH1). Epigenetic profiles showed substantial heterogeneity, including an IDH1 mutant subset with a methylator phenotype. Androgen receptor (AR) activity varied widely and in a subtype-specific manner, with SPOP and FOXA1 mutant tumors having the highest levels of AR-induced transcripts. 25% of the prostate cancers had a presumed actionable lesion in the PI3K or MAPK signaling pathways, and DNA repair genes were inactivated in 19%. Our analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, as well as potentially actionable molecular defects.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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13 MeSH Terms
Inhibition of NF-kappa B signaling restores responsiveness of castrate-resistant prostate cancer cells to anti-androgen treatment by decreasing androgen receptor-variant expression.
Jin R, Yamashita H, Yu X, Wang J, Franco OE, Wang Y, Hayward SW, Matusik RJ
(2015) Oncogene 34: 3700-10
MeSH Terms: Androgen Antagonists, Anilides, Antineoplastic Agents, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, Boronic Acids, Bortezomib, Cell Line, Tumor, Humans, Male, NF-kappa B, Nitriles, Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant, Pyrazines, Receptors, Androgen, Signal Transduction, Tosyl Compounds, Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Show Abstract · Added January 20, 2015
Androgen receptor splicing variants (ARVs) that lack the ligand-binding domain (LBD) are associated with the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), including resistance to the new generation of high-affinity anti-androgens. However, the mechanism by which ARV expression is regulated is not fully understood. In this study, we show that the activation of classical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling increases the expression of ARVs in prostate cancer (PCa) cells and converts androgen-sensitive PCa cells to become androgen-insensitive, whereas downregulation of NF-κB signaling inhibits ARV expression and restores responsiveness of CRPC to anti-androgen therapy. In addition, we demonstrated that combination of anti-androgen with NF-κB-targeted therapy inhibits efficiently tumor growth of human CRPC xenografts. These results indicate that induction of ARVs by activated NF-κB signaling in PCa cells is a critical mechanism by which the PCa progresses to CRPC. This has important implications as it can prolong the survival of CRPC patients by restoring the tumors to once again respond to conventional androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).
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17 MeSH Terms