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TGF-β promotes fibrosis after severe acute kidney injury by enhancing renal macrophage infiltration.
Chung S, Overstreet JM, Li Y, Wang Y, Niu A, Wang S, Fan X, Sasaki K, Jin GN, Khodo SN, Gewin L, Zhang MZ, Harris RC
(2018) JCI Insight 3:
MeSH Terms: Acute Kidney Injury, Animals, Bone Marrow Cells, Chemotactic Factors, Fibrosis, Kidney, Macrophages, Male, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, Monocytes, N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine, Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Transforming Growth Factor beta1
Show Abstract · Added December 26, 2018
TGF-β signals through a receptor complex composed of 2 type I and 2 type II (TGF-βRII) subunits. We investigated the role of macrophage TGF-β signaling in fibrosis after AKI in mice with selective monocyte/macrophage TGF-βRII deletion (macrophage TGF-βRII-/- mice). Four weeks after injury, renal TGF-β1 expression and fibrosis were higher in WT mice than macrophage TGF-βRII-/- mice, which had decreased renal macrophages. The in vitro chemotactic response to f-Met-Leu-Phe was comparable between bone marrow-derived monocytes (BMMs) from WT and macrophage TGF-βRII-/- mice, but TGF-βRII-/- BMMs did not respond to TGF-β. We then implanted Matrigel plugs suffused with either f-Met-Leu-Phe or TGF-β1 into WT or macrophage TGF-βRII-/- mice. After 6 days, f-Met-Leu-Phe induced similar macrophage infiltration into the Matrigel plugs of WT and macrophage TGF-βRII-/- mice, but TGF-β induced infiltration only in WT mice. We further determined the number of labeled WT or TGF-βRII-/- BMMs infiltrating into WT kidneys 20 days after ischemic injury. There were more labeled WT BMMs than TGF-βRII-/- BMMs. Therefore, macrophage TGF-βRII deletion protects against the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis following severe ischemic renal injury. Chemoattraction of macrophages to the injured kidney through a TGF-β/TGF-βRII axis is a heretofore undescribed mechanism by which TGF-β can mediate renal fibrosis during progressive renal injury.
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16 MeSH Terms
Blocking TGF- and -Catenin Epithelial Crosstalk Exacerbates CKD.
Nlandu-Khodo S, Neelisetty S, Phillips M, Manolopoulou M, Bhave G, May L, Clark PE, Yang H, Fogo AB, Harris RC, Taketo MM, Lee E, Gewin LS
(2017) J Am Soc Nephrol 28: 3490-3503
MeSH Terms: Animals, Aristolochic Acids, Cell Nucleus, Collagen, Crosses, Genetic, Epithelium, Female, Gene Deletion, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Kidney Tubules, Proximal, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Knockout, Mice, Transgenic, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Signal Transduction, Transforming Growth Factor beta1, Wnt Proteins, beta Catenin
Show Abstract · Added July 18, 2017
The TGF- and Wnt/-catenin pathways have important roles in modulating CKD, but how these growth factors affect the epithelial response to CKD is not well studied. TGF- has strong profibrotic effects, but this pleiotropic factor has many different cellular effects depending on the target cell type. To investigate how TGF- signaling in the proximal tubule, a key target and mediator of CKD, alters the response to CKD, we injured mice lacking the TGF- type 2 receptor specifically in this epithelial segment. Compared with littermate controls, mice lacking the proximal tubular TGF- receptor had significantly increased tubular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in two different models of CKD. RNA sequencing indicated that deleting the TGF- receptor in proximal tubule cells modulated many growth factor pathways, but Wnt/-catenin signaling was the pathway most affected. We validated that deleting the proximal tubular TGF- receptor impaired -catenin activity and Genetically restoring -catenin activity in proximal tubules lacking the TGF- receptor dramatically improved the tubular response to CKD in mice. Deleting the TGF- receptor alters many growth factors, and therefore, this ameliorated response may be a direct effect of -catenin activity or an indirect effect of -catenin interacting with other growth factors. In conclusion, blocking TGF- and -catenin crosstalk in proximal tubules exacerbates tubular injury in two models of CKD.
Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
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22 MeSH Terms
Three-dimensional culture system identifies a new mode of cetuximab resistance and disease-relevant genes in colorectal cancer.
Li C, Singh B, Graves-Deal R, Ma H, Starchenko A, Fry WH, Lu Y, Wang Y, Bogatcheva G, Khan MP, Milne GL, Zhao S, Ayers GD, Li N, Hu H, Washington MK, Yeatman TJ, McDonald OG, Liu Q, Coffey RJ
(2017) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114: E2852-E2861
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological, Cell Culture Techniques, Cell Line, Tumor, Cetuximab, Colorectal Neoplasms, Crizotinib, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Humans, Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases, Mice, Phosphorylation, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Pyrazoles, Pyridines, Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Tissue Array Analysis, Versicans, Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Show Abstract · Added May 3, 2017
We previously reported that single cells from a human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line (HCA-7) formed either hollow single-layered polarized cysts or solid spiky masses when plated in 3D in type-I collagen. To begin in-depth analyses into whether clonal cysts and spiky masses possessed divergent properties, individual colonies of each morphology were isolated and expanded. The lines thus derived faithfully retained their parental cystic and spiky morphologies and were termed CC (cystic) and SC (spiky), respectively. Although both CC and SC expressed EGF receptor (EGFR), the EGFR-neutralizing monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, strongly inhibited growth of CC, whereas SC was resistant to growth inhibition, and this was coupled to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of MET and RON. Addition of the dual MET/RON tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, restored cetuximab sensitivity in SC. To further characterize these two lines, we performed comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic analysis of CC and SC in 3D. One of the most up-regulated genes in CC was the tumor suppressor , and the most up-regulated gene in SC was () in 3D and xenografts. Analysis of a CRC tissue microarray showed that epithelial, but not stromal, VCAN staining strongly correlated with reduced survival, and combined epithelial VCAN and absent HPGD staining portended a poorer prognosis. Thus, with this 3D system, we have identified a mode of cetuximab resistance and a potential prognostic marker in CRC. As such, this represents a potentially powerful system to identify additional therapeutic strategies and disease-relevant genes in CRC and possibly other solid tumors.
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22 MeSH Terms
Integrated genomic and molecular characterization of cervical cancer.
Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Analytical Biological Services, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, Harvard Medical School, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center &Research Institute at Christiana Care Health Services, HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, ILSbio, LLC, Indiana University School of Medicine, Institute of Human Virology, Institute for Systems Biology, International Genomics Consortium, Leidos Biomedical, Massachusetts General Hospital, McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University, Medical College of Wisconsin, Medical University of South Carolina, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Montefiore Medical Center, NantOmics, National Cancer Institute, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute on Deafness &Other Communication Disorders, Ontario Tumour Bank, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario Tumour Bank, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Ontario Tumour Bank, The Ottawa Hospital, Oregon Health &Science University, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, SRA International, St Joseph's Candler Health System, Eli &Edythe L. Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology &Harvard University, Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University, University of Bergen, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of California, Irvine, University of California Santa Cruz, University of Kansas Medical Center, University of Lausanne, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, University of Pittsburgh, University of São Paulo, Ribeir ão Preto Medical School, University of Southern California, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine &Public Health, Van Andel Research Institute, Washington University in St Louis
(2017) Nature 543: 378-384
MeSH Terms: APOBEC-1 Deaminase, Adenocarcinoma, B7-H1 Antigen, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Caspase 8, Female, Genomics, HLA-A Antigens, Human papillomavirus 16, Humans, Keratins, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Mutation, Nuclear Proteins, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2 Protein, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Proteomics, Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras), RNA, Long Noncoding, Receptor, ErbB-3, Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Signal Transduction, Transcription Factors, Uterine Cervical Neoplasms, Virus Integration
Show Abstract · Added October 30, 2019
Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Here we report the extensive molecular characterization of 228 primary cervical cancers, one of the largest comprehensive genomic studies of cervical cancer to date. We observed notable APOBEC mutagenesis patterns and identified SHKBP1, ERBB3, CASP8, HLA-A and TGFBR2 as novel significantly mutated genes in cervical cancer. We also discovered amplifications in immune targets CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also known as PD-L2), and the BCAR4 long non-coding RNA, which has been associated with response to lapatinib. Integration of human papilloma virus (HPV) was observed in all HPV18-related samples and 76% of HPV16-related samples, and was associated with structural aberrations and increased target-gene expression. We identified a unique set of endometrial-like cervical cancers, comprised predominantly of HPV-negative tumours with relatively high frequencies of KRAS, ARID1A and PTEN mutations. Integrative clustering of 178 samples identified keratin-low squamous, keratin-high squamous and adenocarcinoma-rich subgroups. These molecular analyses reveal new potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancers.
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MeSH Terms
Epithelial-macrophage interactions determine pulmonary fibrosis susceptibility in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.
Young LR, Gulleman PM, Short CW, Tanjore H, Sherrill T, Qi A, McBride AP, Zaynagetdinov R, Benjamin JT, Lawson WE, Novitskiy SV, Blackwell TS
(2016) JCI Insight 1: e88947
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bleomycin, Chemokine CCL2, Disease Susceptibility, Epithelial Cells, Female, Hermanski-Pudlak Syndrome, Macrophages, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Pulmonary Alveoli, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II, Receptors, CCR2, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Transforming Growth Factor beta
Show Abstract · Added March 29, 2017
Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) and other genetic syndromes associated with interstitial lung disease; however, mechanisms linking AEC dysfunction and fibrotic remodeling are incompletely understood. Since increased macrophage recruitment precedes pulmonary fibrosis in HPS, we investigated whether crosstalk between AECs and macrophages determines fibrotic susceptibility. We found that AECs from HPS mice produce excessive MCP-1, which was associated with increased macrophages in the lungs of unchallenged HPS mice. Blocking MCP-1/CCR2 signaling in HPS mice with genetic deficiency of CCR2 or targeted deletion of MCP-1 in AECs normalized macrophage recruitment, decreased AEC apoptosis, and reduced lung fibrosis in these mice following treatment with low-dose bleomycin. We observed increased TGF-β production by HPS macrophages, which was eliminated by CCR2 deletion. Selective deletion of TGF-β in myeloid cells or of TGF-β signaling in AECs through deletion of TGFBR2 protected HPS mice from AEC apoptosis and bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Together, these data reveal a feedback loop in which increased MCP-1 production by dysfunctional AECs results in recruitment and activation of lung macrophages that produce TGF-β, thus amplifying the fibrotic cascade through AEC apoptosis and stimulation of fibrotic remodeling.
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18 MeSH Terms
Associations of the Transforming Growth Factor β/Smad Pathway, Body Mass Index, and Physical Activity With Breast Cancer Outcomes: Results From the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study.
Su Y, Cai H, Zheng Y, Qiu Q, Lu W, Shu XO, Cai Q
(2016) Am J Epidemiol 184: 501-509
MeSH Terms: Adult, Biomarkers, Tumor, Body Mass Index, Breast Neoplasms, Cell Nucleus, China, Disease Progression, Disease-Free Survival, Exercise, Female, Humans, Middle Aged, Prognosis, Proportional Hazards Models, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Signal Transduction, Smad2 Protein
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway plays an important role in breast cancer progression and in metabolic regulation and energy homeostasis. The prognostic significance of TGF-β interaction with obesity and physical activity in breast cancer patients remains unclear. We evaluated the expression of TGF-β type II receptor and pSmad2 immunohistochemically in breast cancer tissue from 1,045 patients in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (2002-2005). We found that the presence of nuclear pSmad2 in breast cancer cells was inversely associated with overall and disease-free survival, predominantly among participants with lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)) and a moderate level of physical activity. However, the test for multiplicative interaction produced a significant result only for BMI (for disease-free survival and overall survival, adjusted hazard ratios were 1.79 and 2.05, respectively). In 535 earlier-stage (T1-2, N0) invasive cancers, nuclear pSmad2 was associated with improved survival among persons with higher BMI (overall survival: adjusted hazard ratio = 0.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.86). The cytoplasmic pattern of TGF-β type II receptor expression in cancer cells was significantly associated with a lower survival rate but was not modified by BMI or physical activity. Our study suggests that the TGF-β pathway in tumor cells is involved in breast cancer prognosis and may be modified by BMI through pSmad2.
© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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19 MeSH Terms
An In Vivo Gain-of-Function Screen Identifies the Williams-Beuren Syndrome Gene GTF2IRD1 as a Mammary Tumor Promoter.
Huo Y, Su T, Cai Q, Macara IG
(2016) Cell Rep 15: 2089-2096
MeSH Terms: Animals, Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I, Breast Neoplasms, Carcinogenesis, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Genetic Testing, Humans, Mammary Neoplasms, Animal, Mice, Transgenic, Muscle Proteins, Nuclear Proteins, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Trans-Activators, Williams Syndrome
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
The broad implementation of precision medicine in cancer is impeded by the lack of a complete inventory of the genes involved in tumorigenesis. We performed in vivo screening of ∼1,000 genes that are associated with signaling for positive roles in breast cancer, using lentiviral expression vectors in primary MMTV-ErbB2 mammary tissue. Gain of function of five genes, including RET, GTF2IRD1, ADORA1, LARS2, and DPP8, significantly promoted mammary tumor growth. We further studied one tumor-promoting gene, the transcription factor GTF2IRD1. The mis-regulation of genes downstream of GTF2IRD1, including TβR2 and BMPR1b, also individually promoted mammary cancer development, and silencing of TβR2 suppressed GTF2IRD1-driven tumor promotion. In addition, GTF2IRD1 is highly expressed in human breast tumors, correlating with high tumor grades and poor prognosis. Our in vivo approach is readily expandable to whole-genome annotation of tumor-promoting genes.
Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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17 MeSH Terms
Deleting the TGF-β receptor in proximal tubules impairs HGF signaling.
Nlandu Khodo S, Neelisetty S, Woodbury L, Green E, Harris RC, Zent R, Gewin L
(2016) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 310: F499-510
MeSH Terms: Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases, Animals, Cells, Cultured, Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Kidney Tubules, Proximal, Mice, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met, Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II, Receptors, Notch, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Signal Transduction, Transforming Growth Factor beta
Show Abstract · Added January 29, 2016
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) play key roles in regulating the response to renal injury but are thought to mediate divergent effects on cell behavior. However, how TGF-β signaling alters the response to HGF in epithelia, the key site of HGF signaling in the injured kidney, is not well studied. Contrary to our expectation, we showed that deletion of the TGF-β type II receptor in conditionally immortalized proximal tubule (PT) cells impaired HGF-dependent signaling. This reduced signaling was due to decreased transcription of c-Met, the HGF receptor, and the TGF-β-dependent c-Met transcription and increased response to HGF in PT cells were mediated by the Notch pathway. The interactions of TGF-β, HGF, and Notch pathways had biologically significant effects on branching morphogenesis, cell morphology, migration, and proliferation. In conclusion, epithelial TGF-β signaling promotes HGF signaling in a Notch-dependent pathway. These findings suggest that TGF-β modulates PT responses not only by direct effects, but also by affecting other growth factor signaling pathways.
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13 MeSH Terms
Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3, Mediated Remodeling of the Tumor Microenvironment Results in Enhanced Tumor Drug Delivery in a Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer.
Nagathihalli NS, Castellanos JA, Shi C, Beesetty Y, Reyzer ML, Caprioli R, Chen X, Walsh AJ, Skala MC, Moses HL, Merchant NB
(2015) Gastroenterology 149: 1932-1943.e9
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal, Cell Line, Tumor, Collagen, Deoxycytidine, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Humans, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Nude, Mice, Transgenic, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Neoplasm Staging, Osteonectin, Pancreatic Neoplasms, Phosphorylation, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras), Pyrazoles, Pyrimidines, Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, STAT3 Transcription Factor, Signal Transduction, Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization, Stromal Cells, Time Factors, Transcription Factors, Transfection, Tumor Burden, Tumor Microenvironment, Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Show Abstract · Added October 15, 2015
BACKGROUND & AIMS - A hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the presence of a dense desmoplastic reaction (stroma) that impedes drug delivery to the tumor. Attempts to deplete the tumor stroma have resulted in formation of more aggressive tumors. We have identified signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 as a biomarker of resistance to cytotoxic and molecularly targeted therapy in PDAC. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of targeting STAT3 on the PDAC stroma and on therapeutic resistance.
METHODS - Activated STAT3 protein expression was determined in human pancreatic tissues and tumor cell lines. In vivo effects of AZD1480, a JAK/STAT3 inhibitor, gemcitabine or the combination were determined in Ptf1a(cre/+);LSL-Kras(G12D/+);Tgfbr2(flox/flox) (PKT) mice and in orthotopic tumor xenografts. Drug delivery was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry. Collagen second harmonic generation imaging quantified tumor collagen alignment and density.
RESULTS - STAT3 activation correlates with decreased survival and advanced tumor stage in patients with PDAC. STAT3 inhibition combined with gemcitabine significantly inhibits tumor growth in both an orthotopic and the PKT mouse model of PDAC. This combined therapy attenuates in vivo expression of SPARC, increases microvessel density, and enhances drug delivery to the tumor without depletion of stromal collagen or hyaluronan. Instead, the PDAC tumors demonstrate vascular normalization, remodeling of the tumor stroma, and down-regulation of cytidine deaminase.
CONCLUSIONS - Targeted inhibition of STAT3 combined with gemcitabine enhances in vivo drug delivery and therapeutic response in PDAC. These effects occur through tumor stromal remodeling and down-regulation of cytidine deaminase without depletion of tumor stromal content.
Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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33 MeSH Terms
Matrix rigidity regulates the transition of tumor cells to a bone-destructive phenotype through integrin β3 and TGF-β receptor type II.
Page JM, Merkel AR, Ruppender NS, Guo R, Dadwal UC, Cannonier S, Basu S, Guelcher SA, Sterling JA
(2015) Biomaterials 64: 33-44
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Animals, Bone Neoplasms, Breast Neoplasms, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Cell Line, Tumor, Elastic Modulus, Extracellular Matrix, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Humans, Integrin beta3, Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors, Lung Neoplasms, Mice, Mice, Nude, Neoplasm Proteins, Nuclear Proteins, Osteolysis, Pliability, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II, Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Transfection, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Tumor Microenvironment, Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays, Zinc Finger Protein Gli2
Show Abstract · Added February 23, 2016
Cancer patients frequently develop skeletal metastases that significantly impact quality of life. Since bone metastases remain incurable, a clearer understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating skeletal metastases is required to develop new therapeutics that block establishment of tumors in bone. While many studies have suggested that the microenvironment contributes to bone metastases, the factors mediating tumors to progress from a quiescent to a bone-destructive state remain unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that the "soil" of the bone microenvironment, specifically the rigid mineralized extracellular matrix, stimulates the transition of the tumor cells to a bone-destructive phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we synthesized 2D polyurethane (PUR) films with elastic moduli ranging from the basement membrane (70 MPa) to cortical bone (3800 MPa) and measured expression of genes associated with mechanotransduction and bone metastases. We found that expression of Integrin β3 (Iβ3), as well as tumor-produced factors associated with bone destruction (Gli2 and parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP)), significantly increased with matrix rigidity, and that blocking Iβ3 reduced Gli2 and PTHrP expression. To identify the mechanism by which Iβ3 regulates Gli2 and PTHrP (both are also known to be regulated by TGF-β), we performed Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and immunoprecipitation, which indicated that Iβ3 co-localized with TGF-β Receptor Type II (TGF-β RII) on rigid but not compliant films. Finally, transplantation of tumor cells expressing Iβ3 shRNA into the tibiae of athymic nude mice significantly reduced PTHrP and Gli2 expression, as well as bone destruction, suggesting a crucial role for tumor-produced Iβ3 in disease progression. This study demonstrates that the rigid mineralized bone matrix can alter gene expression and bone destruction in an Iβ3/TGF-β-dependent manner, and suggests that Iβ3 inhibitors are a potential therapeutic approach for blocking tumor transition to a bone destructive phenotype.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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28 MeSH Terms