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Using an ORF kinome screen in MCF-7 cells treated with the CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib plus fulvestrant, we identified FGFR1 as a mechanism of drug resistance. FGFR1-amplified/ER+ breast cancer cells and MCF-7 cells transduced with FGFR1 were resistant to fulvestrant ± ribociclib or palbociclib. This resistance was abrogated by treatment with the FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lucitanib. Addition of the FGFR TKI erdafitinib to palbociclib/fulvestrant induced complete responses of FGFR1-amplified/ER+ patient-derived-xenografts. Next generation sequencing of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in 34 patients after progression on CDK4/6 inhibitors identified FGFR1/2 amplification or activating mutations in 14/34 (41%) post-progression specimens. Finally, ctDNA from patients enrolled in MONALEESA-2, the registration trial of ribociclib, showed that patients with FGFR1 amplification exhibited a shorter progression-free survival compared to patients with wild type FGFR1. Thus, we propose breast cancers with FGFR pathway alterations should be considered for trials using combinations of ER, CDK4/6 and FGFR antagonists.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed increased breast cancer risk associated with multiple genetic variants at 5p12. Here, we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 104,660 subjects from 50 case-control studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). With data for 3,365 genotyped and imputed SNPs across a 1 Mb region (positions 44,394,495-45,364,167; NCBI build 37), we found evidence for at least three independent signals: the strongest signal, consisting of a single SNP rs10941679, was associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-positive (ER) breast cancer (per-g allele OR ER = 1.15; 95% CI 1.13-1.18; p = 8.35 × 10). After adjustment for rs10941679, we detected signal 2, consisting of 38 SNPs more strongly associated with ER-negative (ER) breast cancer (lead SNP rs6864776: per-a allele OR ER = 1.10; 95% CI 1.05-1.14; p conditional = 1.44 × 10), and a single signal 3 SNP (rs200229088: per-t allele OR ER = 1.12; 95% CI 1.09-1.15; p conditional = 1.12 × 10). Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in normal breast tissues and breast tumors showed that the g (risk) allele of rs10941679 was associated with increased expression of FGF10 and MRPS30. Functional assays demonstrated that SNP rs10941679 maps to an enhancer element that physically interacts with the FGF10 and MRPS30 promoter regions in breast cancer cell lines. FGF10 is an oncogene that binds to FGFR2 and is overexpressed in ∼10% of human breast cancers, whereas MRPS30 plays a key role in apoptosis. These data suggest that the strongest signal of association at 5p12 is mediated through coordinated activation of FGF10 and MRPS30, two candidate genes for breast cancer pathogenesis.
Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - Physical activity, a protective factor for breast cancer, increases the level of DNA methylation. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), a confirmed breast cancer susceptibility gene, is predisposed to be methylated. Therefore, DNA methylation related genes, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), together with physical activity and FGFR2, may interact with each other to effect breast cancer risk.
METHODS - A total of 839 incident breast cancer cases and 863 age-matched controls from Guangzhou, China were included in this study. We used questionnaires to assess physical activity in metabolic equivalent (MET)-h/week/year and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry platform to ascertain genotypes. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from logistic regression models.
RESULTS - Exercise activity and FGFR2 rs2981582 were confirmed to be associated with breast cancer risk, and were found to significantly interact (P for multiplicative and additive interactions = 0.045 and 0.021, respectively). Women who had CT/TT genotypes of FGFR2 rs2981582 and experienced exercise activity <3 MET-h/week/year had significantly increased risk (OR = 3.15, 95% CI = 2.28-4.35) compared to women with CC genotype and ≥ 3 MET-h/week/year. There was also a significant interaction between FGFR2 rs2981582 and MTHFR rs1801133 on breast cancer risk (P for multiplicative and additive interactions = 0.039 and 0.023, respectively).
CONCLUSION - We found both a gene-environment (FGFR2-exercise activity) and a gene-gene (FGFR2-MTHFR) interaction on breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that environmental factors, such as physical activity, may be able to counteract genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mitotic index is an important component of histologic grade and has an etiologic role in breast tumorigenesis. Several small candidate gene studies have reported associations between variation in mitotic genes and breast cancer risk. We measured associations between 2156 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 194 mitotic genes and breast cancer risk, overall and by histologic grade, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) iCOGS study (n = 39 067 cases; n = 42 106 controls). SNPs in TACC2 [rs17550038: odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.33, P = 4.2 × 10(-10)) and EIF3H (rs799890: OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11, P = 8.7 × 10(-6)) were significantly associated with risk of low-grade breast cancer. The TACC2 signal was retained (rs17550038: OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23, P = 7.9 × 10(-5)) after adjustment for breast cancer risk SNPs in the nearby FGFR2 gene, suggesting that TACC2 is a novel, independent genome-wide significant genetic risk locus for low-grade breast cancer. While no SNPs were individually associated with high-grade disease, a pathway-level gene set analysis showed that variation across the 194 mitotic genes was associated with high-grade breast cancer risk (P = 2.1 × 10(-3)). These observations will provide insight into the contribution of mitotic defects to histological grade and the etiology of breast cancer.
Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
BACKGROUND - Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
METHODS - Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.
RESULTS - Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval=1.02-1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2.
CONCLUSION - Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2.
There is an emerging interest in sequencing-based association studies of multiple rare variants. Most association tests suggested in the literature involve collapsing rare variants with or without weighting. Recently, a variance-component score test [sequence kernel association test (SKAT)] was proposed to address the limitations of collapsing method. Although SKAT was shown to outperform most of the alternative tests, its applications and power might be restricted and influenced by missing genotypes. In this paper, we suggest a new method based on testing whether the fraction of causal variants in a region is zero. The new association test, T REM , is derived from a random-effects model and allows for missing genotypes, and the choice of weighting function is not required when common and rare variants are analyzed simultaneously. We performed simulations to study the type I error rates and power of four competing tests under various conditions on the sample size, genotype missing rate, variant frequency, effect directionality, and the number of non-causal rare variant and/or causal common variant. The simulation results showed that T REM was a valid test and less sensitive to the inclusion of non-causal rare variants and/or low effect common variants or to the presence of missing genotypes. When the effects were more consistent in the same direction, T REM also had better power performance. Finally, an application to the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study showed that rare causal variants at the FGFR2 gene were detected by T REM and SKAT, but T REM produced more consistent results for different sets of rare and common variants.
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ERα to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease.
Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blood levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein correlated with metabolic and cardiovascular risks, are highly heritable. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies for adiponectin levels have identified 14 loci harboring variants associated with blood levels of adiponectin. To identify novel adiponectin-associated loci, particularly those of importance in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWA studies for adiponectin in 7827 individuals, followed by two stages of replications in 4298 and 5954 additional individuals. We identified a novel adiponectin-associated locus on chromosome 10 near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 3.0 × 10(-14)) and provided suggestive evidence for a locus on chromosome 12 near OR8S1-LALBA (P = 1.2 × 10(-7)). Of the adiponectin-associated loci previously described, we confirmed the association at CDH13 (P = 6.8 × 10(-165)), ADIPOQ (P = 1.8 × 10(-22)), PEPD (P = 3.6 × 10(-12)), CMIP (P = 2.1 × 10(-10)), ZNF664 (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)) and GPR109A (P = 7.4 × 10(-6)). Conditional analysis at ADIPOQ revealed a second signal with suggestive evidence of association only after conditioning on the lead SNP (Pinitial = 0.020; Pconditional = 7.0 × 10(-7)). We further confirmed the independence of two pairs of closely located loci (<2 Mb) on chromosome 16 at CMIP and CDH13, and on chromosome 12 at GPR109A and ZNF664. In addition, the newly identified signal near WDR11-FGFR2 exhibited evidence of association with triglycerides (P = 3.3 × 10(-4)), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, P = 4.9 × 10(-4)) and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip ratio (P = 9.8 × 10(-3)). These findings improve our knowledge of the genetic basis of adiponectin variation, demonstrate the shared allelic architecture for adiponectin with lipids and central obesity and motivate further studies of underlying mechanisms.
OBJECTIVE - Genomewide association studies have consistently found variants in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) to be associated with breast cancer. Recent reports suggest that postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) use may modify the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FGFR2 and breast cancer risk. We assessed the hypothesis that the association between rs1219648 (FGFR2) SNP and breast cancer risk is modified by postmenopausal HT use in a population-based case-control study.
METHODS - We evaluated rs1219648 SNP for an association with breast cancer risk using data obtained from 869 postmenopausal breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2000 and from 808 postmenopausal community controls who participated in a study conducted in three US states. Detailed postmenopausal HT information was collected through a structured telephone interview, and DNA samples were collected by mail using an established mouthwash protocol. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and state of residence.
RESULTS - We observed a significant association between rs1219648 and breast cancer risk (per-allele odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.41; P = 0.007), which did not vary significantly by ever use of estrogen plus progestogen therapy (interaction P = 0.48). There was stronger evidence of an interaction between ever use of estrogen-only HT and increasing number of rs1219648 risk alleles to increase breast cancer risk (interaction P = 0.08).
CONCLUSIONS - Our results are consistent with a risk association with FGFR2 but provide limited support for interaction with HT use. The study raises the possibility that the FGFR2 rs1219648 variant is more strongly associated with risk in estrogen-only hormone users, although this observation needs to be examined in larger studies.
PURPOSE - Pax3cre-mediated deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) broadly in renal and urinary tract mesenchyme led to ureteric bud (UB) induction defects and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), although the mechanisms were unclear. Here, we investigated whether Fgfr2 acts specifically in peri-Wolffian duct stroma (ST) to regulate UB induction and development of VUR and the mechanisms of Fgfr2 activity.
METHODS - We conditionally deleted Fgfr2 in ST (Fgfr2(ST-/-)) using Tbx18cre mice. To look for ureteric bud induction defects in young embryos, we assessed length and apoptosis of common nephric ducts (CNDs). We performed 3D reconstructions and histological analyses of urinary tracts of embryos and postnatal mice and cystograms in postnatal mice to test for VUR. We performed in situ hybridization and real-time PCR in young embryos to determine mechanisms underlying UB induction defects.
RESULTS - We confirmed that Fgfr2 is expressed in ST and that Fgfr2 was efficiently deleted in this tissue in Fgfr2(ST-/-) mice at embryonic day (E) 10.5. E11.5 Fgfr2(ST-/-) mice had randomized UB induction sites with approximately 1/3 arising too high and 1/3 too low from the Wolffian duct; however, apoptosis was unaltered in E12.5 mutant CNDs. While ureters were histologically normal, E15.5 Fgfr2(ST-/-) mice exhibit improper ureteral insertion sites into the bladder, consistent with the ureteric induction defects. While ureter and bladder histology appeared normal, postnatal day (P) 1 mutants had high rates of VUR versus controls (75% versus 3%, p = 0.001) and occasionally other defects including renal hypoplasia and duplex systems. P1 mutant mice also had improper ureteral bladder insertion sites and shortened intravesicular tunnel lengths that correlated with VUR. E10.5 Fgfr2(ST-/-) mice had decreases in Bmp4 mRNA in stromal tissues, suggesting a mechanism underlying the ureteric induction and VUR phenotypes.
CONCLUSION - Mutations in FGFR2 could possibly cause VUR in humans.