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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is among the most common and costly disorders worldwide. The goal of current medical management for T2D is to transiently ameliorate hyperglycemia through daily dosing of one or more antidiabetic drugs. Hypoglycemia and weight gain are common side effects of therapy, and sustained disease remission is not obtainable with nonsurgical approaches. On the basis of the potent glucose-lowering response elicited by activation of brain fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, we explored the antidiabetic efficacy of centrally administered FGF1, which, unlike other FGF peptides, activates all FGF receptor subtypes. We report that a single intracerebroventricular injection of FGF1 at a dose one-tenth of that needed for antidiabetic efficacy following peripheral injection induces sustained diabetes remission in both mouse and rat models of T2D. This antidiabetic effect is not secondary to weight loss, does not increase the risk of hypoglycemia, and involves a novel and incompletely understood mechanism for increasing glucose clearance from the bloodstream. We conclude that the brain has an inherent potential to induce diabetes remission and that brain FGF receptors are potential pharmacological targets for achieving this goal.
A loss of glucose effectiveness to suppress hepatic glucose production as well as increase hepatic glucose uptake and storage as glycogen is associated with a defective increase in glucose phosphorylation catalyzed by glucokinase (GK) in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. We extended these observations by investigating the role of persistent hyperglycemia (glucotoxicity) in the development of impaired hepatic GK activity in ZDF rats. We measured expression and localization of GK and GK regulatory protein (GKRP), translocation of GK, and hepatic glucose flux in response to a gastric mixed meal load (MMT) and hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp after 1 or 6 wk of treatment with the sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor (canaglifrozin) that was used to correct the persistent hyperglycemia of ZDF rats. Defective augmentation of glucose phosphorylation in response to a rise in plasma glucose in ZDF rats was associated with the coresidency of GKRP with GK in the cytoplasm in the midstage of diabetes, which was followed by a decrease in GK protein levels due to impaired posttranscriptional processing in the late stage of diabetes. Correcting hyperglycemia from the middle diabetic stage normalized the rate of glucose phosphorylation by maintaining GK protein levels, restoring normal nuclear residency of GK and GKRP under basal conditions and normalizing translocation of GK from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, with GKRP remaining in the nucleus in response to a rise in plasma glucose. This improved the liver's metabolic ability to respond to hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Glucotoxicity is responsible for loss of glucose effectiveness and is associated with altered GK regulation in the ZDF rat.
Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Male Zucker diabetic fatty fa/fa (ZDF) rats develop obesity and insulin resistance at a young age, and then with aging, progressively develop hyperglycemia. This hyperglycemia is associated with impaired pancreatic β-cell function, loss of pancreatic β-cell mass, and decreased responsiveness of liver and extrahepatic tissues to the actions of insulin and glucose. Of particular interest are the insights provided by studies of these animals into the mechanism behind the progressive impairment of carbohydrate metabolism. This feature among others, including the development of obesity- and hyperglycemia-related complications, is common between male ZDF rats and humans with type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. We discuss the diabetic features and complications found in ZDF rats and why these animals are widely used as a genetic model for obese type 2 diabetes.
OBJECTIVE - Examine whether normalizing net hepatic glycogenesis restores endogenous glucose production and hepatic glucose phosphorylation in response to diabetic levels of plasma glucose and insulin in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Hepatic glucose and intermediate fluxes (µmol · kg(-1) · min(-1)) were measured with and without a glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor (GPI) using [2-(3)H]glucose, [3-(3)H]glucose, and [U-(14)C]alanine in 20 h-fasted conscious ZDF and their lean littermates (ZCL) under clamp conditions designed to maintain diabetic levels of plasma glucose and insulin.
RESULTS - With infusion of GPI into ZDF (ZDF-GPI+G), compared with vehicle infused ZDF (ZDF-V), high glycogen phosphorylase a activity was decreased and low synthase I activity was increased to that of ZCL. Low net glycogenesis from plasma glucose rose to 75% of ZCL levels (4 ± 1 in ZDF-V, 18 ± 1 in ZDF-GPI+G, and 24 ± 2 in ZCL) and phosphoenolpyruvate 260% (4 ± 2 in ZDF-V, 16 ± 1 in ZDF+GPI-G, and 6 ± 2 in ZCL). High endogenous glucose production was suppressed with GPI infusion but not to that of ZCL (46 ± 4 in ZDF-V, 18 ± 4 in ZDF-GPI+G, and -8 ± 3 in ZCL). This was accompanied by reduction of the higher glucose-6-phosphatase flux (75 ± 4 in ZDF-V, 41 ± 4 in ZDF-GPI+G, and 86 ± 12 in ZCL) and no change in low glucose phosphorylation or total gluconeogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS - In the presence of hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemia in ZDF, reduced glycogenic flux partially contributes to a lack of suppression of hepatic glucose production by failing to redirect glucose-6-phosphate flux from production of glucose to glycogen but is not responsible for a lower rate of glucose phosphorylation.
The hindgut hypothesis posits improvements in Type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass surgery are due to enhanced delivery of undigested nutrients to the ileum, which increase incretin production and insulin sensitivity. The present study investigates the effect of ileal interposition (IT), surgically relocating a segment of distal ileum to the proximal jejunum, on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and glucose transport in the obese Zucker rat. Two groups of obese Zucker rats were studied: IT and sham surgery ad libitum fed (controls). Changes in food intake, body weight and composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and tissue glucose uptake, and insulin signaling as well as plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide were measured. The IT procedure did not significantly alter food intake, body weight, or composition. Obese Zucker rats demonstrated improved glucose tolerance 3 wk after IT compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp and 1-[(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose tracer studies indicate that IT improves whole body glucose disposal, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and the ratio of phospho- to total Akt (P < 0.01 vs. control) in striated muscle. After oral glucose, the plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1 was increased, whereas GIP was decreased following IT. Enhanced nutrient delivery to the ileum after IT improves glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and muscle glucose uptake without altering food intake, body weight, or composition. These findings support the concept that anatomic and endocrine alterations in gut function play a role in the improvements in glucose homeostasis after the IT procedure.
OBJECTIVE - We examined in 20-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats whether restoration of hepatic glucokinase (GK) expression would alter hepatic glucose flux and improve hyperglycemia.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - ZDF rats were treated at various doses with an adenovirus that directs the expression of rat liver GK (AdvCMV-GKL) dose dependently, and various metabolic parameters were compared with those of nondiabetic lean littermates (ZCL rats) before and during a hyperglycemic clamp. Viral infection per se did not affect hepatic GK activity, since expression of a catalytically inactive form of GK did not alter endogenous hepatic GK activity.
RESULTS - ZDF rats compared with ZCL rats have lower hepatic GK activity (11.6 +/- 1.9 vs. 32.5 +/- 3.2 mU/mg protein), marked hyperglycemia (23.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 7.4 +/- 0.3 mmol/l), higher endogenous glucose production (80 +/- 3 vs. 38 +/- 3 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), increased glucose-6-phosphatase flux (150 +/- 11 vs. 58 +/- 8 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), and during a hyperglycemic clamp, a failure to suppress endogenous glucose production (80 +/- 7 vs. -7 +/- 4 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and promote glucose incorporation into glycogen (15 +/- 5 vs. 43 +/- 3 micromol/g liver). Treatment of ZDF rats with different doses of AdvCMV-GKL, which restored hepatic GK activity to one to two times that of ZCL rats, normalized plasma glucose levels and endogenous glucose production. During a hyperglycemic clamp, glucose production was suppressed and glucose incorporation into glycogen was normal.
CONCLUSIONS - Alteration of hepatic GK activity in ZDF rats has profound effects on plasma glucose and hepatic glucose flux.
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that human neutrophil alpha-defensins (HNPs) inhibit hepatic glucose production through a signaling pathway distinct from insulin. The effect of HNP-1 on fasting blood glucose levels and the expression of hepatic gluconeogenic genes was first examined. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we determined the effect of HNP-1 on endogenous glucose production, hepatic expression of key gluconeogenic genes and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In isolated primary hepatocytes, we studied the effect of HNP-1 and -2 on glucose production, expression of gluconeogenic genes, and phosphorylation of Akt, c-Src, and FoxO1. Our results show that HNP-1 reduced blood glucose levels of both normal mice and Zucker diabetic fatty rats predominantly through suppression of hepatic glucose production. HNPs inhibited glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in isolated hepatocytes. HNPs also suppressed expression of key gluconeogenic genes including phosphoenoylpyruvate carboxyl kinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. To investigate the mechanism, we found that HNPs stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO1 without activating IRS1. Nevertheless, HNPs activated c-Src. Blockade of c-Src activity with either a chemical inhibitor PP2 or an alternative inhibitor CSK prevented the inhibitory effect of HNPs on gluconeogenesis. Together, our results support the hypothesis that HNPs can suppress hepatic glucose production through an intracellular mechanism distinct from the classical insulin signaling pathway.
BACKGROUND - There is evidence to suggest that impairment in bone formation and/or turnover is associated with the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type-2 diabetes mellitus. However, bone regeneration/repair in type-2 diabetes has not been modeled. Using Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats (a model of type-2 diabetes) for tibial distraction osteogenesis (DO), we hypothesized that bone formation within the distraction gap would be impaired.
ANIMALS AND METHODS - Rats were examined for body weight, glycosuria, and glycosemia to confirm the diabetic condition during the study. The rats received placement of the external fixators and osteotomies on the left tibia. Distraction was initiated the following day at 0.2 mm twice a day and continued for 14 days. The lengthened tibiae were harvested and distraction gaps were examined radiographically and histologically.
RESULTS - We found significant reduction in new bone formation in the distraction gaps of the ZDF rats, both radiographically and histologically, compared to lean rats. We found a decrease in a marker of cellular proliferation in the distraction gaps and increased adipose volume in adjacent bone marrow of the ZDF rats.
INTERPRETATION - Our findings suggest that this model might be used to study the contributions of leptin resistance, insulin resistance and/or hyperglycemia to impaired osteoblastogenesis in vivo.
Effect of stimulation of glucokinase (GK) export from the nucleus by small amounts of sorbitol on hepatic glucose flux in response to elevated plasma glucose was examined in 6-h fasted Zucker diabetic fatty rats at 10 wk of age. Under basal conditions, plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon were approximately 8 mM, 2,000 pmol/l, and 60 ng/l, respectively. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) was 44 +/- 4 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1). When plasma glucose was raised to approximately 17 mM, GK was still predominantly localized with its inhibitory protein in the nucleus. EGP was not suppressed. When sorbitol was infused at 5.6 and 16.7 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), along with the increase in plasma glucose, GK was exported to the cytoplasm. EGP (23 +/- 19 and 12 +/- 5 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was suppressed without a decrease in glucose 6-phosphatase flux (145 +/- 23 and 126 +/- 16 vs. 122 +/- 10 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1) without sorbitol) but increased in glucose phosphorylation as indicated by increases in glucose recycling (122 +/- 17 and 114 +/- 19 vs. 71 +/- 11 microl x kg(-1) x min(-1)), glucose-6-phosphate content (254 +/- 32 and 260 +/- 35 vs. 188 +/- 20 nmol/g liver), fractional contribution of plasma glucose to uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose flux (43 +/- 8 and 42 +/- 8 vs. 27 +/- 6%), and glycogen synthesis from plasma glucose (20 +/- 4 and 22 +/- 5 vs. 9 +/- 4 mumol glucose/g liver). The decreased glucose effectiveness to suppress EGP and stimulate hepatic glucose uptake may result from failure of the sugar to activate GK by stimulating the translocation of the enzyme.
The effect of restoration of normoglycemia by a novel sodium-dependent glucose transporter inhibitor (T-1095) on impaired hepatic glucose uptake was examined in 14-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The nontreated group exhibited persistent endogenous glucose production (EGP) despite marked hyperglycemia. Gluconeogenesis and glucose cycling (GC) were responsible for 46 and 51% of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) flux, respectively. Net incorporation of plasma glucose into hepatic glycogen was negligible. Glucokinase (GK) and its inhibitory protein, GK regulatory protein (GKRP), were colocalized in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. At day 7 of drug administration, EGP was slightly reduced, but G6Pase flux and GC were markedly lower compared with the nontreated group. In this case, GK and GKRP were colocalized in the nuclei of hepatocytes. When plasma glucose and insulin levels were raised during a clamp, EGP was completely suppressed and GC, glycogen synthesis from plasma glucose, and the fractional contribution of plasma glucose to uridine diphosphoglucose flux were markedly increased. GK, but not GKRP, was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Glucotoxicity may result in the blunted response of hepatic glucose flux to elevated plasma glucose and/or insulin associated with impaired regulation of GK by GKRP in ZDF rats.