The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
PURPOSE - To compare the electrophysiological and morphological responses to acute, moderately elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD), Long-Evans (LE) and Brown Norway (BN) rat eyes.
METHODS - Eleven-week-old SD (n = 5), LE (n = 5) and BN (n = 5) rats were used. Scotopic threshold responses (STRs), Maxwellian flash electroretinograms (ERGs) or ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) images of the rat retinas were collected from both eyes before, during and after IOP elevation of one eye. IOP was raised to ~35 mmHg for 1 h using a vascular loop, while the other eye served as a control. STRs, ERGs and UHR-OCT images were acquired on 3 days separated by 1 day of no experimental manipulation.
RESULTS - There were no significant differences between species in baseline electroretinography. However, during IOP elevation, peak positive STR amplitudes in LE (mean ± standard deviation 259 ± 124 µV) and BN (228 ± 96 µV) rats were about fourfold higher than those in SD rats (56 ± 46 µV) rats (p = 0.0002 for both). Similarly, during elevated IOP, ERG b-wave amplitudes were twofold higher in LE and BN rats compared to those of SD rats (947 ± 129 µV and 892 ± 184 µV, vs 427 ± 138 µV; p = 0.0002 for both). UHR-OCT images showed backward bowing in all groups during IOP elevation, with a return to typical form about 30 min after IOP elevation.
CONCLUSION - Differences in the loop-induced responses between the strains are likely due to different inherent retinal morphology and physiology.
Food intake occurs in bouts or meals, and numerous meal-generated signals have been identified that act to limit the size of ongoing meals. Hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK) are secreted from the intestine as ingested food is being processed, and in addition to aiding the digestive process, they provide a signal to the brain that contributes to satiation, limiting the size of the meal. The potency of CCK to elicit satiation is enhanced by elevated levels of adiposity signals such as insulin. In the present experiments we asked whether CCK and insulin interact at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We first isolated rat brain capillary endothelial cells that comprise the BBB and found that they express the mRNA for both the CCK1R and the insulin receptor, providing a basis for a possible interaction. We then administered insulin intraperitoneally to another group of rats and 15min later administered CCK-8 intraperitoneally to half of those rats. After another 15min, CSF and blood samples were obtained and assayed for immunoreactive insulin. Plasma insulin was comparably elevated above baseline in both the CCK-8 and control groups, indicating that the CCK had no effect on circulating insulin levels given these parameters. In contrast, rats administered CCK had CSF-insulin levels that were more than twice as high as those of control rats. We conclude that circulating CCK greatly facilitates the transport of insulin into the brain, likely by acting directly at the BBB. These findings imply that in circumstances in which the plasma levels of both CCK and insulin are elevated, such as during and soon after meals, satiation is likely to be due, in part, to this newly-discovered synergy between CCK and insulin.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and reduced transport of insulin through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Reversal of high-fat diet-induced obesity (HFD-DIO) by dietary intervention improves the transport of insulin through the BBB and the sensitivity of insulin in the brain. Although both insulin and estrogen (E2), when given alone, reduce food intake and body weight via the brain, E2 actually renders the brain relatively insensitive to insulin's catabolic action. The objective of these studies was to determine if E2 influences the ability of insulin to be transported into the brain, since the receptors for both E2 and insulin are found in BBB endothelial cells. E2 (acute or chronic) was systemically administered to ovariectomized (OVX) female rats and male rats fed a chow or a high-fat diet. Food intake, body weight and other metabolic parameters were assessed along with insulin entry into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Acute E2 treatment in OVX female and male rats reduced body weight and food intake, and chronic E2 treatment prevented or partially reversed high-fat diet-induced obesity. However, none of these conditions increased insulin transport into the CNS; rather, chronic E2 treatment was associated less-effective insulin transport into the CNS relative to weight-matched controls. Thus, the reduction of brain insulin sensitivity by E2 is unlikely to be mediated by increasing the amount of insulin entering the CNS.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypoxia-induced Vegf120, Vegf164 and Vegf188 mRNA expression profiles in rat Müller cells (MC), astrocytes, retinal pigmented epithelial cells (RPE) and retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMEC) and correlate these findings to VEGF secreted protein. Cultured cells were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia. Total RNA was isolated from cell lysates and Vegf splice variant mRNA copy numbers were assayed by a validated qRT-PCR external calibration curve method. mRNA copy numbers were normalized to input total RNA. Conditioned medium was collected from cells and assayed for total VEGF protein by ELISA. Hypoxia increased total Vegf mRNA and secreted protein in all the retinal cell types, with the highest levels observed in MC and astrocytes ranking second. Total Vegf mRNA levels in hypoxic RPE and RMEC were comparable; however, the greatest hypoxic induction of each Vegf splice variant mRNA was observed in RMEC. RPE and RMEC ranked 3rd and 4th respectively, in terms of secreted total VEGF protein in hypoxia. The Vegf120, Vegf164 and Vegf188 mRNA splice variants were all increased in hypoxic cells compared to normoxic controls. In normoxia, the relative Vegf splice variant mRNA levels ranked from highest to lowest for each cell type were Vegf164 > Vegf120 > Vegf188. Hypoxic induction did not alter this ranking, although it did favor an increased stoichiometry of Vegf164 mRNA over the other two splice variants. MC and astrocytes are likely to be the major sources of total Vegf, Vegf164 splice variant mRNAs, and VEGF protein in retinal hypoxia.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels contribute to an atherogenic dyslipidemia that is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Numerous models of obesity are characterized by increased central nervous system (CNS) neuropeptide Y (NPY) tone that contributes to excess food intake and obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of NPY in lean fasted rats also elevates hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG. Thus, we hypothesize that elevated CNS NPY action contributes to not only the pathogenesis of obesity but also dyslipidemia. Here, we sought to determine whether the effects of NPY on feeding and/or obesity are dissociable from effects on hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. Pair-fed, icv NPY-treated, chow-fed Long-Evans rats develop hypertriglyceridemia in the absence of increased food intake and body fat accumulation compared with vehicle-treated controls. We then modulated CNS NPY signaling by icv injection of selective NPY receptor agonists and found that Y1, Y2, Y4, and Y5 receptor agonists all induced hyperphagia in lean, ad libitum chow-fed Long-Evans rats, with the Y2 receptor agonist having the most pronounced effect. Next, we found that at equipotent doses for food intake NPY Y1 receptor agonist had the most robust effect on VLDL-TG secretion, a Y2 receptor agonist had a modest effect, and no effect was observed for Y4 and Y5 receptor agonists. These findings, using selective agonists, suggest the possibility that the effect of CNS NPY signaling on hepatic VLDL-TG secretion may be relatively dissociable from effects on feeding behavior via the Y1 receptor.
For patients with diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia both contribute to increased serum triglyceride in the form of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Our objective was to define the insulin conditions in which hyperglycemia promotes increased serum VLDL in vivo. We performed hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies and hyperglycemic-hypoinsulinemic clamp studies in rats, with metabolic tracers for glucose flux and de novo fatty acid synthesis. When blood glucose was clamped at hyperglycemia (17 mm) for 2 h under hyperinsulinemic conditions (4 mU/kg . min), serum VLDL levels were not increased compared with baseline. We speculated that hyperinsulinemia minimized glucose-mediated VLDL changes and performed hyperglycemic-hypoinsulinemic clamp studies in which insulin was clamped near fasting levels with somatostatin (17 mm blood glucose, 0.25 mU/kg . min insulin). Under low-insulin conditions, serum VLDL levels were increased 4.7-fold after hyperglycemia, and forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) was not excluded from the nucleus of liver cells. We tested the extent that impaired inactivation of FoxO1 by insulin was sufficient for glucose to promote increased serum VLDL. We found that, when the ability of insulin to inactivate FoxO1 is blocked after adenoviral delivery of constitutively active FoxO1, glucose increased serum VLDL triglyceride when given both by ip glucose tolerance testing (3.5-fold increase) and by a hyperglycemic clamp (4.6-fold). Under both experimental conditions in which insulin signaling to FoxO1 was impaired, we found increased activation of carbohydrate response element binding protein. These data suggest that glucose more potently promotes increased serum VLDL when insulin action is impaired, with either low insulin levels or disrupted downstream signaling to the transcription factor FoxO1.
PURPOSE - Nepafenac is a potent NSAID that rapidly penetrates the eye following topical ocular administration. In the eye, nepafenac is converted to amfenac, which has unique time-dependent inhibitory properties for COX-1 and COX-2. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the capacity of amfenac to inhibit discrete aspects of the angiogenic cascade in vitro, and to test the efficacy of amfenac and nepafenac in vivo, using the rat OIR model.
METHODS - Müller cells were treated with amfenac, celecoxib (COX-2), or SC-560 (COX-1), and hypoxia-induced VEGF and PGE(2) assessed. Endothelial cells were treated with amfenac, celecoxib, or SC-560, and VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation assessed. Rat pups were subjected to OIR, received intravitreal injections of amfenac, celecoxib, or SC-560, and neovascularization (NV), prostanoid production, and VEGF assessed. Other OIR-exposed pups were treated with topical nepafenac, ketorolac, or diclofenac, and inhibition of NV assessed.
RESULTS - Amfenac treatment failed to inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF production. Amfenac treatment significantly inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation and proliferation by EC. Amfenac treatment significantly reduced retinal prostanoid production and NV in OIR. Nepafenac treatment significantly reduced retinal NV in OIR; ketorolac and diclofenac had no effect.
CONCLUSIONS - Nepafenac and amfenac inhibit OIR more effectively than the commercially available topical and injectable NSAIDs used in this study. Our data suggests there are COX-dependent and COX-independent mechanisms by which amfenac inhibits OIR. Because it is bioavailable to the posterior segment following topical delivery, nepafenac appears to be a promising advancement in the development of therapies for neovascular eye diseases.
Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-theta, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-theta was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of the arcuate nucleus, specifically the neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein neurons and the dorsal medial nucleus in the hypothalamus. CNS exposure to palmitic acid via direct infusion or by oral gavage increased the localization of PKC-theta to cell membranes in the hypothalamus, which was associated with impaired hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling. This finding was specific for palmitic acid, as the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, neither increased membrane localization of PKC-theta nor induced insulin resistance. Finally, arcuate-specific knockdown of PKC-theta attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved insulin signaling. These results suggest that many of the deleterious effects of high-fat diets, specifically those enriched with palmitic acid, are CNS mediated via PKC-theta activation, resulting in reduced insulin activity.
Weight gain induced by an energy-dense diet is hypothesized to arise in part from defects in the neuronal response to circulating adiposity negative feedback signals, such as insulin. Peripheral tissue insulin resistance involves cellular inflammatory responses thought to be invoked by excess lipid. Therefore, we sought to determine whether similar signaling pathways are activated in the brain of rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The ability of intracerebroventricular (icv) insulin to reduce food intake and activate hypothalamic signal transduction is attenuated in HF-fed compared with low-fat (LF)-fed rats. This effect was accompanied by both hypothalamic accumulation of palmitoyl- and stearoyl-CoA and activation of a marker of inflammatory signaling, inhibitor of kappaB kinase-beta (IKKbeta). Hypothalamic insulin resistance and inflammation were observed with icv palmitate infusion or HF feeding independent of excess caloric intake. Last, we observed that central IKKbeta inhibition reduced food intake and was associated with increased hypothalamic insulin sensitivity in rats fed a HF but not a LF diet. These data collectively support a model of diet-induced obesity whereby dietary fat, not excess calories, induces hypothalamic insulin resistance by increasing the content of saturated acyl-CoA species and activating local inflammatory signals, which result in a failure to appropriately regulate food intake.
It has been suggested that disturbances in endocannabinoid signaling contribute to the development of depressive illness; however, at present there is insufficient evidence to allow for a full understanding of this role. To further this understanding, we performed an analysis of the endocannabinoid system in an animal model of depression. Male rats exposed to chronic, unpredictable stress (CUS) for 21 days exhibited a reduction in sexual motivation, consistent with the hypothesis that CUS in rats induces depression-like symptoms. We determined the effects of CUS, with or without concurrent treatment with the antidepressant imipramine (10 mg/kg), on CP55940 binding to the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor; whole tissue endocannabinoid content; and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, midbrain and ventral striatum. Exposure to CUS resulted in a significant increase in CB(1) receptor binding site density in the prefrontal cortex and a decrease in CB(1) receptor binding site density in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and ventral striatum. Except in the hippocampus, these CUS-induced alterations in CB(1) receptor binding site density were attenuated by concurrent antidepressant treatment. CUS alone produced a significant reduction in N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) content in every brain region examined, which was not reversed by antidepressant treatment. These data suggest that the endocannabinoid system in cortical and subcortical structures is differentially altered in an animal model of depression and that the effects of CUS on CB(1) receptor binding site density are attenuated by antidepressant treatment while those on endocannabinoid content are not.