The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
S-Nitrosated human serum albumin (SNO-HSA) is useful in preventing liver ischemia/reperfusion injury, and SNO-HSA should thus be able to prevent cell injury during liver transplantation. However, the potential protective effect of SNO-HSA on a combination of cold and warm ischemia, which is obligatory when performing liver transplantation, has not been examined. Therefore, we evaluated the protective effect of SNO-HSA added to University of Wisconsin (UW) solution during cold or/and warm ischemia in situ and in vitro. First, we observed that apoptotic and necrotic cell death were increased during cold and warm ischemia, respectively. SNO-HSA, which possesses anti-apoptosis activity at low NO concentrations, can inhibit cold ischemia injury both in situ and in vitro. In contrast, SNO-HSA had no significant effect on warm liver ischemia injury which, however, can be reduced by UW solution. We also demonstrated that the cellular uptake of NO from SNO-HSA can occur during cold ischemia resulting in induction of heme oxygenase-1 within 3h of cold ischemia. Our results indicate that treatment with SNO-HSA or UW solution alone is not sufficient to inhibit liver injury during a period of both cold and warm ischemia. However, a combination of SNO-HSA and UW solution can be used to prevent the two types of ischemia. SNO-HSA-added UW solution could be very useful in transplantation, because the previously imposed constraints on preservation time can be removed. This is a great advantage in a situation as the present one with increased utilization of scarce donor organs for more recipients.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - Low temperature preservation causes unique liver injuries to the sinusoidal lining cells characterized by endothelial cell detachment and rounding and Kupffer cell activation. These changes are similar to those observed during the early stages of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate if cold preservation injury is caused by the activation of angiogenic mechanisms.
METHODS - Livers were obtained from rats pretreated with three well-known antiangiogenic agents (minocycline, interferon alfa-2b, and fumagillin) and were stored for various durations in cold preservation solutions. The effects of the drugs were evaluated by morphometric assessment of endothelial cell injury in H&E, trypan blue, and immunostained (TIE2/Tek) biopsy specimens. Graft functions and survival were evaluated in isolated perfused rat liver and arterialized orthotopic liver transplantation models.
RESULTS - Sinusoidal lining cell integrity and viability were significantly improved in animals pretreated with the drugs. Reperfusion injury and survival were also better in pretreated animals. Interferon alfa was the most potent agent, reducing injury even in livers preserved in the current most commonly used solution (University of Wisconsin solution).
CONCLUSIONS - Cold preservation injury of liver may be the results of angiogenic mechanisms. This novel observation provides a rationale for improved liver preservation using antiangiogenic agents.
Nup116p is a member of a family of five yeast nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins that share an amino terminal region of repetitive tetrapeptide "GLFG" motifs. Previous experiments characterized the unique morphological perturbations that occur in a nup116 null mutant: temperature-sensitive formation of nuclear envelope seals over the cytoplasmic face of the NPC (Wente, S. R., and G. Blobel. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 123:275-284). Three approaches have been taken to dissect the structural basis for Nup116p's role in NPC function. First, deletion mutagenesis analysis of NUP116 revealed that the GLFG region was required for NPC function. This was not true for the other four yeast GLFG family members (Nup49p, Nup57p, Nup100p, and Nup145p). Moreover, deletion of either half of Nup116p's GLFG repeats or replacement of Nup116p's GLFG region with either Nup100p's GLFG region or Nsp1p's FXFG repetitive region abolishes the function of Nup116p. At a semipermissive growth temperature, the cells lacking Nup116p's GLFG region displayed a diminished capacity for nuclear import. Second, overexpression of Nup116p's GLFG region severely inhibited cell growth, rapidly blocked polyadenylated-RNA export, and fragmented the nucleolus. Although it inhibited nuclear export, the overexpressed GLFG region appeared predominantly localized in the cytoplasm and NPC/nuclear envelope structure was not perturbed in thin section electron micrographs. Finally, using biochemical and two-hybrid analysis, an interaction was characterized between Nup116p's GLFG region and Kap95p, an essential yeast homologue of the vertebrate nuclear import factor p97/Imp90/karopherin beta. These data show that Nup116p's GLFG region has an essential role in mediating nuclear transport.